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Diff for /src/share/man/man7/sysctl.7 between version 1.41 and 1.71

version 1.41, 2010/04/20 06:12:06 version 1.71, 2012/06/09 08:22:14
Line 29 
Line 29 
 .\"  .\"
 .\"     @(#)sysctl.3    8.4 (Berkeley) 5/9/95  .\"     @(#)sysctl.3    8.4 (Berkeley) 5/9/95
 .\"  .\"
 .Dd April 20, 2010  .Dd June 8, 2012
 .Dt SYSCTL 7  .Dt SYSCTL 7
 .Os  .Os
 .Sh NAME  .Sh NAME
Line 68  sysctl variable relative to the upper le
Line 68  sysctl variable relative to the upper le
 See the  See the
 .Xr sysctl 3  .Xr sysctl 3
 manual page for programming examples.  manual page for programming examples.
 .Sh Top level names  .Ss Top level names
 The top level names are defined with a CTL_ prefix in  The top level names are defined with a
   .Va CTL_
   prefix in
 .In sys/sysctl.h ,  .In sys/sysctl.h ,
 and are as follows.  and are as follows.
 The next and subsequent levels down are found in the include files  The next and subsequent levels down are found in the include files
 listed here, and described in separate sections below.  listed here, and described in separate sections below.
 .Bl -column security CTL_SECURITY "Next level names" "High kernel limits"  .Bl -column "security" ".Dv CTL_SECURITY" ".In uvm/uvm_param.h" "High kernel limits"
 .It Sy Name     Constant        Next level names        Description  .It Sy Name  Ta Sy Constant     Ta Sy Next level names Ta Sy Description
 .It kern        CTL_KERN        sys/sysctl.h    High kernel limits  .It kern     Ta Dv CTL_KERN     Ta In sys/sysctl.h     Ta High kernel limits
 .It vm  CTL_VM  uvm/uvm_param.h Virtual memory  .It vm       Ta Dv CTL_VM       Ta In uvm/uvm_param.h  Ta Virtual memory
 .It vfs CTL_VFS sys/mount.h     Filesystem  .It vfs      Ta Dv CTL_VFS      Ta In sys/mount.h      Ta Filesystem
 .It net CTL_NET sys/socket.h    Networking  .It net      Ta Dv CTL_NET      Ta In sys/socket.h     Ta Networking
 .It debug       CTL_DEBUG       sys/sysctl.h    Debugging  .It debug    Ta Dv CTL_DEBUG    Ta In sys/sysctl.h     Ta Debugging
 .It hw  CTL_HW  sys/sysctl.h    Generic CPU, I/O  .It hw       Ta Dv CTL_HW       Ta In sys/sysctl.h     Ta Generic CPU, I/O
 .It machdep     CTL_MACHDEP     sys/sysctl.h    Machine dependent  .It machdep  Ta Dv CTL_MACHDEP  Ta In sys/sysctl.h     Ta Machine dependent
 .It user        CTL_USER        sys/sysctl.h    User-level  .It user     Ta Dv CTL_USER     Ta In sys/sysctl.h     Ta User-level
 .It ddb CTL_DDB sys/sysctl.h    In-kernel debugger  .It ddb      Ta Dv CTL_DDB      Ta In sys/sysctl.h     Ta In-kernel debugger
 .It proc        CTL_PROC        sys/sysctl.h    Per-process  .It proc     Ta Dv CTL_PROC     Ta In sys/sysctl.h     Ta Per-process
 .It vendor      CTL_VENDOR      ?       Vendor specific  .It vendor   Ta Dv CTL_VENDOR   Ta ?                   Ta Vendor specific
 .It emul        CTL_EMUL        sys/sysctl.h    Emulation settings  .It emul     Ta Dv CTL_EMUL     Ta In sys/sysctl.h     Ta Emulation settings
 .It security    CTL_SECURITY    sys/sysctl.h    Security settings  .It security Ta Dv CTL_SECURITY Ta In sys/sysctl.h     Ta Security settings
 .El  .El
 .Sh The debug.* subtree  .Ss The debug.* subtree
 The debugging variables vary from system to system.  The debugging variables vary from system to system.
 A debugging variable may be added or deleted without need to recompile  A debugging variable may be added or deleted without need to recompile
 .Nm  .Nm
Line 100  Each time it runs,
Line 102  Each time it runs,
 gets the list of debugging variables from the kernel and  gets the list of debugging variables from the kernel and
 displays their current values.  displays their current values.
 The system defines twenty  The system defines twenty
 .Va ( struct ctldebug )  .Vt ( struct ctldebug )
 variables named  variables named
 .Dv debug0  .Dv debug0
 through  through
Line 110  individually initialized at the location
Line 112  individually initialized at the location
 The loader prevents multiple use of the same variable by issuing errors  The loader prevents multiple use of the same variable by issuing errors
 if a variable is initialized in more than one place.  if a variable is initialized in more than one place.
 For example, to export the variable  For example, to export the variable
 .Dv dospecialcheck  .Va dospecialcheck
 as a debugging variable, the following declaration would be used:  as a debugging variable, the following declaration would be used:
   .Pp
 .Bd -literal -offset indent -compact  .Bd -literal -offset indent -compact
 int dospecialcheck = 1;  int dospecialcheck = 1;
 struct ctldebug debug5 = { "dospecialcheck", \*[Am]dospecialcheck };  struct ctldebug debug5 = { "dospecialcheck", \*[Am]dospecialcheck };
Line 127  See
Line 130  See
 .\" and  .\" and
 .\" .Xr sysctl 9  .\" .Xr sysctl 9
 for more information.  for more information.
 .Sh The vfs.* subtree  .Ss The vfs.* subtree
 A distinguished second level name,  A distinguished second level name,
 .Li vfs.generic ( VFS_GENERIC ) ,  .Li vfs.generic ( VFS_GENERIC ) ,
 is used to get general information about all filesystems.  is used to get general information about all file systems.
 It has the following third level identifiers:  It has the following third level identifiers:
 .Bl -tag -width compact  .Bl -tag -width "123456"
 .It vfs.generic.maxtypenum ( VFS_MAXTYPENUM )  .It Li vfs.generic.maxtypenum ( VFS_MAXTYPENUM )
 The highest valid filesystem type number.  The highest valid file system type number.
 .It vfs.generic.conf ( VFS_CONF )  .It Li vfs.generic.conf ( VFS_CONF )
 Returns configuration information about the file-system type given as a fourth  Returns configuration information about the file system type given as a fourth
 level identifier.  level identifier.
   .It Li vfs.generic.usermount ( VFS_USERMOUNT )
   Determines if non superuser mounts are allowed, defaults to
   .Dv 0 .
   .It Li vfs.generic.magiclinks ( VFS_MAGICLINKS )
   Controls if expansion of variables is going to be performed on pathnames
   or not.
   Defaults to no variable expansion,
   .Dv 0 .
   Variables are of the form
   .Li @name
   and the variables supported are described in
   .Xr symlink 7
   under
   .Dq "MAGIC SYMLINKS" .
   .El
   .Pp
   A second level name for controlling the
   .Xr wapbl 4
   (Write Ahead Physical Block Logging file system journalling)
   capabilities with the following third level identifiers:
   .Bl -tag -width "123456"
   .It Li vfs.wapbl.flush_disk_cache
   Controls whether to attempt to flush the disk cache on each commit.
   It defaults to 1 and it should always be on to ensure data integrity in
   case of a crash.
   For slow disks, turning it off can improve performance.
   .It Li vfs.wapbl.verbose_commit
   For each transaction log commit, print the number of bytes written
   and the time it took to commit as seconds.nanoseconds.
 .El  .El
 .Pp  .Pp
 The remaining second level identifiers are the file-system names, identified  The remaining second level identifiers are the file system names, identified
 by the type number returned by a  by the type number returned by a
 .Xr statvfs 2  .Xr statvfs 2
 call or from  call or from
 .Li vfs.generic.conf .  .Li vfs.generic.conf .
 The third level identifiers available for each filesystem  .Pp
   The third level identifiers available for each file system
 are given in the header file that defines the mount  are given in the header file that defines the mount
 argument structure for that filesystem.  argument structure for that file system.
 .Sh The hw.* subtree  .Ss The hw.* subtree
 The string and integer information available for the  The string and integer information available for the
 .Li hw  .Li hw
 level is detailed below.  level is detailed below.
Line 178  Alignment constraint for all possible da
Line 211  Alignment constraint for all possible da
 This shows the value  This shows the value
 .Dv ALIGNBYTES  .Dv ALIGNBYTES
 in  in
 .Pa /usr/include/machine/param.h ,  .In machine/param.h ,
 at the kernel compilation time.  at the kernel compilation time.
 .It Li hw.byteorder ( HW_BYTEORDER )  .It Li hw.byteorder ( HW_BYTEORDER )
 The byteorder (4,321, or 1,234).  The byteorder (4321, or 1234).
 .It Li hw.cnmagic ( HW_CNMAGIC )  .It Li hw.cnmagic ( HW_CNMAGIC )
 The console magic key sequence.  The console magic key sequence.
 .It Li hw.disknames ( HW_DISKNAMES )  .It Li hw.disknames ( HW_DISKNAMES )
Line 193  collected on them.
Line 226  collected on them.
 Return statistical information on the NFS mounts, disk and tape  Return statistical information on the NFS mounts, disk and tape
 devices on the system.  devices on the system.
 An array of  An array of
 .Va struct io_sysctl  .Vt struct io_sysctl
 structures is returned,  structures is returned,
 whose size depends on the current number of such objects in the system.  whose size depends on the current number of such objects in the system.
 The third level name is the size of the  The third level name is the size of the
 .Va struct io_sysctl .  .Vt struct io_sysctl .
 The type of object can be determined by examining the  The type of object can be determined by examining the
 .Va type  .Va type
 element of  element of
 .Va struct io_sysctl .  .Vt struct io_sysctl .
 Which can be  Which can be
 .Dv IOSTAT_DISK  .Dv IOSTAT_DISK
 (disk drive),  (disk drive),
Line 228  The bytes of non-kernel memory as a 32-b
Line 261  The bytes of non-kernel memory as a 32-b
 .It Li hw.usermem64 ( HW_USERMEM64 )  .It Li hw.usermem64 ( HW_USERMEM64 )
 The bytes of non-kernel memory as a 64-bit integer.  The bytes of non-kernel memory as a 64-bit integer.
 .El  .El
 .Sh The kern.* subtree  .Ss The kern.* subtree
   This subtree includes data generally related to the kernel.
 The string and integer information available for the  The string and integer information available for the
 .Li kern  .Li kern
 level is detailed below.  level is detailed below.
 The changeable column shows whether a process with appropriate  The changeable column shows whether a process with appropriate
 privilege may change the value.  privilege may change the value.
 The types of data currently available are process information,  .Bl -column "kern.posix_reader_writer_locks" \
 system vnodes, the open file entries, routing table entries,  "struct kinfo_drivers" "not applicable"
 virtual memory statistics, load average history, and clock rate  
 information.  
 .Bl -column "kern.posix_reader_writer_locks" "struct kinfo_drivers" "not applicable"  
 .It Sy Second level name        Type    Changeable  .It Sy Second level name        Type    Changeable
 .\".It kern.arandom     integer no  .It kern.aio_listio_max integer yes
   .It kern.aio_max        integer yes
   .It kern.arandom        integer no
 .It kern.argmax integer no  .It kern.argmax integer no
 .It kern.autonicetime   integer yes  
 .It kern.autoniceval    integer yes  
 .It kern.boothowto      integer no  .It kern.boothowto      integer no
 .It kern.boottime       struct timeval  no  .It kern.boottime       struct timeval  no
 .\".It kern.bufq        node    not applicable  .\".It kern.bufq        node    not applicable
Line 253  information.
Line 284  information.
 .It kern.coredump       node    not applicable  .It kern.coredump       node    not applicable
 .It kern.cp_id  struct  no  .It kern.cp_id  struct  no
 .It kern.cp_time        uint64_t[\|]    no  .It kern.cp_time        uint64_t[\|]    no
 .\".It kern.cryptodevallowsoft  integer yes  .It kern.cryptodevallowsoft     integer yes
 .It kern.defcorename    string  yes  .It kern.defcorename    string  yes
 .It kern.detachall      integer yes  .It kern.detachall      integer yes
 .It kern.domainname     string  yes  .It kern.domainname     string  yes
Line 275  information.
Line 306  information.
 .It kern.logsigexit     integer yes  .It kern.logsigexit     integer yes
 .It kern.mapped_files   integer no  .It kern.mapped_files   integer no
 .It kern.maxfiles       integer yes  .It kern.maxfiles       integer yes
   .It kern.maxlwp integer yes
 .It kern.maxpartitions  integer no  .It kern.maxpartitions  integer no
 .It kern.maxphys        integer no  .It kern.maxphys        integer no
 .It kern.maxproc        integer yes  .It kern.maxproc        integer yes
Line 284  information.
Line 316  information.
 .It kern.memlock        integer no  .It kern.memlock        integer no
 .It kern.memlock_range  integer no  .It kern.memlock_range  integer no
 .It kern.memory_protection      integer no  .It kern.memory_protection      integer no
 .\".It kern.module      node    not applicable  .It kern.module node    not applicable
 .It kern.monotonic_clock        integer no  .It kern.monotonic_clock        integer no
   .It kern.mqueue node    not applicable
 .It kern.msgbuf integer no  .It kern.msgbuf integer no
 .It kern.msgbufsize     integer no  .It kern.msgbufsize     integer no
 .It kern.ngroups        integer no  .It kern.ngroups        integer no
Line 298  information.
Line 331  information.
 .It kern.pipe   node    not applicable  .It kern.pipe   node    not applicable
 .\" .It kern.posix      node    not applicable  .\" .It kern.posix      node    not applicable
 .It kern.posix1version  integer no  .It kern.posix1version  integer no
   .It kern.posix_aio      integer no
 .It kern.posix_barriers integer no  .It kern.posix_barriers integer no
 .It kern.posix_reader_writer_locks      integer no  .It kern.posix_reader_writer_locks      integer no
 .\".It kern.posix_sched integer yes  .\".It kern.posix_sched integer yes
Line 323  information.
Line 357  information.
 .It kern.timecounter    node    not applicable  .It kern.timecounter    node    not applicable
 .It kern.timex  struct  no  .It kern.timex  struct  no
 .It kern.tkstat node    not applicable  .It kern.tkstat node    not applicable
   .It kern.tty    node    not applicable
 .It kern.urandom        integer no  .It kern.urandom        integer no
 .\".It kern.usercrypto  integer yes  .It kern.usercrypto     integer yes
 .\" It kern.userasymcrypto      integer yes  .It kern.userasymcrypto integer yes
 .It kern.veriexec       node    not applicable  .It kern.veriexec       node    not applicable
 .It kern.version        string  no  .It kern.version        string  no
 .It kern.vnode  struct vnode    no  .It kern.vnode  struct vnode    no
 .El  .El
 .Bl -tag -width "123456"  .Bl -tag -width "123456"
 .\".It Li kern.arandom  .It Li kern.aio_listio_max
 .\" XXX: Undocumented.  The maximum number of asynchronous
   .Tn I/O
   operations in a single list I/O call.
   Like with all variables related to
   .Xr aio 3 ,
   the variable may be created and removed dynamically
   upon loading or unloading the corresponding kernel module.
   .It Li kern.aio_max
   The maximum number of asynchronous I/O operations.
   .It Li kern.arandom
   This variable picks a random number each time it is queried.
   The used random number generator
   .Pf ( Tn RNG )
   is based on
   .Xr arc4random 3 .
 .It Li kern.argmax ( KERN_ARGMAX )  .It Li kern.argmax ( KERN_ARGMAX )
 The maximum bytes of argument to  The maximum bytes of argument to
 .Xr execve 2 .  .Xr execve 2 .
 .\" XXX: Is kern.autonicetime still available?  
 .It Li kern.autonicetime ( KERN_AUTONICETIME )  
 The number of seconds of CPU-time a non-root process may accumulate before  
 having its priority lowered from the default to the value of KERN_AUTONICEVAL.  
 If set to 0, automatic lowering of priority is not performed, and if set to \-1  
 all non-root processes are immediately lowered.  
 .\" XXX: Is kern.autoniceval still available?  
 .It Li kern.autoniceval ( KERN_AUTONICEVAL )  
 The priority assigned for automatically niced processes.  
 .It Li kern.boothowto  .It Li kern.boothowto
 Flags passed from the boot loader; see  Flags passed from the boot loader; see
 .Xr reboot 2  .Xr reboot 2
 for the meanings of the flags.  for the meanings of the flags.
 .It Li kern.boottime ( KERN_BOOTTIME )  .It Li kern.boottime ( KERN_BOOTTIME )
 A  A
 .Va struct timeval  .Vt struct timeval
 structure is returned.  structure is returned.
 This structure contains the time that the system was booted.  This structure contains the time that the system was booted.
 .\" .It Li kern.bufq  .\" .It Li kern.bufq
Line 360  This structure contains the time that th
Line 400  This structure contains the time that th
 The scheduler exponential decay value.  The scheduler exponential decay value.
 .It Li kern.clockrate ( KERN_CLOCKRATE )  .It Li kern.clockrate ( KERN_CLOCKRATE )
 A  A
 .Va struct clockinfo  .Vt struct clockinfo
 structure is returned.  structure is returned.
 This structure contains the clock, statistics clock and profiling clock  This structure contains the clock, statistics clock and profiling clock
 frequencies, the number of micro-seconds per hz tick, and the clock  frequencies, the number of micro-seconds per hz tick, and the clock
Line 407  Same syntax as kern.defcorename.
Line 447  Same syntax as kern.defcorename.
 .It Li kern.cp_id ( KERN_CP_ID )  .It Li kern.cp_id ( KERN_CP_ID )
 Mapping of CPU number to CPU id.  Mapping of CPU number to CPU id.
 .It Li kern.cp_time ( KERN_CP_TIME )  .It Li kern.cp_time ( KERN_CP_TIME )
 Returns an array of CPUSTATES uint64_ts.  Returns an array of
   .Dv CPUSTATES
   .Vt uint64_t Ns s.
 This array contains the  This array contains the
 number of clock ticks spent in different CPU states.  number of clock ticks spent in different CPU states.
 On multi-processor systems, the sum across all CPUs is returned unless  On multi-processor systems, the sum across all CPUs is returned unless
 appropriate space is given for one data set for each CPU.  appropriate space is given for one data set for each CPU.
 Data for a specific CPU can also be obtained by adding the number of the  Data for a specific CPU can also be obtained by adding the number of the
 CPU at the end of the MIB, enlarging it by one.  CPU at the end of the MIB, enlarging it by one.
 .\".It Li kern.cryptodevallowsoft  .It Li kern.cryptodevallowsoft
 .\" XXX: Undocumented.  This variable controls userland access to hardware versus software transforms
   in the
   .Xr crypto 4
   system.
   The available values are as follows:
   .Bl -tag -width XX0 -offset indent
   .It Dv \*[Lt] 0
   Always force userlevel requests to use software transforms.
   .It Dv = 0
   If present, use hardware and grant userlevel requests for
   non-accelerated transforms (handling the latter in software).
   .It Dv \*[Gt] 0
   Allow user requests only for transforms which are hardware-accelerated.
   .El
 .It Li kern.defcorename ( KERN_DEFCORENAME )  .It Li kern.defcorename ( KERN_DEFCORENAME )
 Default template for the name of core dump files (see also  Default template for the name of core dump files (see also
 .Li proc.pid.corename  .Li proc.pid.corename
Line 425  and
Line 480  and
 .Xr core 5  .Xr core 5
 for format of this template).  for format of this template).
 The default value is  The default value is
 .Nm %n.core  .Pa %n.core
 and can be changed with the kernel configuration option  and can be changed with the kernel configuration option
 .Cd options DEFCORENAME  .Cd options DEFCORENAME
 (see  (see
Line 433  and can be changed with the kernel confi
Line 488  and can be changed with the kernel confi
 ).  ).
 .It Li kern.detachall  .It Li kern.detachall
 Detach all devices at shutdown.  Detach all devices at shutdown.
 .\" XXX: Lacks CTL_KERN identifier.  
 .It Li kern.domainname ( KERN_DOMAINNAME )  .It Li kern.domainname ( KERN_DOMAINNAME )
 Get or set the YP domain name.  Get or set the YP domain name.
 .It Li kern.drivers ( KERN_DRIVERS )  .It Li kern.drivers ( KERN_DRIVERS )
 Return an array of  Return an array of
 .Va struct kinfo_drivers  .Vt struct kinfo_drivers
 that contains the name and major device numbers of all the device drivers  that contains the name and major device numbers of all the device drivers
 in the current kernel.  in the current kernel.
 The  The
Line 453  Perform a crash dump on system
Line 507  Perform a crash dump on system
 .It Li kern.file ( KERN_FILE )  .It Li kern.file ( KERN_FILE )
 Return the entire file table.  Return the entire file table.
 The returned data consists of a single  The returned data consists of a single
 .Va struct filelist  .Vt struct filelist
 followed by an array of  followed by an array of
 .Va struct file ,  .Vt struct file ,
 whose size depends on the current number of such objects in the system.  whose size depends on the current number of such objects in the system.
 .It Li kern.forkfsleep ( KERN_FORKFSLEEP )  .It Li kern.forkfsleep ( KERN_FORKFSLEEP )
 If  If
Line 471  Maximum is 20 seconds.
Line 525  Maximum is 20 seconds.
 .It Li kern.fscale ( KERN_FSCALE )  .It Li kern.fscale ( KERN_FSCALE )
 The kernel fixed-point scale factor.  The kernel fixed-point scale factor.
 .It Li kern.fsync ( KERN_FSYNC )  .It Li kern.fsync ( KERN_FSYNC )
 Return 1 if the POSIX 1003.1b File Synchronization Option is available  Return 1 if the
   .St -p1003.1b-93
   File Synchronization Option is available
 on this system,  on this system,
 otherwise 0.  otherwise\ 0.
 .It Li kern.hardclock_ticks ( KERN_HARDCLOCK_TICKS )  .It Li kern.hardclock_ticks ( KERN_HARDCLOCK_TICKS )
 Returns the number of  Returns the number of
 .Xr hardclock 9  .Xr hardclock 9
Line 490  Get or set the
Line 546  Get or set the
 .Xr hostname 1 .  .Xr hostname 1 .
 .It Li kern.iov_max ( KERN_IOV_MAX )  .It Li kern.iov_max ( KERN_IOV_MAX )
 Return the maximum number of  Return the maximum number of
 .Va iovec  .Vt iovec
 structures that a process has available for use with  structures that a process has available for use with
 .Xr preadv 2 ,  .Xr preadv 2 ,
 .Xr pwritev 2 ,  .Xr pwritev 2 ,
Line 523  The third level names for the ipc variab
Line 579  The third level names for the ipc variab
 .It Li kern.ipc.sysvmsg ( KERN_SYSVIPC_MSG )  .It Li kern.ipc.sysvmsg ( KERN_SYSVIPC_MSG )
 Returns 1 if System V style message queue functionality is available  Returns 1 if System V style message queue functionality is available
 on this system,  on this system,
 otherwise 0.  otherwise\ 0.
 .It Li kern.ipc.sysvsem ( KERN_SYSVIPC_SEM )  .It Li kern.ipc.sysvsem ( KERN_SYSVIPC_SEM )
 Returns 1 if System V style semaphore functionality is available  Returns 1 if System V style semaphore functionality is available
 on this system,  on this system,
 otherwise 0.  otherwise\ 0.
 .It Li kern.ipc.sysvshm ( KERN_SYSVIPC_SHM )  .It Li kern.ipc.sysvshm ( KERN_SYSVIPC_SHM )
 Returns 1 if System V style share memory functionality is available  Returns 1 if System V style share memory functionality is available
 on this system,  on this system,
 otherwise 0.  otherwise\ 0.
 .It Li kern.ipc.sysvipc_info ( KERN_SYSVIPC_INFO )  .It Li kern.ipc.sysvipc_info ( KERN_SYSVIPC_INFO )
 Return System V style IPC configuration and run-time information.  Return System V style IPC configuration and run-time information.
 The fourth level name selects the System V style IPC facility.  The fourth level name selects the System V style IPC facility.
Line 586  Max number of number of semaphores in sy
Line 642  Max number of number of semaphores in sy
 Max number of undo structures in system.  Max number of undo structures in system.
 .El  .El
 .It Li kern.job_control ( KERN_JOB_CONTROL )  .It Li kern.job_control ( KERN_JOB_CONTROL )
 Return 1 if job control is available on this system, otherwise 0.  Return 1 if job control is available on this system, otherwise\ 0.
 .It Li kern.labeloffset ( KERN_LABELOFFSET )  .It Li kern.labeloffset ( KERN_LABELOFFSET )
 The offset within the sector specified by KERN_LABELSECTOR of the  The offset within the sector specified by
   .Dv KERN_LABELSECTOR
   of the
 .Xr disklabel 5 .  .Xr disklabel 5 .
 .It Li kern.labelsector ( KERN_LABELSECTOR )  .It Li kern.labelsector ( KERN_LABELSECTOR )
 The sector number containing the  The sector number containing the
Line 603  all process exits due to signals which c
Line 661  all process exits due to signals which c
 .Xr core 5  .Xr core 5
 file, and whether the coredump was created.  file, and whether the coredump was created.
 .It Li kern.mapped_files ( KERN_MAPPED_FILES )  .It Li kern.mapped_files ( KERN_MAPPED_FILES )
 Returns 1 if the POSIX 1003.1b Memory Mapped Files Option is available  Returns 1 if the
 on this system,  .St -p1003.1b-93
 otherwise 0.  Memory Mapped Files Option is available on this system,
   otherwise\ 0.
 .It Li kern.maxfiles ( KERN_MAXFILES )  .It Li kern.maxfiles ( KERN_MAXFILES )
 The maximum number of open files that may be open in the system.  The maximum number of open files that may be open in the system.
 .It Li kern.maxpartitions ( KERN_MAXPARTITIONS )  .It Li kern.maxpartitions ( KERN_MAXPARTITIONS )
 The maximum number of partitions allowed per disk.  The maximum number of partitions allowed per disk.
   .It Li kern.maxlwp
   The maximum number of Lightweight Processes (threads) the system allows
   per uid.
 .It Li kern.maxphys ( KERN_MAXPHYS )  .It Li kern.maxphys ( KERN_MAXPHYS )
 Maximum raw I/O transfer size.  Maximum raw I/O transfer size.
 .It Li kern.maxproc ( KERN_MAXPROC )  .It Li kern.maxproc ( KERN_MAXPROC )
Line 657  The variable can only be increased, and 
Line 719  The variable can only be increased, and 
 direct-mapped pool pages.  direct-mapped pool pages.
 .El  .El
 .It Li kern.memlock ( KERN_MEMLOCK )  .It Li kern.memlock ( KERN_MEMLOCK )
 Returns 1 if the POSIX 1003.1b Process Memory Locking Option is available  Returns 1 if the
 on this system,  .St -p1003.1b-93
 otherwise 0.  Process Memory Locking Option is available on this system,
   otherwise\ 0.
 .It Li kern.memlock_range ( KERN_MEMLOCK_RANGE )  .It Li kern.memlock_range ( KERN_MEMLOCK_RANGE )
 Returns 1 if the POSIX 1003.1b Range Memory Locking Option is available  Returns 1 if the
 on this system,  .St -p1003.1b-93
 otherwise 0.  Range Memory Locking Option is available on this system,
   otherwise\ 0.
 .It Li kern.memory_protection ( KERN_MEMORY_PROTECTION )  .It Li kern.memory_protection ( KERN_MEMORY_PROTECTION )
 Returns 1 if the POSIX 1003.1b Memory Protection Option is available  Returns 1 if the
 on this system,  .St -p1003.1b-93
 otherwise 0.  Memory Protection Option is available on this system,
 .\" .It Li kern.module  otherwise\ 0.
 .\" XXX: Undocumented.  .It Li kern.module
   Settings related to kernel modules.
   The third level names for the settings are described below.
   .Bl -column "kern.module.autoload" "integer" "Changeable" -offset indent
   .It Sy Third level name Type    Changeable
   .It kern.module.autoload        integer yes
   .It kern.module.verbose integer yes
   .El
   .Pp
   The variables are as follows:
   .Bl -tag -width "123456"
   .It Li kern.module.autoload
   A boolean that controls whether kernel modules are loaded automatically.
   See
   .Xr module 7
   for additional details.
   .It Li kern.module.verbose
   A boolean that enables or disables verbose
   debug messages related to kernel modules.
   .El
 .It Li kern.monotonic_clock ( KERN_MONOTONIC_CLOCK )  .It Li kern.monotonic_clock ( KERN_MONOTONIC_CLOCK )
 Returns the standard version the implementation of the POSIX 1003.1b  Returns the standard version the implementation of the
   .St -p1003.1b-93
 Monotonic Clock Option conforms to,  Monotonic Clock Option conforms to,
 otherwise 0.  otherwise\ 0.
   .It Li kern.mqueue
   Settings related to
   .Tn POSIX
   message queues; see
   .Xr mqueue 3 .
   This node is created dynamically when
   the corresponding kernel module is loaded.
   The third level names for the settings are described below.
   .Bl -column "kern.mqueue.mq_max_msgsize" "integer" "Changeable" -offset indent
   .It Sy Third level name Type    Changeable
   .It kern.mqueue.mq_open_max     integer yes
   .It kern.mqueue.mq_prio_max     integer yes
   .It kern.mqueue.mq_max_msgsize  integer yes
   .It kern.mqueue.mq_def_maxmsg   integer yes
   .It kern.mqueue.mq_max_maxmsg   integer yes
   .El
   .Pp
   The variables are:
   .Bl -tag -width "123456"
   .It Li kern.mqueue.mq_open_max
   The maximum number of message queue descriptors any single process can open.
   .It Li kern.mqueue.mq_prio_max
   The maximum priority of a message.
   .It Li kern.mqueue.mq_max_msgsize
   The maximum size of a message in a message queue.
   .It Li kern.mqueue.mq_def_maxmsg
   The default maximum message count.
   .It Li kern.mqueue.mq_max_maxmsg
   The maximum number of messages in a message queue.
   .El
 .It Li kern.msgbuf ( KERN_MSGBUF )  .It Li kern.msgbuf ( KERN_MSGBUF )
 The kernel message buffer, rotated so that the head of the circular kernel  The kernel message buffer, rotated so that the head of the circular kernel
 message buffer is at the start of the returned data.  message buffer is at the start of the returned data.
Line 686  The maximum number of supplemental group
Line 800  The maximum number of supplemental group
 .\" XXX: Undocumented.  .\" XXX: Undocumented.
 .It Li kern.ntptime ( KERN_NTPTIME )  .It Li kern.ntptime ( KERN_NTPTIME )
 A  A
 .Va struct ntptimeval  .Vt struct ntptimeval
 structure is returned.  structure is returned.
 This structure contains data used by the  This structure contains data used by the
 .Xr ntpd 8  .Xr ntpd 8
Line 718  The variables are as follows:
Line 832  The variables are as follows:
 .It Li kern.pipe.kvasiz ( KERN_PIPE_KVASIZ )  .It Li kern.pipe.kvasiz ( KERN_PIPE_KVASIZ )
 Amount of kernel memory consumed by pipe buffers.  Amount of kernel memory consumed by pipe buffers.
 .It Li kern.pipe.maxbigpipes ( KERN_PIPE_MAXBIGPIPES )  .It Li kern.pipe.maxbigpipes ( KERN_PIPE_MAXBIGPIPES )
 Maximum number of "big" pipes.  Maximum number of
   .Dq big
   pipes.
 .It Li kern.pipe.maxkvasz ( KERN_PIPE_MAXKVASZ )  .It Li kern.pipe.maxkvasz ( KERN_PIPE_MAXKVASZ )
 Maximum amount of kernel memory to be used for pipes.  Maximum amount of kernel memory to be used for pipes.
 .It Li kern.pipe.limitkva ( KERN_PIPE_LIMITKVA )  .It Li kern.pipe.limitkva ( KERN_PIPE_LIMITKVA )
 Limit for direct transfers via page loan.  Limit for direct transfers via page loan.
 .It Li kern.pipe.nbigpipes ( KERN_PIPE_NBIGPIPES )  .It Li kern.pipe.nbigpipes ( KERN_PIPE_NBIGPIPES )
 Number of "big" pipes.  Number of
   .Dq big
   pipes.
 .El  .El
 .\" XXX: Undocumented .It Li kern.posix ( ? )  .\" XXX: Undocumented .It Li kern.posix ( ? )
 .\"      This is a node in which the only variable is semmax.  .\"      This is a node in which the only variable is semmax.
 .It Li kern.posix1version ( KERN_POSIX1 )  .It Li kern.posix1version ( KERN_POSIX1 )
 The version of ISO/IEC 9945 (POSIX 1003.1) with which the system  The version of ISO/IEC 9945
 attempts to comply.  .Pq St -p1003.1
   with which the system attempts to comply.
   .It Li kern.posix_aio
   The version of
   .St -p1003.1
   and its Asynchronous I/O option to which the system attempts to conform.
 .It Li kern.posix_barriers ( KERN_POSIX_BARRIERS )  .It Li kern.posix_barriers ( KERN_POSIX_BARRIERS )
 The version of  The version of
 .St -p1003.1  .St -p1003.1
 and its  and its
 Barriers  Barriers
 option to which the system attempts to conform,  option to which the system attempts to conform,
 otherwise 0.  otherwise\ 0.
 .It Li kern.posix_reader_writer_locks ( KERN_POSIX_READER_WRITER_LOCKS )  .It Li kern.posix_reader_writer_locks ( KERN_POSIX_READER_WRITER_LOCKS )
 The version of  The version of
 .St -p1003.1  .St -p1003.1
 and its  and its
 Read-Write Locks  Read-Write Locks
 option to which the system attempts to conform,  option to which the system attempts to conform,
 otherwise 0.  otherwise\ 0.
 .\".It Li kern.posix_sched  .\".It Li kern.posix_sched
 .\" XXX: Undocumented.  .\" XXX: Undocumented.
 .It Li kern.posix_semaphores ( KERN_POSIX_SEMAPHORES )  .It Li kern.posix_semaphores ( KERN_POSIX_SEMAPHORES )
Line 753  The version of
Line 876  The version of
 and its  and its
 Semaphores  Semaphores
 option to which the system attempts to conform,  option to which the system attempts to conform,
 otherwise 0.  otherwise\ 0.
 .It Li kern.posix_spin_locks ( KERN_POSIX_SPIN_LOCKS )  .It Li kern.posix_spin_locks ( KERN_POSIX_SPIN_LOCKS )
 The version of  The version of
 .St -p1003.1  .St -p1003.1
 and its  and its
 Spin Locks  Spin Locks
 option to which the system attempts to conform,  option to which the system attempts to conform,
 otherwise 0.  otherwise\ 0.
 .It Li kern.posix_threads ( KERN_POSIX_THREADS )  .It Li kern.posix_threads ( KERN_POSIX_THREADS )
 The version of  The version of
 .St -p1003.1  .St -p1003.1
 and its  and its
 Threads  Threads
 option to which the system attempts to conform,  option to which the system attempts to conform,
 otherwise 0.  otherwise\ 0.
 .It Li kern.posix_timers ( KERN_POSIX_TIMERS )  .It Li kern.posix_timers ( KERN_POSIX_TIMERS )
 The version of  The version of
 .St -p1003.1  .St -p1003.1
 and its  and its
 Timers  Timers
 option to which the system attempts to conform,  option to which the system attempts to conform,
 otherwise 0.  otherwise\ 0.
 .It Li kern.proc ( KERN_PROC )  .It Li kern.proc ( KERN_PROC )
 Return the entire process table, or a subset of it.  Return the entire process table, or a subset of it.
 An array of  An array of
 .Va struct kinfo_proc  .Vt struct kinfo_proc
 structures is returned,  structures is returned,
 whose size depends on the current number of such objects in the system.  whose size depends on the current number of such objects in the system.
 The third and fourth level numeric names are as follows:  The third and fourth level numeric names are as follows:
Line 795  The third and fourth level numeric names
Line 918  The third and fourth level numeric names
 .It KERN_PROC_UID       A user ID  .It KERN_PROC_UID       A user ID
 .El  .El
 .It Li kern.proc2 ( KERN_PROC2 )  .It Li kern.proc2 ( KERN_PROC2 )
 As for KERN_PROC, but an array of  As for
 .Va struct kinfo_proc2  .Dv KERN_PROC ,
   but an array of
   .Vt struct kinfo_proc2
 structures are returned.  structures are returned.
 The fifth level name is the size of the  The fifth level name is the size of the
 .Va struct kinfo_proc2  .Vt struct kinfo_proc2
 and the sixth level name is the number of structures to return.  and the sixth level name is the number of structures to return.
 .It Li kern.proc_args ( KERN_PROC_ARGS )  .It Li kern.proc_args ( KERN_PROC_ARGS )
 Return the argv or environment strings (or the number thereof)  Return the argv or environment strings (or the number thereof)
Line 816  The fourth level name is as follows:
Line 941  The fourth level name is as follows:
 .It Li kern.profiling ( KERN_PROF )  .It Li kern.profiling ( KERN_PROF )
 Return profiling information about the kernel.  Return profiling information about the kernel.
 If the kernel is not compiled for profiling,  If the kernel is not compiled for profiling,
 attempts to retrieve any of the KERN_PROF values will  attempts to retrieve any of the
 fail with  .Dv KERN_PROF
   values will fail with
 .Er EOPNOTSUPP .  .Er EOPNOTSUPP .
 The third level names for the string and integer profiling information  The third level names for the string and integer profiling information
 is detailed below.  is detailed below.
Line 842  Array indexed by program counter of call
Line 968  Array indexed by program counter of call
 Structure giving the sizes of the above arrays.  Structure giving the sizes of the above arrays.
 .It Li kern.profiling.state ( GPROF_STATE )  .It Li kern.profiling.state ( GPROF_STATE )
 Profiling state.  Profiling state.
 If set to GMON_PROF_ON, starts profiling.  If set to
 If set to GMON_PROF_OFF, stops profiling.  .Dv GMON_PROF_ON ,
   starts profiling.
   If set to
   .Dv GMON_PROF_OFF ,
   stops profiling.
 .It Li kern.profiling.tos ( GPROF_TOS )  .It Li kern.profiling.tos ( GPROF_TOS )
 Array of  Array of
 .Va struct tostruct  .Vt struct tostruct
 describing destination of calls and their counts.  describing destination of calls and their counts.
 .El  .El
 .\" .It Li kern.pset  .\" .It Li kern.pset
Line 874  See
Line 1004  See
 Maximum amount of kernel memory to be used for socket buffers.  Maximum amount of kernel memory to be used for socket buffers.
 .\" XXX units?  .\" XXX units?
 .It Li kern.synchronized_io ( KERN_SYNCHRONIZED_IO )  .It Li kern.synchronized_io ( KERN_SYNCHRONIZED_IO )
 Returns 1 if the POSIX 1003.1b Synchronized I/O Option is available  Returns 1 if the
 on this system,  .St -p1003.1b-93
 otherwise 0.  Synchronized I/O Option is available on this system,
   otherwise\ 0.
 .It Li kern.timecounter ( dynamic )  .It Li kern.timecounter ( dynamic )
 Display and control the timecounter source of the system.  Display and control the timecounter source of the system.
 .Bl -column "kern.timecounter.timestepwarnings" "integer" "Changeable" -offset indent  .Bl -column "kern.timecounter.timestepwarnings" "integer" "Changeable" -offset indent
Line 922  The total number of output characters.
Line 1053  The total number of output characters.
 .It Li kern.tkstat.rawcc ( KERN_TKSTAT_RAWCC )  .It Li kern.tkstat.rawcc ( KERN_TKSTAT_RAWCC )
 The number of raw input characters.  The number of raw input characters.
 .El  .El
   .It Li kern.tty
   The third level names for the tty setup variables are detailed below.
   The changeable column shows whether a process
   with appropriate privilege may change the value.
   .Bl -column "kern.tty.qsize" "int" "Changeable" -offset indent
   .It Sy Third level name Type    Changeable
   .It kern.tty.qsize      int     yes
   .El
   .Pp
   The variables are as follows:
   .Bl -tag -width "123456"
   .It Li kern.tty.qsize
   Control/display the size of the default input and output queues selected
   during tty creation.
   Is converted to a power of two and its range is between
   .Dv 1024
   and
   .Dv 65536 .
   .El
   .It Li kern.uidinfo
   Resource usage for the current user.
   .Bl -column "kern.uidinfo.proccnt" "integer" "Changeable" -offset indent
   .It Sy Third level name Type    Changeable
   .It kern.uidinfo.proccnt        integer no
   .It kern.uidinfo.lwpcnt integer no
   .It kern.uidinfo.lockcnt        integer no
   .It kern.uidinfo.sbsize integer no
   .El
   .Bl -tag -width "123456"
   .It Li kern.uidinfo.proccnt
   Returns the number of active processes for the current user.
   .It Li kern.uidinfo.lwpcnt
   Returns the number of active threads for the current user; the first thread
   of each process is not counted.
   .It Li kern.uidinfo.lockcnt
   Number of locks held by the current user.
   .It Li kern.uidinfo.sbsize
   Number of bytes in socket buffers allocated to the current user.
   .El
 .It Li kern.urandom ( KERN_URND )  .It Li kern.urandom ( KERN_URND )
 Random integer value.  Random integer value.
 .\".It Li kern.usercrypto  .It Li kern.usercrypto
 .\" XXX: Undocumented.  When enabled, allows userland to
 .\".It Li kern.userasymcrypto  .Xr open 2
 .\" XXX: Undocumented.  the
   .Pa /dev/crypto
   special device, used by the
   .Xr crypto 4
   system.
   .It Li kern.userasymcrypto
   Enables or disables the use of software asymmetric crypto support in the
   .Xr crypto 4
   system.
 .It Li kern.veriexec  .It Li kern.veriexec
 Runtime information for  Runtime information for
 .Xr veriexec 8 .  .Xr veriexec 8 .
Line 947  Each mount will be under its own
Line 1125  Each mount will be under its own
 .No tableN  .No tableN
 node.  node.
 Under each node there will be three variables, indicating the mount  Under each node there will be three variables, indicating the mount
 point, the file-system type, and the number of entries.  point, the file system type, and the number of entries.
 .It Li kern.veriexec.strict  .It Li kern.veriexec.strict
 Controls the strict level of Veriexec.  Controls the strict level of Veriexec.
 See  See
 .Xr security 8  .Xr security 7
 for more information on each level's implications.  for more information on each level's implications.
 .It Li kern.veriexec.verbose  .It Li kern.veriexec.verbose
 Controls the verbosity level of Veriexec.  Controls the verbosity level of Veriexec.
Line 972  the system.
Line 1150  the system.
 The returned data consists of an array whose size depends on the  The returned data consists of an array whose size depends on the
 current number of such objects in the system.  current number of such objects in the system.
 Each element of the array contains the kernel address of a vnode  Each element of the array contains the kernel address of a vnode
 .Va struct vnode *  .Vt struct vnode *
 followed by the vnode itself  followed by the vnode itself
 .Va struct vnode .  .Vt struct vnode .
 .\" XXX kern.lwp  .\" XXX: Undocumented: kern.lwp: no children?
 .El  .El
 .Sh The machdep.* subtree  .Ss The machdep.* subtree
 The set of variables defined is architecture dependent.  The set of variables defined is architecture dependent.
 Most architectures define at least the following variables.  Most architectures define at least the following variables.
 .Bl -column "Second level name" "Type" "Changeable" -offset indent  .Bl -column "machdep.booted_kernel" "Type" "Changeable" -offset indent
 .It Sy Second level name        Type    Changeable  .It Sy Second level name        Type    Changeable
 .It Li CPU_CONSDEV      dev_t   no  .It Li machdep.booted_kernel    string  no
 .El  .El
 .Sh The net.* subtree  .\" XXX: Document the above.
   .Ss The net.* subtree
 The string and integer information available for the  The string and integer information available for the
 .Li net  .Li net
 level is detailed below.  level is detailed below.
Line 1009  The data is returned as a sequence of ro
Line 1188  The data is returned as a sequence of ro
 for the header file, format and meaning).  for the header file, format and meaning).
 The length of each message is contained in the message header.  The length of each message is contained in the message header.
 .Pp  .Pp
 The third level name is a protocol number, which is currently always 0.  The third level name is a protocol number, which is currently always\ 0.
 The fourth level name is an address family, which may be set to 0 to  The fourth level name is an address family, which may be set to 0 to
 select all address families.  select all address families.
 The fifth and sixth level names are as follows:  The fifth and sixth level names are as follows:
Line 1029  The currently defined protocols and name
Line 1208  The currently defined protocols and name
 .It Sy Protocol name    Variable name   Type    Changeable  .It Sy Protocol name    Variable name   Type    Changeable
 .It arp down    integer yes  .It arp down    integer yes
 .It arp keep    integer yes  .It arp keep    integer yes
   .It arp log_movements   integer yes
   .It arp log_permanent_modify    integer yes
   .It arp log_wrong_iface integer yes
 .It arp prune   integer yes  .It arp prune   integer yes
 .It arp refresh integer yes  .It arp refresh integer yes
 .It carp        allow   integer yes  .It carp        allow   integer yes
Line 1100  The currently defined protocols and name
Line 1282  The currently defined protocols and name
 .It udp checksum        integer yes  .It udp checksum        integer yes
 .It udp do_loopback_cksum       integer yes  .It udp do_loopback_cksum       integer yes
 .It udp recvspace       integer yes  .It udp recvspace       integer yes
   .It udp rfc6056.selected        string  yes
   .It udp rfc6056.available       string  yes
 .It udp sendspace       integer yes  .It udp sendspace       integer yes
 .El  .El
 .Pp  .Pp
Line 1379  It has no effect unless tcp.abc.enable i
Line 1563  It has no effect unless tcp.abc.enable i
 If set to 1, UDP checksums are being computed.  If set to 1, UDP checksums are being computed.
 Received non-zero UDP checksums are always checked.  Received non-zero UDP checksums are always checked.
 Disabling UDP checksums is strongly discouraged.  Disabling UDP checksums is strongly discouraged.
 .It Li udp.sendspace  
 The default UDP send buffer size.  
 .It Li udp.recvspace  .It Li udp.recvspace
 The default UDP receive buffer size.  The default UDP receive buffer size.
   .It Li udp.rfc6056.available
   The available RFC 6056 port randomization algorithms.
   .It Li udp.rfc6056.selected
   The currently selected RFC 6056 port randomization algorithm.
   .It Li udp.sendspace
   The default UDP send buffer size.
 .El  .El
 .Pp  .Pp
 For variables net.*.ipsec, please refer to  For variables net.*.ipsec, please refer to
Line 1433  The currently defined protocols and name
Line 1621  The currently defined protocols and name
 .It ip6 v6only  integer yes  .It ip6 v6only  integer yes
 .It udp6        do_loopback_cksum       integer yes  .It udp6        do_loopback_cksum       integer yes
 .It udp6        recvspace       integer yes  .It udp6        recvspace       integer yes
   .It udp6        rfc6056.selected        string  yes
   .It udp6        rfc6056.available       string  yes
 .It udp6        sendspace       integer yes  .It udp6        sendspace       integer yes
 .El  .El
 .Pp  .Pp
Line 1487  The number of IPv6 extension headers per
Line 1677  The number of IPv6 extension headers per
 If set to 0, the node will accept as many extension headers as possible.  If set to 0, the node will accept as many extension headers as possible.
 .It Li ip6.hashsize  .It Li ip6.hashsize
 The size of IPv6 Fast Forward hash table.  The size of IPv6 Fast Forward hash table.
 This value must be a power of 2 (64, 256...).  This value must be a power of 2 (64, 256, ...).
 A larger hash table size results in fewer collisions.  A larger hash table size results in fewer collisions.
 Also see  Also see
 .Li ip6.maxflows .  .Li ip6.maxflows .
Line 1640  ICMPv6 redirect.
Line 1830  ICMPv6 redirect.
 Perform UDP checksum on loopback.  Perform UDP checksum on loopback.
 .It Li udp6.recvspace  .It Li udp6.recvspace
 Default UDP receive buffer size.  Default UDP receive buffer size.
   .It Li udp6.rfc6056.available
   The available RFC 6056 port randomization algorithms for IPv6.
   .It Li udp6.rfc6056.selected
   The currently selected RFC 6056 port randomization algorithm for IPv6.
 .It Li udp6.sendspace  .It Li udp6.sendspace
 Default UDP send buffer size.  Default UDP send buffer size.
 .El  .El
Line 1678  The variables are as follows:
Line 1872  The variables are as follows:
 .It Li debug  .It Li debug
 Turn on debugging message from within the kernel.  Turn on debugging message from within the kernel.
 The value is a bitmap, as defined in  The value is a bitmap, as defined in
 .Pa /usr/include/netkey/key_debug.h .  .In netkey/key_debug.h .
 .It Li spi_try  .It Li spi_try
 The number of times the kernel will try to obtain an unique SPI  The number of times the kernel will try to obtain an unique SPI
 when it generates it from random number generator.  when it generates it from random number generator.
Line 1709  The value is used when the kernel create
Line 1903  The value is used when the kernel create
 on ACQUIRE PF_KEY message.  on ACQUIRE PF_KEY message.
 .El  .El
 .El  .El
 .Sh The proc.* subtree  .Ss The proc.* subtree
 The string and integer information available for the  The string and integer information available for the
 .Li proc  .Li proc
 level is detailed below.  level is detailed below.
Line 1737  The template used for the core dump file
Line 1931  The template used for the core dump file
 .Xr core 5  .Xr core 5
 for details).  for details).
 The base name must either be  The base name must either be
 .Nm core  .Pa core
 or end with the suffix ``.core'' (the super-user may set arbitrary names).  or end with the suffix
 By default it points to KERN_DEFCORENAME.  .Pa .core
   (the super-user may set arbitrary names).
   By default it points to
   .Dv KERN_DEFCORENAME .
 .It Li proc.pid.rlimit ( PROC_PID_LIMIT )  .It Li proc.pid.rlimit ( PROC_PID_LIMIT )
 Return resources limits, as defined for the  Return resources limits, as defined for the
 .Xr getrlimit 2  .Xr getrlimit 2
Line 1747  and
Line 1944  and
 .Xr setrlimit 2  .Xr setrlimit 2
 system calls.  system calls.
 The fourth level name is one of:  The fourth level name is one of:
 .Bl -tag -width PROC_PID_LIMIT_MEMLOCKAA  .Bl -tag -width "123456"
 .It Li proc.pid.rlimit.cputime ( PROC_PID_LIMIT_CPU )  .It Li proc.pid.rlimit.cputime ( PROC_PID_LIMIT_CPU )
 The maximum amount of CPU time (in seconds) to be used by each process.  The maximum amount of CPU time (in seconds) to be used by each process.
 .It Li proc.pid.rlimit.filesize ( PROC_PID_LIMIT_FSIZE )  .It Li proc.pid.rlimit.filesize ( PROC_PID_LIMIT_FSIZE )
Line 1791  options.
Line 1988  options.
 .El  .El
 .Pp  .Pp
 The fifth level name is one of  The fifth level name is one of
 .Li soft ( PROC_PID_LIMIT_TYPE_SOFT ) or  .Li soft ( PROC_PID_LIMIT_TYPE_SOFT )
   or
 .Li hard ( PROC_PID_LIMIT_TYPE_HARD ) ,  .Li hard ( PROC_PID_LIMIT_TYPE_HARD ) ,
 to select respectively the soft or hard limit.  to select respectively the soft or hard limit.
 Both are of type integer.  Both are of type integer.
Line 1841  before it disappears.
Line 2039  before it disappears.
 .Pp  .Pp
 This value is also inherited by the process's children.  This value is also inherited by the process's children.
 .El  .El
 .Sh The user.* subtree ( CTL_USER )  .Ss The user.* subtree ( CTL_USER )
 The string and integer information available for the  The string and integer information available for the
 .Li user  .Li user
 level is detailed below.  level is detailed below.
Line 1909  The maximum length in bytes of a text-pr
Line 2107  The maximum length in bytes of a text-pr
 line.  line.
 .It Li user.posix2_char_term ( USER_POSIX2_CHAR_TERM )  .It Li user.posix2_char_term ( USER_POSIX2_CHAR_TERM )
 Return 1 if the system supports at least one terminal type capable of  Return 1 if the system supports at least one terminal type capable of
 all operations described in POSIX 1003.2, otherwise 0.  all operations described in
   .St -p1003.2 ,
   otherwise\ 0.
 .It Li user.posix2_c_bind ( USER_POSIX2_C_BIND )  .It Li user.posix2_c_bind ( USER_POSIX2_C_BIND )
 Return 1 if the system's C-language development facilities support the  Return 1 if the system's C-language development facilities support the
 C-Language Bindings Option, otherwise 0.  C-Language Bindings Option, otherwise\ 0.
 .It Li user.posix2_c_dev ( USER_POSIX2_C_DEV )  .It Li user.posix2_c_dev ( USER_POSIX2_C_DEV )
 Return 1 if the system supports the C-Language Development Utilities Option,  Return 1 if the system supports the C-Language Development Utilities Option,
 otherwise 0.  otherwise\ 0.
 .It Li user.posix2_fort_dev ( USER_POSIX2_FORT_DEV )  .It Li user.posix2_fort_dev ( USER_POSIX2_FORT_DEV )
 Return 1 if the system supports the FORTRAN Development Utilities Option,  Return 1 if the system supports the FORTRAN Development Utilities Option,
 otherwise 0.  otherwise\ 0.
 .It Li user.posix2_fort_run ( USER_POSIX2_FORT_RUN )  .It Li user.posix2_fort_run ( USER_POSIX2_FORT_RUN )
 Return 1 if the system supports the FORTRAN Runtime Utilities Option,  Return 1 if the system supports the FORTRAN Runtime Utilities Option,
 otherwise 0.  otherwise\ 0.
 .It Li user.posix2_localedef ( USER_POSIX2_LOCALEDEF )  .It Li user.posix2_localedef ( USER_POSIX2_LOCALEDEF )
 Return 1 if the system supports the creation of locales, otherwise 0.  Return 1 if the system supports the creation of locales, otherwise\ 0.
 .It Li user.posix2_sw_dev ( USER_POSIX2_SW_DEV )  .It Li user.posix2_sw_dev ( USER_POSIX2_SW_DEV )
 Return 1 if the system supports the Software Development Utilities Option,  Return 1 if the system supports the Software Development Utilities Option,
 otherwise 0.  otherwise\ 0.
 .It Li user.posix2_upe ( USER_POSIX2_UPE )  .It Li user.posix2_upe ( USER_POSIX2_UPE )
 Return 1 if the system supports the User Portability Utilities Option,  Return 1 if the system supports the User Portability Utilities Option,
 otherwise 0.  otherwise\ 0.
 .It Li user.posix2_version ( USER_POSIX2_VERSION )  .It Li user.posix2_version ( USER_POSIX2_VERSION )
 The version of POSIX 1003.2 with which the system attempts to comply.  The version of
   .St -p1003.2
   with which the system attempts to comply.
 .It Li user.re_dup_max ( USER_RE_DUP_MAX )  .It Li user.re_dup_max ( USER_RE_DUP_MAX )
 The maximum number of repeated occurrences of a regular expression  The maximum number of repeated occurrences of a regular expression
 permitted when using interval notation.  permitted when using interval notation.
Line 1942  at any one time.
Line 2144  at any one time.
 The minimum maximum number of types supported for the name of a  The minimum maximum number of types supported for the name of a
 timezone.  timezone.
 .El  .El
 .Sh The vm.* subtree ( CTL_VM )  .Ss The vm.* subtree ( CTL_VM )
 The string and integer information available for the  The string and integer information available for the
 .Li vm  .Li vm
 level is detailed below.  level is detailed below.
Line 2002  cached file data.
Line 2204  cached file data.
 .It Li vm.loadavg ( VM_LOADAVG )  .It Li vm.loadavg ( VM_LOADAVG )
 Return the load average history.  Return the load average history.
 The returned data consists of a  The returned data consists of a
 .Va struct loadavg .  .Vt struct loadavg .
 .It Li vm.maxslp ( VM_MAXSLP )  .It Li vm.maxslp ( VM_MAXSLP )
 The value of the maxslp kernel global variable.  The value of the maxslp kernel global variable.
 .It Li vm.vmmeter ( VM_METER )  .It Li vm.vmmeter ( VM_METER )
 Return system wide virtual memory statistics.  Return system wide virtual memory statistics.
 The returned data consists of a  The returned data consists of a
 .Va struct vmtotal .  .Vt struct vmtotal .
 .It vm.user_va0_disable  .It vm.user_va0_disable
 A flag which controls whether user processes can map virtual address 0.  A flag which controls whether user processes can map virtual address\ 0.
 .It Li vm.uspace ( VM_USPACE )  .It Li vm.uspace ( VM_USPACE )
 The number of bytes allocated for each kernel stack.  The number of bytes allocated for each kernel stack.
 .It Li vm.uvmexp ( VM_UVMEXP )  .It Li vm.uvmexp ( VM_UVMEXP )
 Return system wide virtual memory statistics.  Return system wide virtual memory statistics.
 The returned data consists of a  The returned data consists of a
 .Va struct uvmexp .  .Vt struct uvmexp .
 .It Li vm.uvmexp2 ( VM_UVMEXP2 )  .It Li vm.uvmexp2 ( VM_UVMEXP2 )
 Return system wide virtual memory statistics.  Return system wide virtual memory statistics.
 The returned data consists of a  The returned data consists of a
 .Va struct uvmexp_sysctl .  .Vt struct uvmexp_sysctl .
 .\" XXX vm.idlezero  .\" XXX vm.idlezero
 .El  .El
 .Sh The ddb.* subtree ( CTL_DDB )  .Ss The ddb.* subtree ( CTL_DDB )
 The information available for the  The information available for the
 .Li ddb  .Li ddb
 level is detailed below.  level is detailed below.
Line 2055  Number of display lines.
Line 2257  Number of display lines.
 .It Li ddb.tabstops ( DDBCTL_TABSTOPS )  .It Li ddb.tabstops ( DDBCTL_TABSTOPS )
 Tab width.  Tab width.
 .It Li ddb.onpanic ( DDBCTL_ONPANIC )  .It Li ddb.onpanic ( DDBCTL_ONPANIC )
 If non-zero, DDB will be entered if the kernel panics.  If greater than zero, DDB will be entered if the kernel panics.
   A value of 1 causes the system to enter DDB on panic, while a value of 2
   causes the kernel to attempt to print out a stack trace before entering DDB.
   A value of 0 causes the kernel to attempt to print a stack trace, then
   reboot, while a value of \-1 means neither a stack trace will be printed
   nor DDB entered.
 .It Li ddb.fromconsole ( DDBCTL_FROMCONSOLE )  .It Li ddb.fromconsole ( DDBCTL_FROMCONSOLE )
 If not zero, DDB may be entered by sending a break on a serial  If not zero, DDB may be entered by sending a break on a serial
 console or by a special key sequence on a graphics console.  console or by a special key sequence on a graphics console.
Line 2075  nodes are also available as variables fr
Line 2282  nodes are also available as variables fr
 See  See
 .Xr ddb 4  .Xr ddb 4
 for more details.  for more details.
 .Sh The security.* subtree ( CTL_SECURITY )  .Ss The security.* subtree ( CTL_SECURITY )
 The  The
 .Li security  .Li security
 level contains various security-related settings for  level contains various security-related settings for
 the system.  the system.
   The available second level names are:
   .Bl -column "Second level name" "integer" "Changeable" -offset indent
   .It Sy Second level name        Type    Changeable
   .It Li security.curtain integer yes
   .It Li security.models  node    not applicable
   .It Li security.pax     node    not applicable
   .El
   .Pp
 Available settings are detailed below.  Available settings are detailed below.
 .Pp  .Pp
 .Bl -tag -width "123456"  .Bl -tag -width "123456"
 .It Li security.curtain  .It Li security.curtain
 If non-zero, will filter return objects according to the user-id  If non-zero, will filter return objects according to the user
   .Tn ID
 requesting information about them, preventing from users any  requesting information about them, preventing from users any
 access to objects they don't own.  access to objects they do not own.
 .Pp  .Pp
 At the moment, it affects  At the moment, it affects
 .Xr ps 1 ,  .Xr ps 1 ,
Line 2116  Settings for PaX -- exploit mitigation f
Line 2332  Settings for PaX -- exploit mitigation f
 For more information on any of the PaX features, please see  For more information on any of the PaX features, please see
 .Xr paxctl 8  .Xr paxctl 8
 and  and
 .Xr security 8 .  .Xr security 7 .
   The available third and fourth level names are:
   .Bl -column "security.pax.segvguard.suspend_timeout" "integer" "Changeable" \
   -offset 2n
   .It Sy Third and fourth level names Ta Sy Type Ta Sy Changeable
   .It Li security.pax.aslr.enabled        integer yes
   .\".It Li security.pax.aslr.exec_len    integer yes
   .It Li security.pax.aslr.global integer yes
   .\".It Li security.pax.aslr.mmap_len    integer yes
   .\".It Li security.pax.aslr.stack_len   integer yes
   .It Li security.pax.mprotect.enabled    integer yes
   .It Li security.pax.mprotect.global     integer yes
   .It Li security.pax.segvguard.enabled   integer yes
   .It Li security.pax.segvguard.expiry_timeout    integer yes
   .It Li security.pax.segvguard.global    integer yes
   .It Li security.pax.segvguard.max_crashes       integer yes
   .It Li security.pax.segvguard.suspend_timeout   integer yes
   .El
 .Pp  .Pp
 .Bl -tag -width "123456"  .Bl -tag -width "123456"
 .It Li security.pax.aslr.enable  .It Li security.pax.aslr.enabled
 Enable PaX ASLR (Address Space Layout Randomization).  Enable PaX ASLR (Address Space Layout Randomization).
 .Pp  .Pp
 The value of this  The value of this
 knob must be non-zero for PaX ASLR to be enabled, even if a program is set to  knob must be non-zero for PaX ASLR to be enabled, even if a program is set to
 explicit enable.  explicit enable.
   .\".It Li security.pax.aslr.exec_len
   .\" XXX: Undocumented.
 .It Li security.pax.aslr.global  .It Li security.pax.aslr.global
 Specifies the default global policy for programs without an  Specifies the default global policy for programs without an
 explicit enable/disable flag.  explicit enable/disable flag.
 .Pp  .Pp
 When non-zero, all programs will get PaX ASLR, except those exempted with  When non-zero, all programs will get PaX ASLR, except those exempted with
 .Xr paxctl 8  .  .Xr paxctl 8 .
 Otherwise, all programs will not get PaX ASLR, except those specifically  Otherwise, all programs will not get PaX ASLR, except those specifically
 marked as such with  marked as such with
 .Xr paxctl 8 .  .Xr paxctl 8 .
 .It Li security.pax.mprotect.enable  .\".It Li security.pax.aslr.mmap_len
   .\" XXX: Undocumented.
   .\" .It Li security.pax.aslr.stack_len
   .\" XXX: Undocumented.
   .It Li security.pax.mprotect.enabled
 Enable PaX MPROTECT restrictions.  Enable PaX MPROTECT restrictions.
 .Pp  .Pp
 These are  These are
Line 2149  explicit enable/disable flag.
Line 2388  explicit enable/disable flag.
 .Pp  .Pp
 When non-zero, all programs will get the PaX MPROTECT restrictions,  When non-zero, all programs will get the PaX MPROTECT restrictions,
 except those exempted with  except those exempted with
 .Xr paxctl 8  .  .Xr paxctl 8 .
 Otherwise, all programs will not get the PaX MPROTECT restrictions,  Otherwise, all programs will not get the PaX MPROTECT restrictions,
 except those specifically marked as such with  except those specifically marked as such with
 .Xr paxctl 8 .  .Xr paxctl 8 .
 .It Li security.pax.segvguard.enable  .It Li security.pax.segvguard.enabled
 Enable PaX Segvguard.  Enable PaX Segvguard.
 .Pp  .Pp
 PaX Segvguard can detect and prevent certain exploitation attempts, where  PaX Segvguard can detect and prevent certain exploitation attempts, where
Line 2165  The
Line 2404  The
 .Nx  .Nx
 interface and implementation of the Segvguard is still experimental, and may  interface and implementation of the Segvguard is still experimental, and may
 change in future releases.  change in future releases.
   .It Li security.pax.segvguard.expiry_timeout
   If the max number was not reached within this timeout (in seconds), the entry
   will expire.
 .It Li security.pax.segvguard.global  .It Li security.pax.segvguard.global
 Specifies the default global policy for programs without an  Specifies the default global policy for programs without an
 explicit enable/disable flag.  explicit enable/disable flag.
 .Pp  .Pp
 When non-zero, all programs will get the PaX Segvguard,  When non-zero, all programs will get the PaX Segvguard,
 except those exempted with  except those exempted with
 .Xr paxctl 8  .  .Xr paxctl 8 .
 Otherwise, no program will get the PaX Segvguard restrictions,  Otherwise, no program will get the PaX Segvguard restrictions,
 except those specifically marked as such with  except those specifically marked as such with
 .Xr paxctl 8 .  .Xr paxctl 8 .
 .It Li security.pax.segvguard.expiry_timeout  .It Li security.pax.segvguard.max_crashes
 If the max number was not reached within this timeout (in seconds), the entry  The maximum number of segfaults a program can receive before suspension.
 will expire.  
 .It Li security.pax.segvguard.suspend_timeout  .It Li security.pax.segvguard.suspend_timeout
 Number of seconds to suspend a user from running a faulting program when the  Number of seconds to suspend a user from running a faulting program when the
 limit was exceeded.  limit was exceeded.
 .It Li security.pax.segvguard.max_crashes  
 Max number of segfaults a program can receive before suspension.  
 .El  .El
 .El  .El
 .Sh The vendor.* subtree ( CTL_VENDOR )  .Ss The vendor.* subtree ( CTL_VENDOR )
 The  The
 .Li vendor  .Li vendor
 toplevel name is reserved to be used by vendors who wish to  toplevel name is reserved to be used by vendors who wish to
Line 2196  Intended use is to store values under
Line 2435  Intended use is to store values under
 .Xr sysctl 3 ,  .Xr sysctl 3 ,
 .Xr ipsec 4 ,  .Xr ipsec 4 ,
 .Xr tcp 4 ,  .Xr tcp 4 ,
 .Xr security 8 ,  .Xr security 7 ,
 .Xr sysctl 8  .Xr sysctl 8
 .Sh HISTORY  .Sh HISTORY
 The  The

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Removed from v.1.41  
changed lines
  Added in v.1.71

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