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Revision 1.7, Thu Dec 16 17:42:28 2010 UTC (9 years, 11 months ago) by wiz
Branch: MAIN
CVS Tags: yamt-pagecache-tag8, yamt-pagecache-base9, yamt-pagecache-base8, yamt-pagecache-base7, yamt-pagecache-base6, yamt-pagecache-base5, yamt-pagecache-base4, yamt-pagecache-base3, yamt-pagecache-base2, yamt-pagecache-base, yamt-pagecache, tls-maxphys-base, tls-maxphys, tls-earlyentropy-base, tls-earlyentropy, riastradh-xf86-video-intel-2-7-1-pre-2-21-15, riastradh-drm2-base3, riastradh-drm2-base2, riastradh-drm2-base1, riastradh-drm2-base, riastradh-drm2, prg-localcount2-base3, prg-localcount2-base2, prg-localcount2-base1, prg-localcount2-base, prg-localcount2, phil-wifi-base, phil-wifi-20200421, phil-wifi-20200411, phil-wifi-20200406, phil-wifi-20191119, phil-wifi-20190609, phil-wifi, pgoyette-localcount-base, pgoyette-localcount-20170426, pgoyette-localcount-20170320, pgoyette-localcount-20170107, pgoyette-localcount-20161104, pgoyette-localcount-20160806, pgoyette-localcount-20160726, pgoyette-localcount, pgoyette-compat-merge-20190127, pgoyette-compat-base, pgoyette-compat-20190127, pgoyette-compat-20190118, pgoyette-compat-1226, pgoyette-compat-1126, pgoyette-compat-1020, pgoyette-compat-0930, pgoyette-compat-0906, pgoyette-compat-0728, pgoyette-compat-0625, pgoyette-compat-0521, pgoyette-compat-0502, pgoyette-compat-0422, pgoyette-compat-0415, pgoyette-compat-0407, pgoyette-compat-0330, pgoyette-compat-0322, pgoyette-compat-0315, pgoyette-compat, perseant-stdc-iso10646-base, perseant-stdc-iso10646, netbsd-9-base, netbsd-9-1-RELEASE, netbsd-9-0-RELEASE, netbsd-9-0-RC2, netbsd-9-0-RC1, netbsd-9, netbsd-8-base, netbsd-8-2-RELEASE, netbsd-8-1-RELEASE, netbsd-8-1-RC1, netbsd-8-0-RELEASE, netbsd-8-0-RC2, netbsd-8-0-RC1, netbsd-8, netbsd-7-nhusb-base-20170116, netbsd-7-nhusb-base, netbsd-7-nhusb, netbsd-7-base, netbsd-7-2-RELEASE, netbsd-7-1-RELEASE, netbsd-7-1-RC2, netbsd-7-1-RC1, netbsd-7-1-2-RELEASE, netbsd-7-1-1-RELEASE, netbsd-7-1, netbsd-7-0-RELEASE, netbsd-7-0-RC3, netbsd-7-0-RC2, netbsd-7-0-RC1, netbsd-7-0-2-RELEASE, netbsd-7-0-1-RELEASE, netbsd-7-0, netbsd-7, netbsd-6-base, netbsd-6-1-RELEASE, netbsd-6-1-RC4, netbsd-6-1-RC3, netbsd-6-1-RC2, netbsd-6-1-RC1, netbsd-6-1-5-RELEASE, netbsd-6-1-4-RELEASE, netbsd-6-1-3-RELEASE, netbsd-6-1-2-RELEASE, netbsd-6-1-1-RELEASE, netbsd-6-1, netbsd-6-0-RELEASE, netbsd-6-0-RC2, netbsd-6-0-RC1, netbsd-6-0-6-RELEASE, netbsd-6-0-5-RELEASE, netbsd-6-0-4-RELEASE, netbsd-6-0-3-RELEASE, netbsd-6-0-2-RELEASE, netbsd-6-0-1-RELEASE, netbsd-6-0, netbsd-6, matt-nb8-mediatek-base, matt-nb8-mediatek, matt-nb6-plus-nbase, matt-nb6-plus-base, matt-nb6-plus, matt-mips64-premerge-20101231, localcount-20160914, is-mlppp-base, is-mlppp, cherry-xenmp-base, cherry-xenmp, bouyer-socketcan-base1, bouyer-socketcan-base, bouyer-socketcan, bouyer-quota2-nbase, bouyer-quota2-base, bouyer-quota2, agc-symver-base, agc-symver, HEAD
Changes since 1.6: +2 -2 lines

Observe the following spelling:
- wide character (noun)
- wide-character (adjective)

Inspired by jmc@OpenBSD.

.\" $NetBSD: title.cdrom,v 1.7 2010/12/16 17:42:28 wiz Exp $
.\" Copyright (c) 1994 Regents of the University of California.
.\" All rights reserved.
.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
.\" are met:
.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
.\"    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
.\" 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
.\"    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
.\"    without specific prior written permission.
.\"	@(#)title.cdrom	8.3 (Berkeley) 8/8/94
.nr LL 6.5i
.EH ''''
.OH ''''
.EF ''''
.OF ''''
.sp |1.5i
.nr PS 36
.nr VS 39
.ft B
.ce 2
CD-ROM Companion
.sp |0.83i
.nr PS 14
.nr VS 16.5
Now in its twentieth year, the USENIX Association,
the UNIX and Advanced Computing Systems professional and technical organization,
is a not-for-profit membership association of individuals and
institutions with an interest in UNIX and UNIX-like systems,
and, by extension, C++, X windows, and other advanced tools and technologies.
USENIX and its members are dedicated to:
.IP \(bu
fostering innovation and communicating research and technological developments,
.IP \(bu
sharing ideas and experience relevant to UNIX,
UNIX-related, and advanced computing systems, and
.IP \(bu
providing a neutral forum for the exercise of critical
thought and airing of technical issues.
USENIX publishes a journal (\fBComputing Systems\fP),
a newsletter (\fI;login:\fP),
Proceedings from its frequent Conferences and Symposia,
and a Book Series.
SAGE, The Systems Administrators Guild, a Special Technical Group with
the USENIX Association, is dedicated to the advancement of system
administration as a profession.
SAGE brings together systems managers and administrators to:
.IP \(bu
propagate knowledge of good professional practice,
.IP \(bu
recruit talented individuals to the profession,
.IP \(bu
recognize individuals who attain professional excellence,
.IP \(bu
foster technical development and share solutions to technical
problems, and
.IP \(bu
communicate in an organized voice with users, management, and vendors
on system administration topics.
.sp |1i
.nr PS 36
.nr VS 39
.ft B
.ce 3
CD-ROM Companion
.sp 1.5i
.nr PS 24
.nr VS 26
.ft B
.ce 1
Berkeley Software Distribution
.nr PS 18
.nr VS 26
.ft B
.ce 1
April, 1994
.sp 1i
.nr PS 18
.nr VS 20
.ft B
.ce 2
Computer Systems Research Group
University of California at Berkeley
.sp 2.75i
.nr PS 12
.nr VS 14.5
.ft B
.ce 4
A USENIX Association Book
O'Reilly & Associates, Inc.
103 Morris Street, Suite A
Sebastopol, CA 94572
.hy 0
.nr PS 9
.nr VS 11
First Printing, 1994
Second Printing, 1995
.sp 1
Copyright 1979, 1980, 1983, 1986, 1993, 1994
The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
.sp 1
Redistribution and use of this manual and its accompanying CD-ROM
in source and binary forms,
with or without modification, are permitted provided that the
following conditions are met:
.IP 1)
Redistributions of this manual must retain the copyright
notices on this page, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
.IP 2)
Software or documentation that incorporates part of this manual must
reproduce the copyright notices on this page, this list of conditions and
the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials
provided with the distribution.
.IP 3)
All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
must display the following acknowledgement:
``This product includes software developed by the University of
California, Berkeley and its contributors.''
.IP 4)
Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
without specific prior written permission.
.sp 1.5
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and the American
National Standards Committee X3, on Information Processing Systems have
given us permission to reprint portions of their documentation.
.sp 1
In the following statement, the phrase ``this text'' refers to portions
of the system documentation.
``Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in
electronic form in 4.4BSD from IEEE Std 1003.1-1988, IEEE
Standard Portable Operating System Interface for Computer Environments
(POSIX), copyright 1988 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers, Inc.  In the event of any discrepancy between these versions
and the original IEEE Standard, the original IEEE Standard is the referee
.sp 1
In the following statement, the phrase ``This material'' refers to portions
of the system documentation.
``This material is reproduced with permission from American National
Standards Committee X3, on Information Processing Systems.  Computer and
Business Equipment Manufacturers Association (CBEMA), 311 First St., NW,
Suite 500, Washington, DC 20001-2178.  The developmental work of
Programming Language C was completed by the X3J11 Technical Committee.''
.sp 1.5
The views and conclusions contained in this manual are those of the
authors and should not be interpreted as representing official policies,
either expressed or implied, of the Regents of the University of California.
.sp 1.5
The 4.4BSD Daemon used on the cover is
copyright 1994 by Marshall Kirk McKusick
and is reproduced with permission.
This book was printed and bound in the United States of America.
Distributed by O'Reilly & Associates, Inc.
.sp 1
.IP "[recycle logo]" 16
This book is printed on acid-free paper with 50% recycled content,
10-13% post-consumer waste. O'Reilly & Associates is committed to
using paper with the highest recycled content available consistent
with high quality.
.sp 1
ISBN: 1-56592-081-3 (Domestic)
ISBN: 1-56592-092-9 (International)
.sp |1.5i
.nr PS 24
.nr VS 26
.ce 1
.sp 1
.nr PS 14
.nr VS 17
l r.
The Computer Systems Research Group, 1979\-1993	7
Overview	11
CD-ROM Source Hierarchy	15
Introduction	21
List of Manual Pages	23
Permuted Index	41
.if o .bp
.\" The contributor list below is derived from the file that resides in
.\" vangogh:~admin/contrib/contrib:
.\"	@(#)contrib	5.55 (Berkeley) 4/18/94
.\" This file should not be editted, rather the original contrib file
.\" should be used to recrete this one following the directions at its top.
.\" Contrib starts here and continues to the comment `END OF CONTRIB'.
.sp |1i
.ps 24
.vs 27
.ce 2
\fBThe Computer Systems Research Group
1979 \- 1993\fP
.sp 1.5
.nr PS 11
.nr VS 12
.in +0.5i
\fBCSRG Technical Staff\fP
.sp 1
.in +1i
Jim Bloom
Keith Bostic
Ralph Campbell
Kevin Dunlap
William N. Joy
Michael J. Karels
Samuel J. Leffler
Marshall Kirk McKusick
Miriam Amos Nihart
Keith Sklower
Marc Teitelbaum
Michael Toy
.in -1i
.sp 3
\fBCSRG Administration and Support\fP
.sp 1
.in +1i
Robert Fabry
Domenico Ferrari
Susan L. Graham
Bob Henry
Anne Hughes
Bob Kridle
David Mosher
Pauline Schwartz
Mark Seiden
Jean Wood
.in -1i
.sp 3
\fBOrganizations that funded the CSRG with grants,
gifts, personnel, and/or hardware.\fP
.sp 1
.in +1i
Center for Advanced Aviation System Development, The MITRE Corp.
Compaq Computer Corporation
Cray Research Inc.
Department of Defense Advance Research Projects Agency (DARPA)
Digital Equipment Corporation
The Hewlett-Packard Company
NASA Ames Research Center
The National Science Foundation
The Open Software Foundation
UUNET Technologies Inc.
.in -1.5i
.OH '\s10CSRG, 1979 \- 1993''- % -\s0'
.EH '\s10- % -''CSRG, 1979 \- 1993\s0'
.nr PS 10
.nr VS 11
\fBThe following are people and organizations that provided a
large subsystem for the BSD releases.\fP
l l.
ANSI C library	Chris Torek
ANSI C prototypes	Donn Seeley and John Kohl
Autoconfiguration	Robert Elz
C library documentation	American National Standards Committee X3
CCI 6/32 support	Computer Consoles Inc.
DEC 3000/5000 support	Ralph Campbell
Disklabels	Symmetric Computer Systems
Documentation	Cynthia Livingston and The USENIX Association
Franz Lisp	Richard Fateman, John Foderaro, Keith Sklower, Kevin Layer
GCC, GDB	The Free Software Foundation
Groff	James Clark (The FSF)
HP300 support	Jeff Forys, Mike Hibler, Jay Lepreau, Donn Seeley and the Systems
	Programming Group; University of Utah Computer Science Department
ISODE	Marshall Rose
Ingres	Mike Stonebraker, Gene Wong, and the Berkeley Ingres Research Group
Intel 386/486 support	Bill Jolitz and TeleMuse
Job control	Jim Kulp
Kerberos	Project Athena and MIT
Kernel support	Bill Shannon and Sun Microsystems Inc.
LFS	Margo Seltzer, Mendel Rosenblum, Carl Staelin
MIPS support	Trent Hein
Math library	K.C. Ng, Zhishun Alex Liu, S. McDonald, P. Tang and W. Kahan
NFS	Rick Macklem
NFS automounter	Jan-Simon Pendry
Network device drivers	Micom-Interlan and Excelan
Omron Luna support	Akito Fujita and Shigeto Mochida
Quotas	Robert Elz
RPC support	Sun Microsystems Inc.
Shared library support	Rob Gingell and Sun Microsystems Inc.
Sony News 3400 support	Kazumasa Utashiro
Sparc I/II support	Computer Systems Engineering Group, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory
Stackable file systems	John Heidemann
Stdio	Chris Torek
System documentation	The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
TCP/IP	Rob Gurwitz and Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc.
Timezone support	Arthur David Olson
Transport/Network OSI layers	IBM Corporation and the University of Wisconsin
Kernel XNS assistance	William Nesheim, J. Q. Johnson, Chris Torek, and James O'Toole
User level XNS	Cornell University
VAX 3000 support	Mt. Xinu and Tom Ferrin
VAX BI support	Chris Torek
VAX device support	Digital Equipment Corporation and Helge Skrivervik
Versatec printer/plotter support	University of Toronto
Virtual memory implementation	Avadis Tevanian, Jr., Michael Wayne Young,
	and the Carnegie-Mellon University Mach project
X25 	University of British Columbia
\fBThe following are people and organizations that provided a specific
item, program, library routine or program maintenance for the BSD system.
(Their contribution may not be part of the final 4.4BSD release.)\fP
.nr PS 9
.nr VS 10
.ps 9
.vs 10
l l.
386 device drivers	Carnegie-Mellon University Mach project
386 device drivers	Don Ahn, Sean Fagan and Tim Tucker
HCX device drivers	Harris Corporation
Kernel enhancements	Robert Elz, Peter Ivanov, Ian Johnstone, Piers Lauder,
	John Lions, Tim Long, Chris Maltby, Greg Rose and John Wainwright
ISO-9660 filesystem	Pace Willisson, Atsushi Murai
.sp -0.4
l l l l.
adventure(6)	Don Woods	log(3)	Peter McIlroy
adventure(6)	Jim Gillogly	look(1)	David Hitz
adventure(6)	Will Crowther	ls(1)	Elan Amir
apply(1)	Rob Pike	ls(1)	Michael Fischbein
apply(1)	Jan-Simon Pendry	lsearch(3)	Roger L. Snyder
ar(1)	Hugh A. Smith	m4(1)	Ozan Yigit
arithmetic(6)	Eamonn McManus	mail(1)	Kurt Schoens
arp(8)	Sun Microsystems Inc.	make(1)	Adam de Boor
at(1)	Steve Wall	me(7)	Eric Allman
atc(6)	Ed James	mergesort(3)	Peter McIlroy
awk(1)	Arnold Robbins	mh(1)	Marshall Rose
awk(1)	David Trueman	mh(1)	The Rand Corporation
backgammon(6)	Alan Char	mille(6)	Ken Arnold
banner(1)	Mark Horton	mknod(8)	Kevin Fall
battlestar(6)	David Riggle	monop(6)	Ken Arnold
bcd(6)	Steve Hayman	more(1)	Eric Shienbrood
bdes(1)	Matt Bishop	more(1)	Mark Nudelman
berknet(1)	Eric Schmidt	mountd(8)	Herb Hasler
bib(1)	Dain Samples	mprof(1)	Ben Zorn
bib(1)	Gary M. Levin	msgs(1)	David Wasley
bib(1)	Timothy A. Budd	multicast	Stephen Deering
bitstring(3)	Paul Vixie	mv(1)	Ken Smith
boggle(6)	Barry Brachman	named/bind(8)	Douglas Terry
bpf(4)	Steven McCanne	named/bind(8)	Kevin Dunlap
btree(3)	Mike Olson	news(1)	Rick Adams (and a cast of thousands)
byte-range locking	Scooter Morris	nm(1)	Hans Huebner
caesar(6)	John Eldridge	pascal(1)	Kirk McKusick
caesar(6)	Stan King	pascal(1)	Peter Kessler
cal(1)	Kim Letkeman	paste(1)	Adam S. Moskowitz
cat(1)	Kevin Fall	patch(1)	Larry Wall
chess(6)	Stuart Cracraft (The FSF)	pax(1)	Keith Muller
ching(6)	Guy Harris	phantasia(6)	C. Robertson
cksum(1)	James W. Williams	phantasia(6)	Edward A. Estes
clri(8)	Rich $alz	ping(8)	Mike Muuss
col(1)	Michael Rendell	pom(6)	Keith E. Brandt
comm(1)	Case Larsen	pr(1)	Keith Muller
compact(1)	Colin L. McMaster	primes(6)	Landon Curt Noll
compress(1)	James A. Woods	qsort(3)	Doug McIlroy
compress(1)	Joseph Orost	qsort(3)	Earl Cohen
compress(1)	Spencer Thomas	qsort(3)	Jon Bentley
courier(1)	Eric Cooper	quad(3)	Chris Torek
cp(1)	David Hitz	quiz(6)	Jim R. Oldroyd
cpio(1)	AT&T	quiz(6)	Keith Gabryelski
crypt(3)	Tom Truscott	radixsort(3)	Dan Bernstein
csh(1)	Christos Zoulas	radixsort(3)	Peter McIlroy
csh(1)	Len Shar	rain(6)	Eric P. Scott
curses(3)	Elan Amir	ranlib(1)	Hugh A. Smith
curses(3)	Ken Arnold	rcs(1)	Walter F. Tichy
cut(1)	Adam S. Moskowitz	rdist(1)	Michael Cooper
cut(1)	Marciano Pitargue	regex(3)	Henry Spencer
dbx(1)	Mark Linton	robots(6)	Ken Arnold
dd(1)	Keith Muller	rogue(6)	Timothy C. Stoehr
dd(1)	Lance Visser	rs(1)	John Kunze
des(1)	Jim Gillogly	sail(6)	David Riggle
des(1)	Phil Karn	sail(6)	Edward Wang
des(1)	Richard Outerbridge	sccs(1)	Eric Allman
dipress(1)	Xerox Corporation	scsiformat(1)	Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory
disklabel(8)	Symmetric Computer Systems	sdb(1)	Howard Katseff
du(1)	Chris Newcomb	sed(1)	Diomidis Spinellis
dungeon(6)	R.M. Supnik	sendmail(8)	Eric Allman
ed(1)	Rodney Ruddock	setmode(3)	Dave Borman
emacs(1)	Richard Stallman	sh(1)	Kenneth Almquist
erf(3)	Peter McIlroy, K.C. Ng	slattach(8)	Rick Adams
error(1)	Robert R. Henry	slip(8)	Rick Adams
ex(1)	Mark Horton	spms(1)	Peter J. Nicklin
factor(6)	Landon Curt Noll	strtod(3)	David M. Gay
file(1)	Ian Darwin	swab(3)	Jeffrey Mogul
find(1)	Cimarron Taylor	sysconf(3)	Sean Eric Fagan
finger(1)	Tony Nardo	sysline(1)	J.K. Foderaro
fish(6)	Muffy Barkocy	syslog(3)	Eric Allman
fmt(1)	Kurt Schoens	systat(1)	Bill Reeves
fnmatch(3)	Guido van Rossum	systat(1)	Robert Elz
fold(1)	Kevin Ruddy	tail(1)	Edward Sze-Tyan Wang
fortune(6)	Ken Arnold	talk(1)	Clem Cole
fpr(1)	Robert Corbett	talk(1)	Kipp Hickman
fsdb(8)	Computer Consoles Inc.	talk(1)	Peter Moore
fsplit(1)	Asa Romberger	telnet(1)	Dave Borman
fsplit(1)	Jerry Berkman	telnet(1)	Paul Borman
gcc/groff integration	UUNET Technologies, Inc.	termcap(5)	John A. Kunze
gcore(1)	Eric Cooper	termcap(5)	Mark Horton
getcap(3)	Casey Leedom	test(1)	Kenneth Almquist
glob(3)	Guido van Rossum	tetris(6)	Chris Torek
gprof(1)	Peter Kessler	tetris(6)	Darren F. Provine
gprof(1)	Robert R. Henry	timed(8)	Riccardo Gusella
hack(6)	Andries Brouwer (and a cast of thousands)	timed(8)	Stefano Zatti
hangman(6)	Ken Arnold	tn3270(1)	Gregory Minshall
hash(3)	Margo Seltzer	tr(1)	Igor Belchinskiy
heapsort(3)	Elmer Yglesias	traceroute(8)	Van Jacobson
heapsort(3)	Kevin Lew	trek(6)	Eric Allman
heapsort(3)	Ronnie Kon	tset(1)	Eric Allman
hunt(6)	Conrad Huang	tsort(1)	Michael Rendell
hunt(6)	Greg Couch	unifdef(1)	Dave Yost
icon(1)	Bill Mitchell	uniq(1)	Case Larsen
icon(1)	Ralph Griswold	uucpd(8)	Rick Adams
indent(1)	David Willcox	uudecode(1)	Mark Horton
indent(1)	Eric Schmidt	uuencode(1)	Mark Horton
indent(1)	James Gosling	uuq(1)	Lou Salkind
indent(1)	Sun Microsystems	uuq(1)	Rick Adams
init(1)	Donn Seeley	uusnap(8)	Randy King
j0(3)	Sun Microsystems, Inc.	uusnap(8)	Rick Adams
j1(3)	Sun Microsystems, Inc.	vacation(1)	Eric Allman
jn(3)	Sun Microsystems, Inc.	vi(1)	Steve Kirkendall
join(1)	David Goodenough	which(1)	Peter Kessler
join(1)	Michiro Hikida	who(1)	Michael Fischbein
join(1)	Steve Hayman	window(1)	Edward Wang
jot(1)	John Kunze	worm(6)	Michael Toy
jove(1)	Jonathon Payne	worms(6)	Eric P. Scott
kermit(1)	Columbia University	write(1)	Craig Leres
kvm(3)	Peter Shipley	write(1)	Jef Poskanzer
kvm(3)	Steven McCanne	wump(6)	Dave Taylor
lam(1)	John Kunze	X25/Ethernet	Univ. of Erlangen-Nuremberg
larn(6)	Noah Morgan	X25/LLC2	Dirk Husemann
lastcomm(1)	Len Edmondson	xargs(1)	John B. Roll Jr.
lex(1)	Vern Paxson	xneko(6)	Masayuki Koba
libm(3)	Peter McIlroy	XNSrouted(1)	Bill Nesheim
libm(3)	UUNET Technologies, Inc.	xroach(6)	J.T. Anderson
locate(1)	James A. Woods	yacc(1)	Robert Paul Corbett
lock(1)	Bob Toxen
.\" END OF CONTRIB: Contrib ends here.
.if o .bp
.EH ''''
.OH ''''
.OH '\s10Overview''- % -\s0'
.EH '\s10- % -''Overview\s0'
.nr PS 10
.nr VS 12
.sp |1.5i
delim $$
.sp 3
.NH 1
4.4BSD-Lite Description
This cd-rom contains the source code,
manual pages and other documentation,
and research papers from the first revision of the University of California,
Berkeley's 4.4BSD-Lite distribution.
The 4.4BSD-Lite software is copyrighted by the
University of California and others,
but may be freely redistributed and used in products without fee,
as long as the due credit,
copyright notice,
and other requirements described in the file /COPYRIGHT are met.
The distribution includes both software developed at Berkeley and much
software contributed by authors outside Berkeley.
Please see the previous section of this document
for a list of the many contributors to the system.
The layout of the 4.4BSD-Lite distribution is described
in the \fIhier\fR(7) manual page, which follows.
A table of contents and permuted index for the 4.4BSD-Lite manual pages
follow as well.
The cd-rom is in ISO-9660 format,
with Rock Ridge Extensions.
For example, to mount on a 4.4BSD-Lite system
on which the CD-ROM drive is connected as SCSI unit 1,
ensure that the directory /cdrom exists,
then enter ``mount -r -t cd9660 /dev/sd1a /cdrom''.
To mount on a Sun,
ensure that the directory /cdrom exists,
then enter ``mount -r -t hsts /dev/sr0 /cdrom''.
The 4.4BSD-Lite distribution is a source distribution only,
and does not contain program binaries for any architecture.
It is not possible to compile or run this software without a
pre-existing system that is already installed and running.
In addition,
the distribution does not include sources for the complete 4.4BSD system.
It includes source code and manual pages for the C library,
approximately 95% of the utilities distributed in 4.4BSD,
and all but a few files from the kernel.
The system is almost entirely ANSI C and IEEE POSIX 1003.1 and 1003.2
standards compliant.
.NH 1
4.4BSD-Lite Features
The major new facilities available in the 4.4BSD-Lite release are
a new virtual memory system,
the addition of ISO/OSI networking support,
a new virtual filesystem interface supporting filesystem stacking,
a freely redistributable implementation of NFS,
a log-structured filesystem,
enhancement of the local filesystems to support
files and filesystems that are up to $2 sup 63$ bytes in size,
enhanced security and system management support,
and the conversion to and addition of the IEEE Std1003.1 (``POSIX'')
facilities and many of the IEEE Std1003.2 facilities.
In addition, many new utilities and additions have been made to the C-library.
The kernel sources have been reorganized to collect all machine-dependent
files for each architecture under one directory,
and most of the machine-independent code is now free of code
conditional on specific machines.
The user structure and process structure have been reorganized
to eliminate the statically-mapped user structure and to make most
of the process resources shareable by multiple processes.
The system and include files have been converted to be compatible
with ANSI C, including function prototypes for most of the exported
There are numerous other changes throughout the system.
.NH 1
Changes in the Kernel
This release includes several important structural kernel changes.
The kernel uses a new internal system call convention;
the use of global (``u-dot'') variables for parameters and error returns
has been eliminated,
and interrupted system calls no longer abort using non-local goto's (longjmp's).
A new sleep interface separates signal handling from scheduling priority,
returning characteristic errors to abort or restart the current system call.
This sleep call also passes a string describing the process state,
which is used by the ps(1) program.
The old sleep interface can be used only for non-interruptible sleeps.
Many data structures that were previously statically allocated
are now allocated dynamically.
These structures include mount entries, file entries,
user open file descriptors, the process entries, the vnode table,
the name cache, and the quota structures.
The 4.4BSD-Lite distribution adds support for several new
architectures including
SPARC-based Sparcstations 1 and 2,
MIPS-based Decstation 3100 and 5000 and Sony NEWS,
68000-based Hewlett-Packard 9000/300 and Omron Luna, and
386-based Personal Computers.
Both the HP300 and SPARC ports feature the ability to run binaries
built for the native operating system (HP-UX or SunOS) by emulating
their system calls.
Though this native operating system compatibility was provided by the
developers as needed for their purposes and is by no means complete,
it is complete enough to run several non-trivial applications including
those that require HP-UX or SunOS shared libraries.
For example, the vendor supplied X11 server and windowing environment
can be used on both the HP300 and SPARC.
.NH 2
Virtual memory changes
The new virtual memory implementation is derived from the MACH
operating system developed at Carnegie-Mellon,
and was ported to the BSD kernel at the University of Utah.
The MACH virtual memory system call interface has been replaced with the
``mmap''-based interface described in the
``Berkeley Software Architecture Manual (4.4 Edition)''
(see the UNIX Programmer's Manual,
Supplementary Documents, PSD:5).
The interface is similar to the interfaces shipped
by several commercial vendors such as Sun, USL, and Convex Computer Corp.
The integration of the new virtual memory is functionally complete,
but, like most MACH-based virtual memory systems,
still has serious performance problems under heavy memory load.
.NH 2
Networking additions and changes
The ISO/OSI Networking consists of a kernel implementation of
transport class 4 (TP-4),
connectionless networking protocol (CLNP),
and 802.3-based link-level support (hardware-compatible with Ethernet*).
.\" ditroff screws up the environment for footnote. This restores it.
.ev 1
.ps 8
.vs 9
.\" end of ditroff fix
*Ethernet is a trademark of the Xerox Corporation.
We also include support for ISO Connection-Oriented Network Service,
X.25, and TP-0.
The session and presentation layers are provided outside
the kernel by the ISO development environment (ISODE).
Included in this development environment are file
transfer and management (FTAM), virtual terminals (VT),
a directory services implementation (X.500), and miscellaneous other utilities.
Several important enhancements have been added to the TCP/IP
protocols including TCP header prediction and
serial line IP (SLIP) with header compression.
The routing implementation has been completely rewritten
to use a hierarchical routing tree with a mask per route
to support the arbitrary levels of routing found in the ISO protocols.
The routing table also stores and caches route characteristics
to speed the adaptation of the throughput and congestion avoidance
.NH 2
Additions and changes to filesystems
The 4.4BSD-Lite distribution contains most of the interfaces
specified in the IEEE Std1003.1 system interface standard.
Filesystem additions include IEEE Std1003.1 FIFOs,
byte-range file locking, and saved user and group identifiers.
A new virtual filesystem interface has been added to the
kernel to support multiple filesystems.
In comparison with other interfaces,
the Berkeley interface has been structured for more efficient support
of filesystems that maintain state (such as the local filesystem).
The interface has been extended with support for stackable
filesystems done at UCLA.
These extensions allow for filesystems to be layered on top of each
other and allow new vnode operations to be added without requiring
changes to existing filesystem implementations.
For example, the umap filesystem
is used to mount a sub-tree of an existing filesystem
that uses a different set of uids and gids than the local system.
Such a filesystem could be mounted from a remote site via NFS or it
could be a filesystem on removable media brought from some foreign
location that uses a different password file.
In addition to the local ``fast filesystem,''
we have added an implementation of the network filesystem (NFS)
that fully interoperates with the NFS shipped by Sun and its licensees.
Because our NFS implementation was implemented using only the
publicly available NFS specification,
it does not require a license from Sun to use in source or binary form.
By default it runs over UDP to be compatible with Sun's implementation.
However, it can be configured on a per-mount basis to run over TCP.
Using TCP allows it to be used quickly and efficiently through
gateways and over long-haul networks.
Using an extended protocol, it supports Leases to allow a limited
callback mechanism that greatly reduces the network traffic necessary
to maintain cache consistency between the server and its clients.
A new log-structured filesystem has been added that provides
near disk-speed output and fast crash recovery.
It is still experimental in the 4.4BSD-Lite release,
so we do not recommend it for production use.
We have also added a memory-based filesystem that runs in
pageable memory, allowing large temporary filesystems without
requiring dedicated physical memory.
The local ``fast filesystem'' has been enhanced to do
clustering which allows large pieces of files to be
allocated contiguously resulting in near doubling
of filesystem throughput.
The filesystem interface has been extended to allow
files and filesystems to grow to $2 sup 63$ bytes in size.
The quota system has been rewritten to support both
user and group quotas (simultaneously if desired).
Quota expiration is based on time rather than
the previous metric of number of logins over quota.
This change makes quotas more useful on fileservers
onto which users seldom log in.
The system security has been greatly enhanced by the
addition of additional file flags that permit a file to be
marked as immutable or append only.
Once set, these flags can only be cleared by the super-user
when the system is running single user.
To protect against indiscriminate reading or writing of kernel
memory, all writing and most reading of kernel data structures
must be done using a new ``sysctl'' interface.
The information to be accessed is described through an extensible
``Management Information Base'' (MIB).
delim off
.NH 2
POSIX terminal driver changes
The biggest area of change is a new terminal driver.
The terminal driver is similar to the System V terminal driver
with the addition of the necessary extensions to get the
functionality previously available in the 4.3BSD terminal driver.
4.4BSD-Lite also adds the IEEE Std1003.1 job control interface,
which is similar to the 4.3BSD job control interface,
but adds a security model that was missing in the
4.3BSD job control implementation.
A new system call, \fIsetsid\fP,
creates a job-control session consisting of a single process
group with one member, the caller, that becomes a session leader.
Only a session leader may acquire a controlling terminal.
This is done explicitly via a \s-1TIOCSCTTY\s+1 \fIioctl\fP call,
not implicitly by an \fIopen\fP call.
The call fails if the terminal is in use.
For backward compatibility,
both the old \fIioctl\fP
calls and old options to \fIstty\fP
are emulated.
.NH 1
Changes to the utilities
There are several new tools and utilities included in this release.
A new version of ``make'' allows much-simplified makefiles for the
system software and allows compilation for multiple architectures
from the same source tree (which may be mounted read-only).
Notable additions to the libraries include functions to traverse a
filesystem hierarchy, database interfaces to btree and hashing functions,
a new, fast implementation of stdio, and a radix sort function.
The additions to the utility suite include greatly enhanced versions of
programs that display system status information, implementations of
various traditional tools described in the IEEE Std1003.2 standard,
and many others.
We have been tracking the IEEE Std1003.2 shell and utility work
and have included prototypes of many of the proposed utilities.
Most of the traditional utilities have been replaced
with implementations conformant to the POSIX standards.
Almost the entire manual suite has been rewritten to
reflect the POSIX defined interfaces.
In rewriting this software, we have generally
been rewarded with significant performance improvements.
Most of the libraries and header files have been converted
to be compliant with ANSI C.
The system libraries and utilities all compile
with either ANSI or traditional C.
The Kerberos (version 4) authentication software has been
integrated into much of the system (including NFS) to provide
the first real network authentication on BSD.
A new implementation of the \fIex/vi\fP text editors is available
in this release.
It is intended as a bug-for-bug compatible version of the editors.
It also has a few new features: 8-bit clean data, lines and files
limited only by memory and disk space, split screens, tags stacks
and left-right scrolling among them.
is not yet production quality; future versions of this software may
be retrieved by anonymous ftp from ftp.cs.berkeley.edu, in the
directory ucb/4bsd.
The \fIfind\fP
utility has two new options that are important to be aware of if you
intend to use NFS.
The ``fstype'' and ``prune'' options can be used together to prevent
find from crossing NFS mount points.
.NH 2
Additions and changes to the libraries
The \fIcurses\fP
library has been largely rewritten.
Important additional features include support
for scrolling and \fItermios\fP.
An application front-end editing library, named libedit, has been
added to the system.
A superset implementation of the SunOS kernel memory interface library,
\fIlibkvm\fP, has been integrated into the system.
Nearly the entire C-library has been rewritten.
Some highlights of the changes to the 4.4BSD-Lite C-library:
.IP \(bu
The newly added \fIfts\fP
functions will do either physical or logical traversal of
a file hierarchy as well as handle essentially infinite depth
filesystems and filesystems with cycles.
All the utilities in 4.4BSD-Lite that traverse file hierarchies
have been converted to use \fIfts\fP.
The conversion has always resulted in a significant performance
gain, often of four or five to one in system time.
.IP \(bu
The newly added \fIdbopen\fP
functions are intended to be a family of database access methods.
Currently, they consist of \fIhash\fP,
an extensible, dynamic hashing scheme,
\fIbtree\fP, a sorted, balanced tree structure (B+tree's), and
\fIrecno\fP, a flat-file interface for fixed or variable length records
referenced by logical record number.
Each of the access methods stores associated key/data pairs and
uses the same record oriented interface for access.
Future versions of this software may be retrieved by anonymous ftp
from ftp.cs.berkeley.edu, in the directory ucb/4bsd.
.IP \(bu
The \fIqsort\fP
function has been rewritten for additional performance.
In addition, three new types of sorting functions,
\fIheapsort\fP, \fImergesort\fP, and \fIradixsort\fP
have been added to the system.
The \fImergesort\fP
function is optimized for data with pre-existing order,
in which case it usually significantly outperforms \fIqsort\fP.
The \fIradixsort\fP
functions are variants of most-significant-byte radix sorting.
They take time linear to the number of bytes to be
sorted, usually significantly outperforming \fIqsort\fP
on data that can be sorted in this fashion.
An implementation of the POSIX 1003.2 standard \fIsort\fP
based on \fIradixsort\fP is included in 4.4BSD-Lite.
.IP \(bu
The floating point support in the C-library has been replaced
and is now accurate.
.IP \(bu
The C functions specified by both ANSI C, POSIX 1003.1 and
1003.2 are now part of the C-library.
This includes support for file name matching, shell globbing
and both basic and extended regular expressions.
.IP \(bu
ANSI C multibyte and wide-character support has been integrated.
The rune functionality from the Bell Labs' Plan 9 system is provided
as well.
.IP \(bu
The \fItermcap\fP
functions have been generalized and replaced with a general
purpose interface named \fIgetcap\fP.
.IP \(bu
The \fIstdio\fP
routines have been replaced, and are usually much faster.
In addition, the \fIfunopen\fP
interface permits applications to provide their own I/O stream
function support.
.NH 1
We were greatly assisted by the past employees of the Computer Systems
Research Group: Mike Karels, Keith Sklower, and Marc Tietelbaum.
Our distribution coordinator, Pauline Schwartz, has reliably managed
the finances and the mechanics of shipping distributions for
nearly the entire fourteen years of the group's existence.
Without the help of lawyers Mary MacDonald, Joel Linzner,
and Carla Shapiro, the 4.4BSD-Lite distribution would never
have seen the light of day.
Much help was provided by Chris Demetriou in getting bug fixes
from NetBSD integrated back into the 4.4BSD-Lite distribution.
The vast majority of the 4.4BSD-Lite distribution comes from the numerous
people in the UNIX community that provided their time and energy in
creating the software contained in this release.
We dedicate this distribution to them.
.sp 0.6
.in 4i
M. K. McKusick
K. Bostic
.in 0
.if o .bp
.EH ''''
.OH ''''
.bp +7
.OH '\s10Introduction''- % -\s0'
.EH '\s10- % -''Introduction\s0'
.de IR
.de RI
.sp 2
.nr PS 10
.nr VS 12
The documentation for 4.4BSD is in a format similar
to the one used for the 4.2BSD and 4.3BSD manuals.
It is divided into three sets; each set consists of one or more volumes.
The abbreviations for the volume names are listed in square brackets;
the abbreviations for the manual sections are listed in parenthesis.
I. User's Documents
	User's Reference Manual [URM]
		Commands (1)
		Games (6)
		Macro packages and language conventions (7)
	User's Supplementary Documents [USD]
		Getting Started
		Basic Utilities
		Communicating with the World
		Text Editing
		Document Preparation

II. Programmer's Documents
	Programmer's Reference Manual [PRM]
		System calls (2)
		Subroutines (3)
		Special files (4)
		File formats and conventions (5)
	Programmer's Supplementary Documents [PSD]
		Documents of Historic Interest
		Languages in common use
		Programming Tools
		Programming Libraries
		General Reference

III. System Manager's Manual [SMM]
	Maintenance commands (8)
	System Installation and Administration
References to individual documents are given as ``volume:document'',
thus USD:1 refers to the first document in the ``User's Supplementary
References to manual pages are given as ``\fIname\fP(section)'' thus
.IR sh (1)
refers to the shell manual entry in section 1.
The manual pages give descriptions of the features of the
4.4BSD system, as developed at the University of California at Berkeley.
They do not attempt to provide perspective or tutorial information about the
4.4BSD operating system, its facilities, or its implementation.
Various documents on those topics are contained in the
``\s-1UNIX\s+1 User's Supplementary Documents'' (USD), the
``\s-1UNIX\s+1 Programmer's Supplementary Documents'' (PSD),
and ``\s-1UNIX\s+1 System Manager's Manual'' (SMM).
In particular, for an overview see ``The \s-1UNIX\s+1 Time-Sharing System'' (PSD:1)
by Ritchie and Thompson; for a tutorial see
``\s8\s-1UNIX\s+1\s10 for Beginners'' (USD:1) by Kernighan,
and for an guide to the new features of this latest version, see
``Berkeley Software Architecture Manual (4.4 Edition)'' (PSD:5).
Within the area it surveys, this volume attempts to be timely, complete
and concise.  Where the latter two objectives conflict,
the obvious is often left unsaid in favor of brevity.
It is intended that each program be described as it is, not as it should be.
Inevitably, this means that various sections will soon be out of date.
Commands are programs intended to be invoked directly by
the user, in contrast to subroutines, that are
intended to be called by the user's programs.
User commands are described in URM section 1.
Commands generally reside in directory
.I /bin
.IR bin \|ary
Some programs also reside in
to save space in
.I  /\|bin.
These directories are searched automatically by the command interpreters.
Additional directories that may be of interest include
which has contributed software
which has old but sometimes still useful software and
which contains software local to your site.
Games have been relegated to URM section 6 and
to keep them from contaminating
the more staid information of URM section 1.
Miscellaneous collection of information necessary for
writing in various specialized languages such as character codes,
macro packages for typesetting, etc is contained in URM section 7.
System calls are entries into the BSD kernel.
The system call interface is identical to a C language
procedure call; the equivalent C procedures are described in PRM section 2.
An assortment of subroutines is available;
they are described in PRM section 3.
The primary libraries in which they are kept are described in
.IR intro (3).
The functions are described in terms of C.
PRM section 4 discusses the characteristics of
each system ``file'' that refers to an I/O device.
The names in this section refer to the HP300 device names for the hardware,
instead of the names of the special files themselves.
The file formats and conventions (PRM section 5)
documents the structure of particular kinds of files;
for example, the form of the output of the loader and
assembler is given.  Excluded are files used by only one command,
for example the assembler's intermediate files.
Commands and procedures intended for use primarily by the
system administrator are described in SMM section 8.
The files described here are almost all kept in the directory
.I /\|etc.
The system administration binaries reside in
Each section consists of independent entries of a page or so each.
The name of the entry is in the upper corners of its pages,
together with the section number.
Entries within each section are alphabetized.
The page numbers of each entry start at 1;
it is infeasible to number consecutively the pages of
a document like this that is republished in many variant forms.
All entries are based on a common format;
not all subsections always appear.
.I name
subsection lists the exact names of the commands and subroutines
covered under the entry and gives a short description of their purpose.
.IR synopsis ""
summarizes the use of the program being described.
A few conventions are used, particularly in the Commands subsection:
.B Boldface
words are considered literals, and are typed just as they appear.
Square brackets [ ] around an argument show that the argument is optional.
When an argument is given as ``name'', it always refers to a file name.
Ellipses ``.\|.\|.'' are used to show that the previous argument-prototype
may be repeated.
A final convention is used by the commands themselves.
An argument beginning with a minus sign ``\-'' usually means that it is an
option-specifying argument, even if it appears in a position where
a file name could appear.  Therefore, it is unwise to have files whose
names begin with ``\-''.
.IR description ""
subsection discusses in detail the subject at hand.
.IR files ""
subsection gives the names of files that are built into the program.
see also
subsection gives pointers to related information.
.I  diagnostics
subsection discusses the diagnostic indications that may be produced.
Messages that are intended to be self-explanatory are not listed.
.IR bugs ""
subsection gives known bugs and sometimes deficiencies.
Occasionally the suggested fix is also described.
At the beginning of URM, PRM, and SSM is a List of Manual Pages,
organized by section and alphabetically within each section, and a
Permuted Index derived from that List.
Within each index entry, the title of the writeup to which
it refers is followed by the appropriate section number in parentheses.
This fact is important because there is considerable
name duplication among the sections, arising principally from commands that
exist only to exercise a particular system call.
Finally, there is a list of documents on the inside back cover of each volume.
.if o .bp
.EH ''''
.OH ''''
.OH '\s10Manual Pages''- % -\s0'
.EH '\s10- % -''Manual Pages\s0'
.EF '\s10\\\\*(Dt''\\\\*(Ed\s0'
.OF '\s10\\\\*(Ed''\\\\*(Dt\s0'
.nr PS 10
.nr VS 11.5
\s24\fBList \|of \|Manual \|Pages\fP\s0
.nr x 0.5
.in +\nxi
.ta \n(.lu-\nxuR
.de xx
\\$1\f3 \a \fP\\$2
.de t
.sp 1v
.ne .5i
.cs 3
.ti -\\nxi
.ss 18
\fB\\$2. \\$3\fP
.ss 12
.if t .sp .5v
.cs 3 36
.ds Ed Section \\$2
.ds Dt \\$3
.so \\$1
.t toc1 1 "Commands and Application Programs"
.t toc2 2 "System Calls"
.t toc3 3 "C Library Subroutines"
.t toc4 4 "Special Files"
.t toc5 5 "File Formats"
.t toc6 6 "Games"
.t toc7 7 "Miscellaneous"
.t toc8 8 "System Maintenance"
.in -\nxi
.cs 3
.ta .5i 1i 1.5i 2i 2.5i 3i 3.5i 4i 4.5i 5i 5.5i 6i 6.5i
.if o .bp
.EH ''''
.OH ''''
.OH '\s10Permuted Index''- % -\s0'
.EH '\s10- % -''Permuted Index\s0'
.ds Ed 4.4BSD
.ds Dt April \|1994
\s24\fBPermuted \|Index\fP\s0
.sp 2
.nr PS 8
.nr VS 9
.\"	backup from slotput 1, slot, 2
.tr ~
.cs 3 36
.de xx
.ds s1\"
.if \w\\$2 .ds s1 ~~\"
.ds s2 ~~~\"
.ds s3\"
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.ds s4 ~~\"
.ds s5 ~~\"
.ds y \\*(s4\f3\fP\\*(s5
.ta 6i-\w\\*(s5u
.so ptxx
.cs 3
.ta .5i 1i 1.5i 2i 2.5i 3i 3.5i 4i 4.5i 5i 5.5i 6i 6.5i