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Revision 1.12, Thu Mar 2 08:51:54 2000 UTC (18 years, 8 months ago) by lukem
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.11: +172 -108 lines

major overhaul:
* require ANSI not K&R for prototypes, stdargs, etc
* document current practice for
	- rcsids & copyright
	- header file inclusion protection
	- expressions, and multi-statement macros
	- enum & struct decls
	- empty and large statements
	- wrapping long lines, prototypes, function decls

/* $NetBSD: style,v 1.12 2000/03/02 08:51:54 lukem Exp $ */

/*
 * The revision control tag appears first, with a blank line after it.
 * Copyright text appears after the revision control tag.
 */

/*
 * The NetBSD source code style guide.
 * (Previously known as KNF - Kernel Normal Form).
 *
 *	from: @(#)style	1.12 (Berkeley) 3/18/94
 */
/*
 * An indent(1) profile approximating the style outlined in
 * this document lives in /usr/share/misc/indent.pro.  It is a
 * useful tool to assist in converting code to KNF, but indent(1)
 * output generated using this profile must not be considered to
 * be an authoritative reference.
 */

/*
 * Source code revision control identifiers appear after any copyright
 * text.  Use the appropriate macros from <sys/cdefs.h>.  Usually only one
 * source file per program contains a __COPYRIGHT() section.
 * Historic Berkeley code may also have an __SCCSID() section.
 * Only one instance of each of these macros can occur in each file.
 */
#include <sys/cdefs.h>
#ifndef __lint
__COPYRIGHT("@(#) Copyright (c) 2000\n\
	The NetBSD Foundation, inc. All rights reserved.\n");
__RCSID("$NetBSD: style,v 1.12 2000/03/02 08:51:54 lukem Exp $");
#endif /* !__lint */

/*
 * VERY important single-line comments look like this.
 */

/* Most single-line comments look like this. */

/*
 * Multi-line comments look like this.  Make them real sentences.  Fill
 * them so they look like real paragraphs.
 */

/*
 * Attempt to wrap lines longer than 80 characters appropriately.
 * Refer to the examples below for more information.
 */

/*
 * EXAMPLE HEADER FILE:
 *
 * A header file should protect itself against multiple inclusion.
 * E.g, <sys/socket.h> would contain something like:
 */
#ifndef _SYS_SOCKET_H_
#define _SYS_SOCKET_H_
/*
 * Contents of #include file go between the #ifndef and the #endif at the end.
 */
#endif /* !_SYS_SOCKET_H_ */
/*
 * END OF EXAMPLE HEADER FILE.
 */

/*
 * Kernel include files come first.
 */
#include <sys/types.h>		/* Non-local includes in brackets. */

/*
 * If it's a network program, put the network include files next.
 * Group the includes files by subdirectory.
 */
#include <net/if.h>
#include <net/if_dl.h>
#include <net/route.h>
#include <netinet/in.h>
#include <protocols/rwhod.h>

/*
 * Then there's a blank line, followed by the /usr include files.
 * The /usr include files should be sorted!
 */
#include <stdio.h>

/*
 * Global pathnames are defined in /usr/include/paths.h.  Pathnames local
 * to the program go in pathnames.h in the local directory.
 */
#include <paths.h>

/* Then, there's a blank line, and the user include files. */
#include "pathnames.h"		/* Local includes in double quotes. */

/*
 * ANSI function declarations for private functions (i.e. functions not used
 * elsewhere) and the main() function go at the top of the source module. 
 * Don't associate a name with the types.  I.e. use:
 *	void function(int);
 * Use your discretion on indenting between the return type and the name, and
 * how to wrap a prototype too long for a single line.  In the latter case,
 * lining up under the initial left parathesis may be more readable.
 * In any case, consistency is important!
 */
static char *function(int, int, float, int);
static int dirinfo(const char *, struct stat *, struct dirent *,
		   struct statfs *, int *, char **[]);
static void usage(void);
int main(int, char *[]);

/*
 * Macros are capitalized, parenthesized, and should avoid side-effects.
 * If they are an inline expansion of a function, the function is defined
 * all in lowercase, the macro has the same name all in uppercase.
 * If the macro is an expression, wrap the expression in parenthesis.
 * If the macro is more than a single statement, use ``do { ... } while (0)'',
 * so that a trailing semicolon works.  Right-justify the backslashes; it
 * makes it easier to read. The /* CONSTCOND */ is to satisfy lint(1).
 */
#define	MACRO(v, w, x, y)						\
do {									\
	v = (x) + (y);							\
	w = (y) + 2;							\
} while (/* CONSTCOND */ 0)

#define DOUBLE(x) ((x) * 2)

/* Enum types are capitalized.  No comma on the last element. */
enum enumtype {
	ONE,
	TWO
} et;

/*
 * When declaring variables in structures, declare them organised by use in
 * a manner to attempt to minimise memory wastage because of compiler alignment
 * issues, then by size, and then by alphabetical order. E.g, don't use
 * ``int a; char *b; int c; char *d''; use ``int a; int b; char *c; char *d''.
 * Each variable gets its own type and line, although an exception can be made
 * when declaring bitfields (to clarify that it's part of the one bitfield).
 * Note that the use of bitfields in general is discouraged.
 *
 * Major structures should be declared at the top of the file in which they
 * are used, or in separate header files, if they are used in multiple
 * source files.  Use of the structures should be by separate declarations
 * and should be "extern" if they are declared in a header file.
 *
 * It may be useful to use a meaningful prefix for each member name.
 * E.g, for ``struct softc'' the prefix could be ``sc_''.
 */
struct foo {
	struct foo *next;	/* List of active foo */
	struct mumble amumble;	/* Comment for mumble */
	int bar;
	unsigned int baz:1,	/* Bitfield; line up entries if desired */
		     fuz:5,
		     zap:2;
	u_int8_t flag;
};
struct foo *foohead;		/* Head of global foo list */

/* Make the structure name match the typedef. */
typedef struct BAR {
	int level;
} BAR;

/*
 * All major routines should have a comment briefly describing what
 * they do.  The comment before the "main" routine should describe
 * what the program does.
 */
int
main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
	long num;
	int ch;
	char *ep;

	/*
	 * For consistency, getopt should be used to parse options.  Options
	 * should be sorted in the getopt call and the switch statement, unless
	 * parts of the switch cascade.  Elements in a switch statement that
	 * cascade should have a FALLTHROUGH comment.  Numerical arguments
	 * should be checked for accuracy.  Code that cannot be reached should
	 * have a NOTREACHED comment.
	 */
	while ((ch = getopt(argc, argv, "abn")) != -1) {
		switch (ch) {		/* Indent the switch. */
		case 'a':		/* Don't indent the case. */
			aflag = 1;
			/* FALLTHROUGH */
		case 'b':
			bflag = 1;
			break;
		case 'n':
			num = strtol(optarg, &ep, 10);
			if (num <= 0 || *ep != '\0')
				errx(1, "illegal number -- %s", optarg);
			break;
		case '?':
		default:
			usage();
			/* NOTREACHED */
		}
	}
	argc -= optind;
	argv += optind;

	/*
	 * Space after keywords (while, for, return, switch).  No braces are
	 * used for control statements with zero or only a single statement,
	 * unless it's a long statement.
	 *
	 * Forever loops are done with for's, not while's.
	 */
	for (p = buf; *p != '\0'; ++p)
		continue;		/* Explicit no-op */
	for (;;)
		stmt;

	/*
	 * Parts of a for loop may be left empty.  Don't put declarations
	 * inside blocks unless the routine is unusually complicated.
	 */
	for (; cnt < 15; cnt++) {
		stmt1;
		stmt2;
	}

	/* Second level indents are four spaces. */
	while (cnt < 20)
		z = a + really + long + statment + that + needs + two lines +
		    gets + indented + four + spaces + on + the + second +
		    and + subsequent + lines;

	/*
	 * Closing and opening braces go on the same line as the else.
	 * Don't add braces that aren't necessary except in cases where
	 * there are ambiguity or readability issues.
	 */
	if (test) {
		/*
		 * I have a long comment here.
		 */
#ifdef zorro
		z = 1;
#else
		b = 3;
#endif
	} else if (bar) {
		stmt;
		stmt;
	} else
		stmt;

	/* No spaces after function names. */
	if ((result = function(a1, a2, a3, a4)) == NULL)
		exit(1);

	/*
	 * Unary operators don't require spaces, binary operators do.
	 * Don't excessively use parenthesis, but they should be used if
	 * statement is really confusing without them, such as:
	 * a = b->c[0] + ~d == (e || f) || g && h ? i : j >> 1;
	 */
	a = ((b->c[0] + ~d == (e || f)) || (g && h)) ? i : (j >> 1);
	k = !(l & FLAGS);

	/*
	 * Exits should be 0 on success, and 1 on failure.  Don't denote
	 * all the possible exit points, using the integers 1 through 300.
	 * Avoid obvious comments such as "Exit 0 on success."
	 */
	exit(0);
}

/*
 * The function type must be declared on a line by itself
 * preceeding the function.
 */
static char *
function(int a1, int a2, float fl, int a4)
{
	/*
	 * When declaring variables in functions declare them sorted by size,
	 * then in alphabetical order; multiple ones per line are okay.
	 * Function prototypes should go in the include file "extern.h".
	 * If a line overflows reuse the type keyword.
	 *
	 * DO NOT initialize variables in the declarations.
	 */
	extern u_char one;
	extern char two;
	struct foo three, *four;
	double five;
	int *six, seven;
	char *eight, *nine, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen;
	char fourteen, fifteen, sixteen;

	/*
	 * Casts and sizeof's are not followed by a space.  NULL is any
	 * pointer type, and doesn't need to be cast, so use NULL instead
	 * of (struct foo *)0 or (struct foo *)NULL.  Also, test pointers
	 * against NULL.  I.e. use:
	 *
	 *	(p = f()) == NULL
	 * not:
	 *	!(p = f())
	 *
	 * Don't use `!' for tests unless it's a boolean.
	 * E.g. use "if (*p == '\0')", not "if (!*p)".
	 *
	 * Routines returning void * should not have their return values cast
	 * to any pointer type.
	 *
	 * Use err/warn(3), don't roll your own!
	 */
	if ((four = malloc(sizeof(struct foo))) == NULL)
		err(1, NULL);
	if ((six = (int *)overflow()) == NULL)
		errx(1, "Number overflowed.");
	return (eight);
}

/*
 * Use ANSI function declarations.  ANSI function braces look like
 * old-style (K&R) function braces.
 * As per the wrapped prototypes, use your discretion on how to format
 * the subsequent lines.
 */
static int
dirinfo(const char *p, struct stat *sb, struct dirent *de, struct statfs *sf,
	int *rargc, char **rargv[])
{	/* Insert an empty line if the function has no local variables. */

	stmt;
	/* ... */
}

/*
 * Functions that support variable numbers of arguments should look like this.
 * (With the #include <stdarg.h> appearing at the top of the file with the
 * other include files).
 */
#include <stdarg.h>

void
vaf(const char *fmt, ...)
{
	va_list ap;

	va_start(ap, fmt);
	STUFF;
	va_end(ap);	
				/* No return needed for void functions. */
}

static void
usage(void)
{
	extern char *__progname;	/* Provided by NetBSD's crt0.o */

	/*
	 * Use printf(3), not fputs/puts/putchar/whatever, it's faster and
	 * usually cleaner, not to mention avoiding stupid bugs.
	 * Use snprintf(3) or strlcpy(3)/strlcat(3) instead of sprintf(3);
	 * again to avoid stupid bugs.
	 *
	 * Usage statements should look like the manual pages.  Options w/o
	 * operands come first, in alphabetical order inside a single set of
	 * braces.  Followed by options with operands, in alphabetical order,
	 * each in braces.  Followed by required arguments in the order they
	 * are specified, followed by optional arguments in the order they
	 * are specified.  A bar (`|') separates either/or options/arguments,
	 * and multiple options/arguments which are specified together are
	 * placed in a single set of braces.
	 *
	 * Use __progname (from crt0.o) instead of hardcoding the program name.
	 *
	 * "usage: f [-ade] [-b b_arg] [-m m_arg] req1 req2 [opt1 [opt2]]\n"
	 * "usage: f [-a | -b] [-c [-de] [-n number]]\n"
	 */
	(void)fprintf(stderr, "usage: %s [-ab]\n", __progname);
	exit(1);
}