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File: [cvs.NetBSD.org] / src / usr.bin / ftp / ftp.1 (download)

Revision 1.134, Sat Dec 22 16:57:10 2012 UTC (21 months ago) by christos
Branch: MAIN
CVS Tags: yamt-pagecache-base9, yamt-pagecache-base8, tls-maxphys-base, tls-earlyentropy-base, tls-earlyentropy, riastradh-xf86-video-intel-2-7-1-pre-2-21-15, riastradh-drm2-base3, riastradh-drm2-base2, riastradh-drm2-base1, riastradh-drm2-base, riastradh-drm2, netbsd-7-base, netbsd-7, agc-symver-base, agc-symver, HEAD
Changes since 1.133: +29 -3 lines

document https support, mentioning certificates are not validated, and obey
https_proxy.

.\" 	$NetBSD: ftp.1,v 1.134 2012/12/22 16:57:10 christos Exp $
.\"
.\" Copyright (c) 1996-2010 The NetBSD Foundation, Inc.
.\" All rights reserved.
.\"
.\" This code is derived from software contributed to The NetBSD Foundation
.\" by Luke Mewburn.
.\"
.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
.\" are met:
.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
.\"    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
.\"
.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE NETBSD FOUNDATION, INC. AND CONTRIBUTORS
.\" ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED
.\" TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
.\" PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE FOUNDATION OR CONTRIBUTORS
.\" BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR
.\" CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF
.\" SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS
.\" INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
.\" CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE)
.\" ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
.\" POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
.\"
.\"
.\" Copyright (c) 1985, 1989, 1990, 1993
.\"	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
.\"
.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
.\" are met:
.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
.\"    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
.\" 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
.\"    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
.\"    without specific prior written permission.
.\"
.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
.\" ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
.\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
.\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
.\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
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.\"
.\"	@(#)ftp.1	8.3 (Berkeley) 10/9/94
.\"
.Dd December 22, 2012
.Dt FTP 1
.Os
.Sh NAME
.Nm ftp
.Nd Internet file transfer program
.Sh SYNOPSIS
.Nm
.Op Fl 46AadefginpRtVv
.Op Fl N Ar netrc
.Op Fl o Ar output
.Op Fl P Ar port
.Op Fl q Ar quittime
.Op Fl r Ar retry
.Op Fl s Ar srcaddr
.Bk -words
.\" [-T dir,max[,inc]]
.Oo
.Fl T Xo
.Sm off
.Ar dir ,
.Ar max
.Op , Ar inc
.Sm on
.Xc
.Oc
.Ek
.Bk -words
.\" [[user@]host [port]]
.Oo
.Oo Ar user Ns Li \&@ Oc Ns Ar host
.Op Ar port
.Oc
.Ek
.Bk -words
.\" [[user@]host:[path][/]]
.Sm off
.Oo
.Op Ar user Li \&@
.Ar host Li \&:
.Op Ar path
.Op Li /
.Oc
.Sm on
.Ek
.Bk -words
.\" [file:///path]
.Sm off
.Oo
.Li file:/// Ar path
.Oc
.Sm on
.Ek
.Bk -words
.\" [ftp://[user[:password]@]host[:port]/path[/]]
.Sm off
.Oo
.Li ftp://
.Oo Ar user
.Op Li \&: Ar password
.Li \&@ Oc
.Ar host Oo Li \&: Ar port Oc
.Li / Ar path
.Op Li /
.Op Li ;type= Ar X
.Oc
.Sm on
.Ek
.Bk -words
.\" [http://[user[:password]@]host[:port]/path]
.Sm off
.Oo
.Li http://
.Oo Ar user
.Op Li \&: Ar password
.Li \&@ Oc
.Ar host Oo Li \&: Ar port Oc
.Li / Ar path
.Oc
.Sm on
.Ek
.Op Ar \&.\&.\&.
.Nm
.Bk -words
.Fl u Ar URL Ar file
.Ek
.Op Ar \&.\&.\&.
.Sh DESCRIPTION
.Nm
is the user interface to the Internet standard File Transfer Protocol.
The program allows a user to transfer files to and from a
remote network site.
.Pp
The last five arguments will fetch a file using the
.Tn FTP
or
.Tn HTTP
protocols, or by direct copying, into the current directory.
This is ideal for scripts.
Refer to
.Sx AUTO-FETCHING FILES
below for more information.
.Pp
Options may be specified at the command line, or to the
command interpreter.
.Bl -tag -width Fl
.It Fl 4
Forces
.Nm
to only use IPv4 addresses.
.It Fl 6
Forces
.Nm
to only use IPv6 addresses.
.It Fl A
Force active mode ftp.
By default,
.Nm
will try to use passive mode ftp and fall back to active mode
if passive is not supported by the server.
This option causes
.Nm
to always use an active connection.
It is only useful for connecting to very old servers that do not
implement passive mode properly.
.It Fl a
Causes
.Nm
to bypass normal login procedure, and use an anonymous login instead.
.It Fl d
Enables debugging.
.It Fl e
Disables command line editing.
This is useful for Emacs ange-ftp mode.
.It Fl f
Forces a cache reload for transfers that go through the
.Tn FTP
or
.Tn HTTP
proxies.
.It Fl g
Disables file name globbing.
.It Fl i
Turns off interactive prompting during
multiple file transfers.
.It Fl N Ar netrc
Use
.Ar netrc
instead of
.Pa ~/.netrc .
Refer to
.Sx THE .netrc FILE
for more information.
.It Fl n
Restrains
.Nm
from attempting
.Dq auto-login
upon initial connection for non auto-fetch transfers.
If auto-login is enabled,
.Nm
will check the
.Pa .netrc
(see below) file in the user's home directory for an entry describing
an account on the remote machine.
If no entry exists,
.Nm
will prompt for the remote machine login name (default is the user
identity on the local machine), and, if necessary, prompt for a password
and an account with which to login.
To override the auto-login for auto-fetch transfers, specify the
username (and optionally, password) as appropriate.
.It Fl o Ar output
When auto-fetching files, save the contents in
.Ar output .
.Ar output
is parsed according to the
.Sx FILE NAMING CONVENTIONS
below.
If
.Ar output
is not
.Sq -
or doesn't start with
.Sq \&| ,
then only the first file specified will be retrieved into
.Ar output ;
all other files will be retrieved into the basename of their
remote name.
.It Fl P Ar port
Sets the port number to
.Ar port .
.It Fl p
Enable passive mode operation for use behind connection filtering firewalls.
This option has been deprecated as
.Nm
now tries to use passive mode by default, falling back to active mode
if the server does not support passive connections.
.It Fl q Ar quittime
Quit if the connection has stalled for
.Ar quittime
seconds.
.It Fl R
Restart all non-proxied auto-fetches.
.It Fl r Ar wait
Retry the connection attempt if it failed, pausing for
.Ar wait
seconds.
.It Fl s Ar srcaddr
Uses
.Ar srcaddr
as the local IP address for all connections.
.It Fl t
Enables packet tracing.
.It Fl T Ar direction Ns , Ns Ar maximum Ns Oo , Ns Ar increment Oc
Set the maximum transfer rate for
.Ar direction
to
.Ar maximum
bytes/second,
and if specified, the increment to
.Ar increment
bytes/second.
Refer to
.Ic rate
for more information.
.It Fl u Ar URL file Op \&.\&.\&.
Upload files on the command line to
.Ar URL
where
.Ar URL
is one of the ftp URL types as supported by auto-fetch
(with an optional target filename for single file uploads), and
.Ar file
is one or more local files to be uploaded.
.It Fl V
Disable
.Ic verbose
and
.Ic progress ,
overriding the default of enabled when output is to a terminal.
.It Fl v
Enable
.Ic verbose
and
.Ic progress .
This is the default if output is to a terminal (and in the case of
.Ic progress ,
.Nm
is the foreground process).
Forces
.Nm
to show all responses from the remote server, as well
as report on data transfer statistics.
.El
.Pp
The client host with which
.Nm
is to communicate may be specified on the command line.
If this is done,
.Nm
will immediately attempt to establish a connection to an
.Tn FTP
server on that host; otherwise,
.Nm
will enter its command interpreter and await instructions
from the user.
When
.Nm
is awaiting commands from the user the prompt
.Ql ftp\*[Gt]
is provided to the user.
The following commands are recognized
by
.Nm ftp :
.Bl -tag -width Ic
.It Ic \&! Op Ar command Op Ar args
Invoke an interactive shell on the local machine.
If there are arguments, the first is taken to be a command to execute
directly, with the rest of the arguments as its arguments.
.It Ic \&$ Ar macro-name Op Ar args
Execute the macro
.Ar macro-name
that was defined with the
.Ic macdef
command.
Arguments are passed to the macro unglobbed.
.It Ic account Op Ar passwd
Supply a supplemental password required by a remote system for access
to resources once a login has been successfully completed.
If no argument is included, the user will be prompted for an account
password in a non-echoing input mode.
.It Ic append Ar local-file Op Ar remote-file
Append a local file to a file on the remote machine.
If
.Ar remote-file
is left unspecified, the local file name is used in naming the
remote file after being altered by any
.Ic ntrans
or
.Ic nmap
setting.
File transfer uses the current settings for
.Ic type  ,
.Ic format ,
.Ic mode  ,
and
.Ic structure .
.It Ic ascii
Set the file transfer
.Ic type
to network
.Tn ASCII .
This is the default type.
.It Ic bell
Arrange that a bell be sounded after each file transfer
command is completed.
.It Ic binary
Set the file transfer
.Ic type
to support binary image transfer.
.It Ic bye
Terminate the
.Tn FTP
session with the remote server
and exit
.Nm ftp .
An end of file will also terminate the session and exit.
.It Ic case
Toggle remote computer file name case mapping during
.Ic get ,
.Ic mget
and
.Ic mput
commands.
When
.Ic case
is on (default is off), remote computer file names with all letters in
upper case are written in the local directory with the letters mapped
to lower case.
.It Ic \&cd Ar remote-directory
Change the working directory on the remote machine
to
.Ar remote-directory .
.It Ic cdup
Change the remote machine working directory to the parent of the
current remote machine working directory.
.It Ic chmod Ar mode remote-file
Change the permission modes of the file
.Ar remote-file
on the remote
system to
.Ar mode .
.It Ic close
Terminate the
.Tn FTP
session with the remote server, and
return to the command interpreter.
Any defined macros are erased.
.It Ic \&cr
Toggle carriage return stripping during
ascii type file retrieval.
Records are denoted by a carriage return/linefeed sequence
during ascii type file transfer.
When
.Ic \&cr
is on (the default), carriage returns are stripped from this
sequence to conform with the
.Ux
single linefeed record
delimiter.
Records on
.Pf non\- Ns Ux
remote systems may contain single linefeeds;
when an ascii type transfer is made, these linefeeds may be
distinguished from a record delimiter only when
.Ic \&cr
is off.
.It Ic delete Ar remote-file
Delete the file
.Ar remote-file
on the remote machine.
.It Ic dir Op Ar remote-path Op Ar local-file
Print a listing of the contents of a
directory on the remote machine.
The listing includes any system-dependent information that the server
chooses to include; for example, most
.Ux
systems will produce
output from the command
.Ql ls \-l .
If
.Ar remote-path
is left unspecified, the current working directory is used.
If interactive prompting is on,
.Nm
will prompt the user to verify that the last argument is indeed the
target local file for receiving
.Ic dir
output.
If no local file is specified, or if
.Ar local-file
is
.Sq Fl ,
the output is sent to the terminal.
.It Ic disconnect
A synonym for
.Ic close .
.It Ic edit
Toggle command line editing, and context sensitive command and file
completion.
This is automatically enabled if input is from a terminal, and
disabled otherwise.
.It Ic epsv epsv4 epsv6
Toggle the use of the extended
.Dv EPSV
and
.Dv EPRT
commands on all IP, IPv4, and IPv6 connections respectively.
First try
.Dv EPSV /
.Dv EPRT ,
and then
.Dv PASV /
.Dv PORT .
This is enabled by default.
If an extended command fails then this option will be temporarily
disabled for the duration of the current connection, or until
.Ic epsv ,
.Ic epsv4 ,
or
.Ic epsv6
is executed again.
.It Ic exit
A synonym for
.Ic bye .
.It Ic features
Display what features the remote server supports (using the
.Dv FEAT
command).
.It Ic fget Ar localfile
Retrieve the files listed in
.Ar localfile ,
which has one line per filename.
.It Ic form Ar format
Set the file transfer
.Ic form
to
.Ar format .
The default (and only supported)
format is
.Dq non-print .
.It Ic ftp Ar host Op Ar port
A synonym for
.Ic open .
.It Ic ftp_debug Op Ar ftp_debug-value
Toggle debugging mode.
If an optional
.Ar ftp_debug-value
is specified it is used to set the debugging level.
When debugging is on,
.Nm
prints each command sent to the remote machine, preceded
by the string
.Ql \-\-\*[Gt] .
.It Ic gate Op Ar host Op Ar port
Toggle gate-ftp mode, which used to connect through the
TIS FWTK and Gauntlet ftp proxies.
This will not be permitted if the gate-ftp server hasn't been set
(either explicitly by the user, or from the
.Ev FTPSERVER
environment variable).
If
.Ar host
is given,
then gate-ftp mode will be enabled, and the gate-ftp server will be set to
.Ar host .
If
.Ar port
is also given, that will be used as the port to connect to on the
gate-ftp server.
.It Ic get Ar remote-file Op Ar local-file
Retrieve the
.Ar remote-file
and store it on the local machine.
If the local
file name is not specified, it is given the same
name it has on the remote machine, subject to
alteration by the current
.Ic case  ,
.Ic ntrans ,
and
.Ic nmap
settings.
The current settings for
.Ic type  ,
.Ic form ,
.Ic mode  ,
and
.Ic structure
are used while transferring the file.
.It Ic glob
Toggle filename expansion for
.Ic mdelete  ,
.Ic mget ,
.Ic mput ,
and
.Ic mreget .
If globbing is turned off with
.Ic glob  ,
the file name arguments
are taken literally and not expanded.
Globbing for
.Ic mput
is done as in
.Xr csh 1 .
For
.Ic mdelete ,
.Ic mget ,
and
.Ic mreget ,
each remote file name is expanded
separately on the remote machine and the lists are not merged.
Expansion of a directory name is likely to be
different from expansion of the name of an ordinary file:
the exact result depends on the foreign operating system and ftp server,
and can be previewed by doing
.Ql mls remote-files \-
Note:
.Ic mget ,
.Ic mput
and
.Ic mreget
are not meant to transfer
entire directory subtrees of files.
That can be done by
transferring a
.Xr tar 1
archive of the subtree (in binary mode).
.It Ic hash Op Ar size
Toggle hash-sign
.Pq Sq #
printing for each data block transferred.
The size of a data block defaults to 1024 bytes.
This can be changed by specifying
.Ar size
in bytes.
Enabling
.Ic hash
disables
.Ic progress .
.It Ic help Op Ar command
Print an informative message about the meaning of
.Ar command .
If no argument is given,
.Nm
prints a list of the known commands.
.It Ic idle Op Ar seconds
Set the inactivity timer on the remote server to
.Ar seconds
seconds.
If
.Ar seconds
is omitted, the current inactivity timer is printed.
.It Ic image
A synonym for
.Ic binary .
.It Ic lcd Op Ar directory
Change the working directory on the local machine.
If
no
.Ar directory
is specified, the user's home directory is used.
.It Ic less Ar file
A synonym for
.Ic page .
.It Ic lpage Ar local-file
Display
.Ar local-file
with the program specified by the
.Ic "set pager"
option.
.It Ic lpwd
Print the working directory on the local machine.
.It Ic \&ls Op Ar remote-path Op Ar local-file
A synonym for
.Ic dir .
.It Ic macdef Ar macro-name
Define a macro.
Subsequent lines are stored as the macro
.Ar macro-name  ;
a null line (consecutive newline characters in a file or carriage
returns from the terminal) terminates macro input mode.
There is a limit of 16 macros and 4096 total characters in all
defined macros.
Macro names can be a maximum of 8 characters.
Macros are only applicable to the current session they are
defined within (or if defined outside a session, to the session
invoked with the next
.Ic open
command), and remain defined until a
.Ic close
command is executed.
To invoke a macro, use the
.Ic $
command (see above).
.Pp
The macro processor interprets
.Sq $
and
.Sq \e
as special characters.
A
.Sq $
followed by a number (or numbers) is replaced by the
corresponding argument on the macro invocation command line.
A
.Sq $
followed by an
.Sq i
signals the macro processor that the executing macro is to be
looped.
On the first pass
.Dq $i
is replaced by the first argument on the macro invocation command
line, on the second pass it is replaced by the second argument,
and so on.
A
.Sq \e
followed by any character is replaced by that character.
Use the
.Sq \e
to prevent special treatment of the
.Sq $ .
.It Ic mdelete Op Ar remote-files
Delete the
.Ar remote-files
on the remote machine.
.It Ic mdir Ar remote-files local-file
Like
.Ic dir  ,
except multiple remote files may be specified.
If interactive prompting is on,
.Nm
will prompt the user to verify that the last argument is indeed the
target local file for receiving
.Ic mdir
output.
.It Ic mget Ar remote-files
Expand the
.Ar remote-files
on the remote machine
and do a
.Ic get
for each file name thus produced.
See
.Ic glob
for details on the filename expansion.
Resulting file names will then be processed according to
.Ic case  ,
.Ic ntrans ,
and
.Ic nmap
settings.
Files are transferred into the local working directory,
which can be changed with
.Ql lcd directory ;
new local directories can be created with
.Ql "\&! mkdir directory" .
.It Ic mkdir Ar directory-name
Make a directory on the remote machine.
.It Ic mls Ar remote-files local-file
Like
.Ic ls  ,
except multiple remote files may be specified,
and the
.Ar local-file
must be specified.
If interactive prompting is on,
.Nm
will prompt the user to verify that the last argument is indeed the
target local file for receiving
.Ic mls
output.
.It Ic mlsd Op Ar remote-path
Display the contents of
.Ar remote-path
(which should default to the current directory if not given)
in a machine-parsable form, using
.Dv MLSD .
The format of display can be changed with
.Sq "remopts mlst ..." .
.It Ic mlst Op Ar remote-path
Display the details about
.Ar remote-path
(which should default to the current directory if not given)
in a machine-parsable form, using
.Dv MLST .
The format of display can be changed with
.Sq "remopts mlst ..." .
.It Ic mode Ar mode-name
Set the file transfer
.Ic mode
to
.Ar mode-name .
The default (and only supported)
mode is
.Dq stream .
.It Ic modtime Ar remote-file
Show the last modification time of the file on the remote machine, in
.Li RFC 2822
format.
.It Ic more Ar file
A synonym for
.Ic page .
.It Ic mput Ar local-files
Expand wild cards in the list of local files given as arguments
and do a
.Ic put
for each file in the resulting list.
See
.Ic glob
for details of filename expansion.
Resulting file names will then be processed according to
.Ic ntrans
and
.Ic nmap
settings.
.It Ic mreget Ar remote-files
As per
.Ic mget ,
but performs a
.Ic reget
instead of
.Ic get .
.It Ic msend Ar local-files
A synonym for
.Ic mput .
.It Ic newer Ar remote-file Op Ar local-file
Get the file only if the modification time of the remote file is more
recent that the file on the current system.
If the file does not
exist on the current system, the remote file is considered
.Ic newer .
Otherwise, this command is identical to
.Ar get .
.It Ic nlist Op Ar remote-path Op Ar local-file
A synonym for
.Ic ls .
.It Ic nmap Op Ar inpattern outpattern
Set or unset the filename mapping mechanism.
If no arguments are specified, the filename mapping mechanism is unset.
If arguments are specified, remote filenames are mapped during
.Ic mput
commands and
.Ic put
commands issued without a specified remote target filename.
If arguments are specified, local filenames are mapped during
.Ic mget
commands and
.Ic get
commands issued without a specified local target filename.
This command is useful when connecting to a
.No non\- Ns Ux
remote computer
with different file naming conventions or practices.
The mapping follows the pattern set by
.Ar inpattern
and
.Ar outpattern .
.Op Ar Inpattern
is a template for incoming filenames (which may have already been
processed according to the
.Ic ntrans
and
.Ic case
settings).
Variable templating is accomplished by including the
sequences
.Dq $1 ,
.Dq $2 ,
\&...
.Dq $9
in
.Ar inpattern .
Use
.Sq \e
to prevent this special treatment of the
.Sq $
character.
All other characters are treated literally, and are used to determine the
.Ic nmap
.Op Ar inpattern
variable values.
For example, given
.Ar inpattern
$1.$2 and the remote file name "mydata.data", $1 would have the value
"mydata", and $2 would have the value "data".
The
.Ar outpattern
determines the resulting mapped filename.
The sequences
.Dq $1 ,
.Dq $2 ,
\&...
.Dq $9
are replaced by any value resulting from the
.Ar inpattern
template.
The sequence
.Dq $0
is replaced by the original filename.
Additionally, the sequence
.Dq Op Ar seq1 , Ar seq2
is replaced by
.Op Ar seq1
if
.Ar seq1
is not a null string; otherwise it is replaced by
.Ar seq2 .
For example, the command
.Pp
.Bd -literal -offset indent -compact
nmap $1.$2.$3 [$1,$2].[$2,file]
.Ed
.Pp
would yield
the output filename "myfile.data" for input filenames "myfile.data" and
"myfile.data.old", "myfile.file" for the input filename "myfile", and
"myfile.myfile" for the input filename ".myfile".
Spaces may be included in
.Ar outpattern  ,
as in the example:
.Dl nmap $1 sed "s/  *$//" \*[Gt] $1
Use the
.Sq \e
character to prevent special treatment
of the
.Sq $ ,
.Sq \&[ ,
.Sq \&] ,
and
.Sq \&,
characters.
.It Ic ntrans Op Ar inchars Op Ar outchars
Set or unset the filename character translation mechanism.
If no arguments are specified, the filename character
translation mechanism is unset.
If arguments are specified, characters in
remote filenames are translated during
.Ic mput
commands and
.Ic put
commands issued without a specified remote target filename.
If arguments are specified, characters in
local filenames are translated during
.Ic mget
commands and
.Ic get
commands issued without a specified local target filename.
This command is useful when connecting to a
.No non\- Ns Ux
remote computer
with different file naming conventions or practices.
Characters in a filename matching a character in
.Ar inchars
are replaced with the corresponding character in
.Ar outchars .
If the character's position in
.Ar inchars
is longer than the length of
.Ar outchars  ,
the character is deleted from the file name.
.It Ic open Ar host Op Ar port
Establish a connection to the specified
.Ar host
.Tn FTP
server.
An optional port number may be supplied,
in which case,
.Nm
will attempt to contact an
.Tn FTP
server at that port.
If the
.Ic "set auto-login"
option is on (default),
.Nm
will also attempt to automatically log the user in to
the
.Tn FTP
server (see below).
.It Ic page Ar file
Retrieve
.Ic file
and display with the program specified by the
.Ic "set pager"
option.
.It Ic passive Op Cm auto
Toggle passive mode (if no arguments are given).
If
.Cm auto
is given, act as if
.Ev FTPMODE
is set to
.Sq auto .
If passive mode is turned on (default),
.Nm
will send a
.Dv PASV
command for all data connections instead of a
.Dv PORT
command.
The
.Dv PASV
command requests that the remote server open a port for the data connection
and return the address of that port.
The remote server listens on that port and the client connects to it.
When using the more traditional
.Dv PORT
command, the client listens on a port and sends that address to the remote
server, who connects back to it.
Passive mode is useful when using
.Nm
through a gateway router or host that controls the directionality of
traffic.
(Note that though
.Tn FTP
servers are required to support the
.Dv PASV
command by
.Li RFC 1123 ,
some do not.)
.It Ic pdir Op Ar remote-path
Perform
.Ic dir
.Op Ar remote-path ,
and display the result with the program specified by the
.Ic "set pager"
option.
.It Ic pls Op Ar remote-path
Perform
.Ic ls
.Op Ar remote-path ,
and display the result with the program specified by the
.Ic "set pager"
option.
.It Ic pmlsd Op Ar remote-path
Perform
.Ic mlsd
.Op Ar remote-path ,
and display the result with the program specified by the
.Ic "set pager"
option.
.It Ic preserve
Toggle preservation of modification times on retrieved files.
.It Ic progress
Toggle display of transfer progress bar.
The progress bar will be disabled for a transfer that has
.Ar local-file
as
.Sq Fl
or a command that starts with
.Sq \&| .
Refer to
.Sx FILE NAMING CONVENTIONS
for more information.
Enabling
.Ic progress
disables
.Ic hash .
.It Ic prompt
Toggle interactive prompting.
Interactive prompting
occurs during multiple file transfers to allow the
user to selectively retrieve or store files.
If prompting is turned off (default is on), any
.Ic mget
or
.Ic mput
will transfer all files, and any
.Ic mdelete
will delete all files.
.Pp
When prompting is on, the following commands are available at a prompt:
.Bl -tag -width 2n -offset indent
.It Cm a
Answer
.Sq yes
to the current file, and automatically answer
.Sq yes
to any remaining files for the current command.
.It Cm n
Answer
.Sq no ,
and do not transfer the file.
.It Cm p
Answer
.Sq yes
to the current file, and turn off prompt mode
(as is
.Dq prompt off
had been given).
.It Cm q
Terminate the current operation.
.It Cm y
Answer
.Sq yes ,
and transfer the file.
.It Cm \&?
Display a help message.
.El
.Pp
Any other response will answer
.Sq yes
to the current file.
.It Ic proxy Ar ftp-command
Execute an ftp command on a secondary control connection.
This command allows simultaneous connection to two remote
.Tn FTP
servers for transferring files between the two servers.
The first
.Ic proxy
command should be an
.Ic open  ,
to establish the secondary control connection.
Enter the command "proxy ?" to see other
.Tn FTP
commands executable on the secondary connection.
The following commands behave differently when prefaced by
.Ic proxy  :
.Ic open
will not define new macros during the auto-login process,
.Ic close
will not erase existing macro definitions,
.Ic get
and
.Ic mget
transfer files from the host on the primary control connection
to the host on the secondary control connection, and
.Ic put  ,
.Ic mput ,
and
.Ic append
transfer files from the host on the secondary control connection
to the host on the primary control connection.
Third party file transfers depend upon support of the
.Tn FTP
protocol
.Dv PASV
command by the server on the secondary control connection.
.It Ic put Ar local-file Op Ar remote-file
Store a local file on the remote machine.
If
.Ar remote-file
is left unspecified, the local file name is used
after processing according to any
.Ic ntrans
or
.Ic nmap
settings
in naming the remote file.
File transfer uses the
current settings for
.Ic type  ,
.Ic format ,
.Ic mode  ,
and
.Ic structure .
.It Ic pwd
Print the name of the current working directory on the remote
machine.
.It Ic quit
A synonym for
.Ic bye .
.It Ic quote Ar arg1 arg2 ...
The arguments specified are sent, verbatim, to the remote
.Tn FTP
server.
.It Ic rate Ar direction Oo Ar maximum Oo Ar increment Oc Oc
Throttle the maximum transfer rate to
.Ar maximum
bytes/second.
If
.Ar maximum
is 0, disable the throttle.
.Pp
.Ar direction
may be one of:
.Bl -tag -width "all" -offset indent -compact
.It Cm all
Both directions.
.It Cm get
Incoming transfers.
.It Cm put
Outgoing transfers.
.El
.Pp
.Ar maximum
can be modified on the fly by
.Ar increment
bytes (default: 1024) each time a given signal is received:
.Bl -tag -width "SIGUSR1" -offset indent
.It Dv SIGUSR1
Increment
.Ar maximum
by
.Ar increment
bytes.
.It Dv SIGUSR2
Decrement
.Ar maximum
by
.Ar increment
bytes.
The result must be a positive number.
.El
.Pp
If
.Ar maximum
is not supplied, the current throttle rates are displayed.
.Pp
Note:
.Ic rate
is not yet implemented for ascii mode transfers.
.It Ic rcvbuf Ar size
Set the size of the socket receive buffer to
.Ar size .
.It Ic recv Ar remote-file Op Ar local-file
A synonym for
.Ic get .
.It Ic reget Ar remote-file Op Ar local-file
.Ic reget
acts like
.Ic get ,
except that if
.Ar local-file
exists and is
smaller than
.Ar remote-file  ,
.Ar local-file
is presumed to be
a partially transferred copy of
.Ar remote-file
and the transfer
is continued from the apparent point of failure.
This command
is useful when transferring very large files over networks that
are prone to dropping connections.
.It Ic remopts Ar command Op Ar command-options
Set options on the remote
.Tn FTP
server for
.Ar command
to
.Ar command-options
(whose absence is handled on a command-specific basis).
Remote
.Tn FTP
commands known to support options include:
.Sq MLST
(used for
.Dv MLSD
and
.Dv MLST ) .
.It Ic rename Op Ar from Op Ar to
Rename the file
.Ar from
on the remote machine, to the file
.Ar to .
.It Ic reset
Clear reply queue.
This command re-synchronizes command/reply sequencing with the remote
.Tn FTP
server.
Resynchronization may be necessary following a violation of the
.Tn FTP
protocol by the remote server.
.It Ic restart Ar marker
Restart the immediately following
.Ic get
or
.Ic put
at the
indicated
.Ar marker .
On
.Ux
systems, marker is usually a byte
offset into the file.
.It Ic rhelp Op Ar command-name
Request help from the remote
.Tn FTP
server.
If a
.Ar command-name
is specified it is supplied to the server as well.
.It Ic rmdir Ar directory-name
Delete a directory on the remote machine.
.It Ic rstatus Op Ar remote-file
With no arguments, show status of remote machine.
If
.Ar remote-file
is specified, show status of
.Ar remote-file
on remote machine.
.It Ic runique
Toggle storing of files on the local system with unique filenames.
If a file already exists with a name equal to the target
local filename for a
.Ic get
or
.Ic mget
command, a ".1" is appended to the name.
If the resulting name matches another existing file,
a ".2" is appended to the original name.
If this process continues up to ".99", an error
message is printed, and the transfer does not take place.
The generated unique filename will be reported.
Note that
.Ic runique
will not affect local files generated from a shell command
(see below).
The default value is off.
.It Ic send Ar local-file Op Ar remote-file
A synonym for
.Ic put .
.It Ic sendport
Toggle the use of
.Dv PORT
commands.
By default,
.Nm
will attempt to use a
.Dv PORT
command when establishing
a connection for each data transfer.
The use of
.Dv PORT
commands can prevent delays
when performing multiple file transfers.
If the
.Dv PORT
command fails,
.Nm
will use the default data port.
When the use of
.Dv PORT
commands is disabled, no attempt will be made to use
.Dv PORT
commands for each data transfer.
This is useful
for certain
.Tn FTP
implementations which do ignore
.Dv PORT
commands but, incorrectly, indicate they've been accepted.
.It Ic set Op Ar option Ar value
Set
.Ar option
to
.Ar value .
If
.Ar option
and
.Ar value
are not given, display all of the options and their values.
The currently supported options are:
.Bl -tag -width "https_proxy" -offset indent
.It Cm anonpass
Defaults to
.Ev $FTPANONPASS
.It Cm ftp_proxy
Defaults to
.Ev $ftp_proxy .
.It Cm http_proxy
Defaults to
.Ev $http_proxy .
.It Cm https_proxy
Defaults to
.Ev $https_proxy .
.It Cm no_proxy
Defaults to
.Ev $no_proxy .
.It Cm pager
Defaults to
.Ev $PAGER .
.It Cm prompt
Defaults to
.Ev $FTPPROMPT .
.It Cm rprompt
Defaults to
.Ev $FTPRPROMPT .
.El
.It Ic site Ar arg1 arg2 ...
The arguments specified are sent, verbatim, to the remote
.Tn FTP
server as a
.Dv SITE
command.
.It Ic size Ar remote-file
Return size of
.Ar remote-file
on remote machine.
.It Ic sndbuf Ar size
Set the size of the socket send buffer to
.Ar size .
.It Ic status
Show the current status of
.Nm ftp .
.It Ic struct Ar struct-name
Set the file transfer
.Ar structure
to
.Ar struct-name .
The default (and only supported)
structure is
.Dq file .
.It Ic sunique
Toggle storing of files on remote machine under unique file names.
The remote
.Tn FTP
server must support
.Tn FTP
protocol
.Dv STOU
command for
successful completion.
The remote server will report unique name.
Default value is off.
.It Ic system
Show the type of operating system running on the remote machine.
.It Ic tenex
Set the file transfer type to that needed to
talk to
.Tn TENEX
machines.
.It Ic throttle
A synonym for
.Ic rate .
.It Ic trace
Toggle packet tracing.
.It Ic type Op Ar type-name
Set the file transfer
.Ic type
to
.Ar type-name .
If no type is specified, the current type
is printed.
The default type is network
.Tn ASCII .
.It Ic umask Op Ar newmask
Set the default umask on the remote server to
.Ar newmask .
If
.Ar newmask
is omitted, the current umask is printed.
.It Ic unset Ar option
Unset
.Ar option .
Refer to
.Ic set
for more information.
.It Ic usage Ar command
Print the usage message for
.Ar command .
.It Ic user Ar user-name Oo Ar password Oo Ar account Oc Oc
Identify yourself to the remote
.Tn FTP
server.
If the
.Ar password
is not specified and the server requires it,
.Nm
will prompt the user for it (after disabling local echo).
If an
.Ar account
field is not specified, and the
.Tn FTP
server
requires it, the user will be prompted for it.
If an
.Ar account
field is specified, an account command will
be relayed to the remote server after the login sequence
is completed if the remote server did not require it
for logging in.
Unless
.Nm
is invoked with
.Dq auto-login
disabled, this process is done automatically on initial connection to the
.Tn FTP
server.
.It Ic verbose
Toggle verbose mode.
In verbose mode, all responses from
the
.Tn FTP
server are displayed to the user.
In addition,
if verbose is on, when a file transfer completes, statistics
regarding the efficiency of the transfer are reported.
By default,
verbose is on.
.It Ic xferbuf Ar size
Set the size of the socket send and receive buffers to
.Ar size .
.It Ic \&? Op Ar command
A synonym for
.Ic help .
.El
.Pp
Command arguments which have embedded spaces may be quoted with
quote
.Sq \&"
marks.
.Pp
Commands which toggle settings can take an explicit
.Ic on
or
.Ic off
argument to force the setting appropriately.
.Pp
Commands which take a byte count as an argument
(e.g.,
.Ic hash ,
.Ic rate ,
and
.Ic xferbuf )
support an optional suffix on the argument which changes the
interpretation of the argument.
Supported suffixes are:
.Bl -tag -width 3n -offset indent -compact
.It Li b
Causes no modification.
(Optional)
.It Li k
Kilo; multiply the argument by 1024
.It Li m
Mega; multiply the argument by 1048576
.It Li g
Giga; multiply the argument by 1073741824
.El
.Pp
If
.Nm
receives a
.Dv SIGINFO
(see the
.Dq status
argument of
.Xr stty 1 )
or
.Dv SIGQUIT
signal whilst a transfer is in progress, the current transfer rate
statistics will be written to the standard error output, in the
same format as the standard completion message.
.Sh AUTO-FETCHING FILES
In addition to standard commands, this version of
.Nm
supports an auto-fetch feature.
To enable auto-fetch, simply pass the list of hostnames/files
on the command line.
.Pp
The following formats are valid syntax for an auto-fetch element:
.Bl -tag -width "FOO "
.\" [user@]host:[path][/]
.It Oo Ar user Ns Li \&@ Oc Ns Ar host Ns Li \&: Ns Oo Ar path Oc \
Ns Oo Li / Oc
.Dq Classic
.Tn FTP
format.
.Pp
If
.Ar path
contains a glob character and globbing is enabled,
(see
.Ic glob ) ,
then the equivalent of
.Ql mget path
is performed.
.Pp
If the directory component of
.Ar path
contains no globbing characters,
it is stored locally with the name basename (see
.Xr basename 1 )
of
.Ic path ,
in the current directory.
Otherwise, the full remote name is used as the local name,
relative to the local root directory.
.\" ftp://[user[:password]@]host[:port]/path[/][;type=X]
.It Li ftp:// Ns Oo Ar user Ns Oo Ns Li \&: Ns Ar password Oc Ns Li \&@ Oc \
Ns Ar host Ns Oo Li \&: Ns Ar port Oc Ns Li / Ns Ar path Ns Oo Li / Oc \
Ns Oo Li ;type= Ns Ar X Oc
An
.Tn FTP
URL, retrieved using the
.Tn FTP
protocol if
.Ic "set ftp_proxy"
isn't defined.
Otherwise, transfer the URL using
.Tn HTTP
via the proxy defined in
.Ic "set ftp_proxy" .
If
.Ic "set ftp_proxy"
isn't defined and
.Ar user
is given, login as
.Ar user .
In this case, use
.Ar password
if supplied, otherwise prompt the user for one.
.Pp
If a suffix of
.Sq ;type=A
or
.Sq ;type=I
is supplied, then the transfer type will take place as
ascii or binary (respectively).
The default transfer type is binary.
.Pp
In order to be compliant with
.Li RFC 3986 ,
.Nm
interprets the
.Ar path
part of an
.Dq ftp://
auto-fetch URL as follows:
.Bl -bullet
.It
The
.Sq Li /
immediately after the
.Ar host Ns Oo Li \&: Ns Ar port Oc
is interpreted as a separator before the
.Ar path ,
and not as part of the
.Ar path
itself.
.It
The
.Ar path
is interpreted as a
.So Li / Sc Ns -separated
list of name components.
For all but the last such component,
.Nm
performs the equivalent of a
.Ic cd
command.
For the last path component,
.Nm
performs the equivalent of a
.Ic get
command.
.It
Empty name components,
which result from
.Sq Li //
within the
.Ar path ,
or from an extra
.Sq Li /
at the beginning of the
.Ar path ,
will cause the equivalent of a
.Ic cd
command without a directory name.
This is unlikely to be useful.
.It
Any
.Sq Li \&% Ns Ar XX
codes
(per
.Li RFC 3986 )
within the path components are decoded, with
.Ar XX
representing a character code in hexadecimal.
This decoding takes place after the
.Ar path
has been split into components,
but before each component is used in the equivalent of a
.Ic cd
or
.Ic get
command.
Some often-used codes are
.Sq Li \&%2F
(which represents
.Sq Li / )
and
.Sq Li \&%7E
(which represents
.Sq Li ~ ) .
.El
.Pp
The above interpretation has the following consequences:
.Bl -bullet
.It
The path is interpreted relative to the
default login directory of the specified user or of the
.Sq anonymous
user.
If the
.Pa /
directory is required, use a leading path of
.Dq %2F .
If a user's home directory is required (and the remote server supports
the syntax), use a leading path of
.Dq %7Euser/ .
For example, to retrieve
.Pa /etc/motd
from
.Sq localhost
as the user
.Sq myname
with the password
.Sq mypass ,
use
.Dq ftp://myname:mypass@localhost/%2fetc/motd
.It
The exact
.Ic cd
and
.Ic get
commands can be controlled by careful choice of
where to use
.Sq /
and where to use
.Sq %2F
(or
.Sq %2f ) .
For example, the following URLs correspond to the
equivalents of the indicated commands:
.Bl -tag -width "ftp://host/%2Fdir1%2Fdir2%2Ffile"
.It ftp://host/dir1/dir2/file
.Dq "cd dir1" ,
.Dq "cd dir2" ,
.Dq "get file" .
.It ftp://host/%2Fdir1/dir2/file
.Dq "cd /dir1" ,
.Dq "cd dir2" ,
.Dq "get file" .
.It ftp://host/dir1%2Fdir2/file
.Dq "cd dir1/dir2" ,
.Dq "get file" .
.It ftp://host/%2Fdir1%2Fdir2/file
.Dq "cd /dir1/dir2" ,
.Dq "get file" .
.It ftp://host/dir1%2Fdir2%2Ffile
.Dq "get dir1/dir2/file" .
.It ftp://host/%2Fdir1%2Fdir2%2Ffile
.Dq "get /dir1/dir2/file" .
.El
.It
You must have appropriate access permission for each of the
intermediate directories that is used in the equivalent of a
.Ic cd
command.
.El
.\" http://[user[:password]@]host[:port]/path
.It Li http:// Ns Oo Ar user Ns Oo Li \&: Ns Ar password Oc Ns Li \&@ Oc \
Ns Ar host Ns Oo Li \&: Ns Ar port Oc Ns Li / Ns Ar path
An
.Tn HTTP
URL, retrieved using the
.Tn HTTP
protocol.
If
.Ic "set http_proxy"
is defined, it is used as a URL to an
.Tn HTTP
proxy server.
If
.Tn HTTP
authorization is required to retrieve
.Ar path ,
and
.Sq user
(and optionally
.Sq password )
is in the URL, use them for the first attempt to authenticate.
.\" https://[user[:password]@]host[:port]/path
.It Li https:// Ns Oo Ar user Ns Oo Li \&: Ns Ar password Oc Ns Li \&@ Oc \
Ns Ar host Ns Oo Li \&: Ns Ar port Oc Ns Li / Ns Ar path
An
.Tn HTTPS
URL, retrieved using the
.Tn HTTPS
protocol.
If
.Ic "set https_proxy"
is defined, it is used as a URL to an
.Tn HTTPS
proxy server.
If
.Tn HTTPS
authorization is required to retrieve
.Ar path ,
and
.Sq user
(and optionally
.Sq password )
is in the URL, use them for the first attempt to authenticate.
There is currently no certificate validation and verification.
.\" file:///path
.It Li file:/// Ns Ar path
A local URL, copied from
.Pa / Ns Ar path
on the local host.
.\" about:
.It Li about: Ns Ar topic
Display information regarding
.Ar topic ;
no file is retrieved for this auto-fetched element.
Supported values include:
.Bl -tag -width "about:version"
.It Li about:ftp
Information about
.Nm ftp .
.It Li about:version
The version of
.Nm ftp .
Useful to provide when reporting problems.
.El
.El
.Pp
Unless noted otherwise above, and
.Fl o Ar output
is not given, the file is stored in the current directory as the
.Xr basename 1
of
.Ar path .
Note that if a
.Tn HTTP
redirect is received, the fetch is retried using the new target URL
supplied by the server, with a corresponding new
.Ar path .
Using an explicit
.Fl o Ar output
is recommended, to avoid writing to unexpected file names.
.Pp
If a classic format or an
.Tn FTP
URL format has a trailing
.Sq /
or an empty
.Ar path
component, then
.Nm
will connect to the site and
.Ic cd
to the directory given as the path, and leave the user in interactive
mode ready for further input.
This will not work if
.Ic "set ftp_proxy"
is being used.
.Pp
Direct
.Tn HTTP
transfers use HTTP 1.1.
Proxied
.Tn FTP
and
.Tn HTTP
transfers use HTTP 1.0.
.Pp
If
.Fl R
is given, all auto-fetches that don't go via the
.Tn FTP
or
.Tn HTTP
proxies will be restarted.
For
.Tn FTP ,
this is implemented by using
.Nm reget
instead of
.Nm get .
For
.Tn HTTP ,
this is implemented by using the
.Sq "Range: bytes="
.Tn "HTTP/1.1"
directive.
.Pp
If WWW or proxy WWW authentication is required, you will be prompted
to enter a username and password to authenticate with.
.Pp
When specifying IPv6 numeric addresses in a URL, you need to
surround the address in square brackets.
E.g.:
.Dq ftp://[::1]:21/ .
This is because colons are used in IPv6 numeric address as well as
being the separator for the port number.
.Sh ABORTING A FILE TRANSFER
To abort a file transfer, use the terminal interrupt key
(usually Ctrl-C).
Sending transfers will be immediately halted.
Receiving transfers will be halted by sending an
.Tn FTP
protocol
.Dv ABOR
command to the remote server, and discarding any further data received.
The speed at which this is accomplished depends upon the remote
server's support for
.Dv ABOR
processing.
If the remote server does not support the
.Dv ABOR
command, the prompt will not appear until the remote server has completed
sending the requested file.
.Pp
If the terminal interrupt key sequence is used whilst
.Nm
is awaiting a reply from the remote server for the ABOR processing,
then the connection will be closed.
This is different from the traditional behaviour (which ignores the
terminal interrupt during this phase), but is considered more useful.
.Sh FILE NAMING CONVENTIONS
Files specified as arguments to
.Nm
commands are processed according to the following rules.
.Bl -enum
.It
If the file name
.Sq Fl
is specified, the
.Ar stdin
(for reading) or
.Ar stdout
(for writing) is used.
.It
If the first character of the file name is
.Sq \&| ,
the
remainder of the argument is interpreted as a shell command.
.Nm
then forks a shell, using
.Xr popen 3
with the argument supplied, and reads (writes) from the stdout
(stdin).
If the shell command includes spaces, the argument
must be quoted; e.g.
.Dq Qq Li \&| ls\ \-lt .
A particularly
useful example of this mechanism is:
.Dq Li dir \&"\&" \&|more .
.It
Failing the above checks, if
.Dq globbing
is enabled, local file names are expanded according to the rules
used in the
.Xr csh 1 ;
see the
.Ic glob
command.
If the
.Nm
command expects a single local file (e.g.
.Ic put  ) ,
only the first filename generated by the "globbing" operation is used.
.It
For
.Ic mget
commands and
.Ic get
commands with unspecified local file names, the local filename is
the remote filename, which may be altered by a
.Ic case  ,
.Ic ntrans ,
or
.Ic nmap
setting.
The resulting filename may then be altered if
.Ic runique
is on.
.It
For
.Ic mput
commands and
.Ic put
commands with unspecified remote file names, the remote filename is
the local filename, which may be altered by a
.Ic ntrans
or
.Ic nmap
setting.
The resulting filename may then be altered by the remote server if
.Ic sunique
is on.
.El
.Sh FILE TRANSFER PARAMETERS
The
.Tn FTP
specification specifies many parameters which may affect a file transfer.
The
.Ic type
may be one of
.Dq ascii ,
.Dq image
(binary),
.Dq ebcdic ,
and
.Dq local byte size
(for
.Tn PDP Ns -10's
and
.Tn PDP Ns -20's
mostly).
.Nm
supports the ascii and image types of file transfer,
plus local byte size 8 for
.Ic tenex
mode transfers.
.Pp
.Nm
supports only the default values for the remaining
file transfer parameters:
.Ic mode ,
.Ic form ,
and
.Ic struct .
.Sh THE .netrc FILE
The
.Pa .netrc
file contains login and initialization information
used by the auto-login process.
It resides in the user's home directory,
unless overridden with the
.Fl N Ar netrc
option, or specified in the
.Ev NETRC
environment variable.
The following tokens are recognized; they may be separated by spaces,
tabs, or new-lines:
.Bl -tag -width password
.It Ic machine Ar name
Identify a remote machine
.Ar name .
The auto-login process searches the
.Pa .netrc
file for a
.Ic machine
token that matches the remote machine specified on the
.Nm
command line or as an
.Ic open
command argument.
Once a match is made, the subsequent
.Pa .netrc
tokens are processed,
stopping when the end of file is reached or another
.Ic machine
or a
.Ic default
token is encountered.
.It Ic default
This is the same as
.Ic machine
.Ar name
except that
.Ic default
matches any name.
There can be only one
.Ic default
token, and it must be after all
.Ic machine
tokens.
This is normally used as:
.Pp
.Dl default login anonymous password user@site
.Pp
thereby giving the user an automatic anonymous
.Tn FTP
login to
machines not specified in
.Pa .netrc .
This can be overridden
by using the
.Fl n
flag to disable auto-login.
.It Ic login Ar name
Identify a user on the remote machine.
If this token is present, the auto-login process will initiate
a login using the specified
.Ar name .
.It Ic password Ar string
Supply a password.
If this token is present, the auto-login process will supply the
specified string if the remote server requires a password as part
of the login process.
Note that if this token is present in the
.Pa .netrc
file for any user other
than
.Ar anonymous  ,
.Nm
will abort the auto-login process if the
.Pa .netrc
is readable by
anyone besides the user.
.It Ic account Ar string
Supply an additional account password.
If this token is present, the auto-login process will supply the
specified string if the remote server requires an additional
account password, or the auto-login process will initiate an
.Dv ACCT
command if it does not.
.It Ic macdef Ar name
Define a macro.
This token functions like the
.Nm
.Ic macdef
command functions.
A macro is defined with the specified name; its contents begin with the
next
.Pa .netrc
line and continue until a blank line (consecutive new-line
characters) is encountered.
Like the other tokens in the
.Pa .netrc
file, a
.Ic macdef
is applicable only to the
.Ic machine
definition preceding it.
A
.Ic macdef
entry cannot be used by multiple
.Ic machine
definitions; rather, it must be defined following each
.Ic machine
it is intended to be used with.
If a macro named
.Ic init
is defined, it is automatically executed as the last step in the
auto-login process.
For example,
.Bd -literal -offset indent
default
macdef init
epsv4 off
.Ed
.Pp
followed by a blank line.
.El
.Sh COMMAND LINE EDITING
.Nm
supports interactive command line editing, via the
.Xr editline 3
library.
It is enabled with the
.Ic edit
command, and is enabled by default if input is from a tty.
Previous lines can be recalled and edited with the arrow keys,
and other GNU Emacs-style editing keys may be used as well.
.Pp
The
.Xr editline 3
library is configured with a
.Pa .editrc
file - refer to
.Xr editrc 5
for more information.
.Pp
An extra key binding is available to
.Nm
to provide context sensitive command and filename completion
(including remote file completion).
To use this, bind a key to the
.Xr editline 3
command
.Ic ftp-complete .
By default, this is bound to the TAB key.
.Sh COMMAND LINE PROMPT
By default,
.Nm
displays a command line prompt of
.Dq "ftp\*[Gt] "
to the user.
This can be changed with the
.Ic "set prompt"
command.
.Pp
A prompt can be displayed on the right side of the screen (after the
command input) with the
.Ic "set rprompt"
command.
.Pp
The following formatting sequences are replaced by the given
information:
.Bl -tag -width "%% " -offset indent
.It Li \&%/
The current remote working directory.
.\" %c[[0]n], %.[[0]n]
.It \&%c Ns Oo Oo Li 0 Oc Ns Ar n Oc , Ns Li \&%. Ns Oo Oo Li 0 Oc Ns Ar n Oc
The trailing component of the current remote working directory, or
.Em n
trailing components if a digit
.Em n
is given.
If
.Em n
begins with
.Sq 0 ,
the number of skipped components precede the trailing component(s) in
the format
.\" ``/<number>trailing''
.Do
.Sm off
.Li / Li \*[Lt] Va number Li \*[Gt]
.Va trailing
.Sm on
.Dc
(for
.Sq \&%c )
or
.\" ``...trailing''
.Dq Li \&... Ns Va trailing
(for
.Sq \&%. ) .
.It Li \&%M
The remote host name.
.It Li \&%m
The remote host name, up to the first
.Sq \&. .
.It Li \&%n
The remote user name.
.It Li \&%%
A single
.Sq % .
.El
.Sh ENVIRONMENT
.Nm
uses the following environment variables.
.Bl -tag -width "FTPSERVERPORT"
.It Ev FTPANONPASS
Password to send in an anonymous
.Tn FTP
transfer.
Defaults to
.Dq Li `whoami`@ .
.It Ev FTPMODE
Overrides the default operation mode.
Support values are:
.Bl -tag -width "passive"
.It Cm active
active mode
.Tn FTP
only
.It Cm auto
automatic determination of passive or active (this is the default)
.It Cm gate
gate-ftp mode
.It Cm passive
passive mode
.Tn FTP
only
.El
.It Ev FTPPROMPT
Command-line prompt to use.
Defaults to
.Dq "ftp\*[Gt] " .
Refer to
.Sx COMMAND LINE PROMPT
for more information.
.It Ev FTPRPROMPT
Command-line right side prompt to use.
Defaults to
.Dq "" .
Refer to
.Sx COMMAND LINE PROMPT
for more information.
.It Ev FTPSERVER
Host to use as gate-ftp server when
.Ic gate
is enabled.
.It Ev FTPSERVERPORT
Port to use when connecting to gate-ftp server when
.Ic gate
is enabled.
Default is port returned by a
.Fn getservbyname
lookup of
.Dq ftpgate/tcp .
.It Ev FTPUSERAGENT
The value to send for the
.Tn HTTP
User-Agent
header.
.It Ev HOME
For default location of a
.Pa .netrc
file, if one exists.
.It Ev NETRC
An alternate location of the
.Pa .netrc
file.
.It Ev PAGER
Used by various commands to display files.
Defaults to
.Xr more 1
if empty or not set.
.It Ev SHELL
For default shell.
.It Ev ftp_proxy
URL of
.Tn FTP
proxy to use when making
.Tn FTP
URL requests
(if not defined, use the standard
.Tn FTP
protocol).
.Pp
See
.Ev http_proxy
for further notes about proxy use.
.It Ev http_proxy
URL of
.Tn HTTP
proxy to use when making
.Tn HTTP
URL requests.
If proxy authentication is required and there is a username and
password in this URL, they will automatically be used in the first
attempt to authenticate to the proxy.
.Pp
If
.Dq unsafe
URL characters are required in the username or password
(for example
.Sq @
or
.Sq / ) ,
encode them with
.Li RFC 3986
.Sq Li \&% Ns Ar XX
encoding.
.Pp
Note that the use of a username and password in
.Ev ftp_proxy
and
.Ev http_proxy
may be incompatible with other programs that use it
(such as
.Xr lynx 1 ) .
.Pp
.Em NOTE :
this is not used for interactive sessions, only for command-line
fetches.
.It Ev no_proxy
A space or comma separated list of hosts (or domains) for which
proxying is not to be used.
Each entry may have an optional trailing ":port", which restricts
the matching to connections to that port.
.El
.Sh EXTENDED PASSIVE MODE AND FIREWALLS
Some firewall configurations do not allow
.Nm
to use extended passive mode.
If you find that even a simple
.Ic ls
appears to hang after printing a message such as this:
.Pp
.Dl 229 Entering Extended Passive Mode (|||58551|)
.Pp
then you will need to disable extended passive mode with
.Ic epsv4 off .
See the above section
.Sx The .netrc File
for an example of how to make this automatic.
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr getservbyname 3 ,
.Xr editrc 5 ,
.Xr services 5 ,
.Xr ftpd 8
.Sh STANDARDS
.Nm
attempts to be compliant with:
.Bl -tag -offset indent -width 8n
.It Li RFC 959
.Em File Transfer Protocol
.It Li RFC 1123
.Em Requirements for Internet Hosts - Application and Support
.It Li RFC 1635
.Em How to Use Anonymous FTP
.It Li RFC 2389
.Em Feature negotiation mechanism for the File Transfer Protocol
.It Li RFC 2428
.Em FTP Extensions for IPv6 and NATs
.It Li RFC 2616
.Em Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1
.It Li RFC 2822
.Em Internet Message Format
.It Li RFC 3659
.Em Extensions to FTP
.It Li RFC 3986
.Em Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)
.El
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
command appeared in
.Bx 4.2 .
.Pp
Various features such as command line editing, context sensitive
command and file completion, dynamic progress bar, automatic
fetching of files and URLs, modification time preservation,
transfer rate throttling, configurable command line prompt,
and other enhancements over the standard
.Bx
.Nm
were implemented in
.Nx 1.3
and later releases
by
.An Luke Mewburn
.Aq lukem@NetBSD.org .
.Pp
IPv6 support was added by the WIDE/KAME project
(but may not be present in all non-NetBSD versions of this program, depending
if the operating system supports IPv6 in a similar manner to KAME).
.Sh BUGS
Correct execution of many commands depends upon proper behavior
by the remote server.
.Pp
An error in the treatment of carriage returns
in the
.Bx 4.2
ascii-mode transfer code
has been corrected.
This correction may result in incorrect transfers of binary files
to and from
.Bx 4.2
servers using the ascii type.
Avoid this problem by using the binary image type.
.Pp
.Nm
assumes that all IPv4 mapped addresses
.Po
IPv6 addresses with a form like
.Li ::ffff:10.1.1.1
.Pc
indicate IPv4 destinations which can be handled by
.Dv AF_INET
sockets.
However, in certain IPv6 network configurations, this assumption is not true.
In such an environment, IPv4 mapped addresses must be passed to
.Dv AF_INET6
sockets directly.
For example, if your site uses a SIIT translator for IPv6-to-IPv4 translation,
.Nm
is unable to support your configuration.