|File: [cvs.NetBSD.org] / src / share / doc / usd / 18.msdiffs / ms.diffs (download)
Revision 1.5, Wed Nov 25 01:20:11 2015 UTC (6 years, 6 months ago) by christos
CVS Tags: prg-localcount2-base3, prg-localcount2-base2, prg-localcount2-base1, prg-localcount2-base, prg-localcount2, phil-wifi-base, phil-wifi-20200421, phil-wifi-20200411, phil-wifi-20200406, phil-wifi-20191119, phil-wifi-20190609, phil-wifi, pgoyette-localcount-base, pgoyette-localcount-20170426, pgoyette-localcount-20170320, pgoyette-localcount-20170107, pgoyette-localcount-20161104, pgoyette-localcount-20160806, pgoyette-localcount-20160726, pgoyette-localcount, pgoyette-compat-merge-20190127, pgoyette-compat-base, pgoyette-compat-20190127, pgoyette-compat-20190118, pgoyette-compat-1226, pgoyette-compat-1126, pgoyette-compat-1020, pgoyette-compat-0930, pgoyette-compat-0906, pgoyette-compat-0728, pgoyette-compat-0625, pgoyette-compat-0521, pgoyette-compat-0502, pgoyette-compat-0422, pgoyette-compat-0415, pgoyette-compat-0407, pgoyette-compat-0330, pgoyette-compat-0322, pgoyette-compat-0315, pgoyette-compat, perseant-stdc-iso10646-base, perseant-stdc-iso10646, netbsd-9-base, netbsd-9-2-RELEASE, netbsd-9-1-RELEASE, netbsd-9-0-RELEASE, netbsd-9-0-RC2, netbsd-9-0-RC1, netbsd-9, netbsd-8-base, netbsd-8-2-RELEASE, netbsd-8-1-RELEASE, netbsd-8-1-RC1, netbsd-8-0-RELEASE, netbsd-8-0-RC2, netbsd-8-0-RC1, netbsd-8, matt-nb8-mediatek-base, matt-nb8-mediatek, localcount-20160914, is-mlppp-base, is-mlppp, cjep_sun2x-base1, cjep_sun2x-base, cjep_sun2x, cjep_staticlib_x-base1, cjep_staticlib_x-base, cjep_staticlib_x, bouyer-socketcan-base1, bouyer-socketcan-base, bouyer-socketcan, HEAD
Changes since 1.4: +4 -1
PR/50360: Thomas Klausner: Fix MKREPRO builds
.\" $NetBSD: ms.diffs,v 1.5 2015/11/25 01:20:11 christos Exp $
.\" Copyright (c) 1983, 1993
.\" The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
.\" are met:
.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
.\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
.\" 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
.\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
.\" without specific prior written permission.
.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
.\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
.\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
.\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
.\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
.\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
.\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
.\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
.\" SUCH DAMAGE.
.\" @(#)ms.diffs 8.1 (Berkeley) 6/8/93
.nr LL 6.5i
.nr FL 6.0i
.if t .nr PD .5v
.if t .ds m \u\(ul\dm
.if n .ds m -m
.OH 'A Revised Version of \*ms''USD:18-%'
.EH 'USD:18-%''A Revised Version of \*ms'
A Revised Version of \*ms
University of California
Berkeley, CA 94720
The \*ms macros have been slightly revised and re\%arranged for the
Berkeley Unix distribution.
Because of the rearrangement,
the new macros can be read by the computer
in about half the time required by the previous version of \*ms.
This means that output will begin to appear between ten seconds
and several minutes more quickly, depending on the system load.
On long files, however, the savings in total time are not substantial.
The old version of \*ms is still available as \*mos.
Several bugs in \*ms have been fixed, including
a bad problem with the .1C macro,
minor difficulties with boxed text,
a break induced by .EQ before initialization,
the failure to set tab stops in displays,
and several bothersome errors in the \fBrefer\fP macros.
Macros used only at Bell Laboratories have been removed.
There are a few extensions to previous \*ms macros,
and a number of new macros, but all the documented \*ms macros
still work exactly as they did before, and have the same names as before.
Output produced with \*ms should look like output produced with \*mos.
One important new feature is automatically numbered footnotes.
Footnote numbers are printed by means of a pre-defined string
(\e\(**\(**), which you invoke separately from .FS and .FE.
Each time it is used, this string increases the footnote number by one,
whether or not you use .FS and .FE in your text.
Footnote numbers will be superscripted on the phototypesetter
and on daisy-wheel terminals, but on low-resolution devices
(such as the lpr and a crt), they will be bracketed.
If you use \e\(**\(** to indicate numbered footnotes,
then the .FS macro will automatically include
the footnote number at the bottom of the page.
This footnote, for example, was produced as follows:\**
This footnote, for example, was produced as follows:\e\(**\(**
If you never use the ``\e\(**\(**'' string,
no footnote numbers will appear anywhere in the text,
including down here.
The output footnotes will look exactly like
footnotes produced with \*mos.
If you are using \e\(**\(** to number footnotes,
but want a particular footnote to be marked with an asterisk or a dagger,
then give that mark as the first argument to .FS: \(dg
then give that mark as the first argument to .FS: \e(dg
In the footnote, the dagger will appear where the footnote
number would otherwise appear, as on the left.
Footnote numbering will be temporarily suspended,
because the \e\(**\(** string is not used.
Instead of a dagger, you could use an asterisk *
or double dagger \(dd, represented as \|\e(dd.
Another new feature is a macro for printing theses
according to Berkeley standards.
This macro is called .TM, which stands for thesis mode.
(It is much like the .th macro in \*me.)
It will put page numbers in the upper right-hand corner;
number the first page; suppress the date;
and doublespace everything except quotes, displays, and keeps.
Use it at the top of each file making up your thesis.
Calling .TM defines the .CT macro for chapter titles,
which skips to a new page and moves the pagenumber to the center footer.
The .P1 (P one) macro can be used even without thesis mode
to print the header on page 1,
which is suppressed except in thesis mode.
If you want roman numeral page numbering,
use an ``.af\0PN\0i'' request.
There is a new macro especially for bibliography entries,
called .XP, which stands for exdented paragraph.
It will exdent the first line of the paragraph by \en(PI units,
usually 5n (the same as the indent for the first line of a .PP).
Most bibliographies are printed this way.
Here are some examples of exdented paragraphs:
Lumley, Lyle S., \fISex in Crustaceans: Shell Fish Habits,\fP\|
Harbinger Press, Tampa Bay and San Diego, October 1979.
The pioneering work in this field.
Leffadinger, Harry A., ``Mollusk Mating Season: 52 Weeks, or All Year?''
in \fIActa Biologica,\fP\| vol. 42, no. 11, November 1980.
A provocative thesis, but the conclusions are wrong.
Of course, you will have to take care of
italicizing the book title and journal,
and quoting the title of the journal article.
Indentation or exdentation can be changed
by setting the value of number register PI.
If you need to produce endnotes rather than footnotes,
put the references in a file of their own.
This is similar to what you would do if you were
typing the paper on a conventional typewriter.
Note that you can use automatic footnote numbering
without actually having .FS and .FE pairs in your text.
If you place footnotes in a separate file,
you can use .IP macros with \e\(**\(**\| as a hanging tag;
this will give you numbers at the left-hand margin.
With some styles of endnotes,
you would want to use .PP rather than .IP macros,
and specify \e\(**\(** before the reference begins.
There are four new macros to help produce a table of contents.
Table of contents entries must be enclosed in .XS and .XE pairs,
with optional .XA macros for additional entries;
arguments to .XS and .XA specify the page number,
to be printed at the right.
A final .PX macro prints out the table of contents.
Here is a sample of typical input and output text:
Chapter 1: Review of the Literature
Chapter 2: Experimental Evidence
.tl ''\fBTable of Contents\fP''
.ta 5i 5.5iR
Chapter 1: Review of the Literature 1
Chapter 2: Experimental Evidence 23
The .XS and .XE pairs may also be used in the text,
after a section header for instance,
in which case page numbers are supplied automatically.
However, most documents that require a table of contents
are too long to produce in one run,
which is necessary if this method is to work.
It is recommended that you do a table of contents
after finishing your document.
To print out the table of contents, use the .PX macro;
if you forget it, nothing will happen.
As an aid in producing text that will format correctly
with both \fBnroff\fP and \fBtroff\fP,
there are some new string definitions that define quotation marks
and dashes for each of these two formatting programs.
The \e\(**\^\u_\d string will yield two hyphens in \fBnroff\fP,
but in \fBtroff\fP it will produce an em dash\*-
like this one.
The \e\(**Q and \e\(**U strings will produce
`` and '' in \fBtroff\fP, but " in \fBnroff\fP.
(In typesetting, the double quote is traditionally considered bad form.)
There are now a large number of optional
foreign accent marks defined by the \*ms macros.
All the accent marks available in \*mos are present,
and they all work just as they always did.
However, there are better definitions available
by placing .AM at the beginning of your document.
Unlike the \*mos accent marks,
the accent strings should come \fIafter\fP\| the letter being accented.
Here is a list of the diacritical marks,
with examples of what they look like.
.ta 2i 3i
name of accent input output
acute accent e\e\(**\' e\*'
grave accent e\e\(**\` e\*`
circumflex o\e\(**\d^\u o\*^
cedilla c\e\(**, c\*,
tilde n\e\(**\d~\u n\*~
question \e\(**? \*?
exclamation \e\(**! \*!
umlaut u\e\(**: u\*:
digraph s \e\(**8 \*8
hac\*vek c\e\(**v c\*v
macron a\e\(**_ a\*_
underdot s\e\(**. s\*.
o-slash o\e\(**/ o\*/
angstrom a\e\(**o a\*o
yogh kni\e\(**3t kni\*3t
Thorn \e\(**(Th \*(Th
thorn \e\(**(th \*(th
Eth \e\(**(D- \*(D-
eth \e\(**(d- \*(d-
hooked o \e\(**q \*q
ae ligature \e\(**(ae \*(ae
AE ligature \e\(**(Ae \*(Ae
oe ligature \e\(**(oe \*(oe
OE ligature \e\(**(Oe \*(Oe
If you want to use these new diacritical marks,
don't forget the .AM at the top of your file.
Without it, some will not print at all,
and others will be placed on the wrong letter.
It is also possible to produce custom headers and footers
that are different on even and odd pages.
The .OH and .EH macros define odd and even headers,
while .OF and .EF define odd and even footers.
Arguments to these four macros are specified as with .tl.
This document was produced with:
\&.OH \'\ef\^IThe -mx Macros\'\'Page %\ef\^P\'
\&.EH \'\ef\^IPage %\'\'The -mx Macros\ef\^P\'
Note that it would be a error to have an apostrophe in the header text;
if you need one, you will have to use a different delimiter
around the left, center, and right portions of the title.
You can use any character as a delimiter, provided it doesn't appear
elsewhere in the argument to .OH, .EH, .OF, or EF.
The \*ms macros work in conjunction with
the \fBtbl\fR, \fBeqn\fR, and \fBrefer\fR preprocessors.
Macros to deal with these items are read in only as needed,
as are the thesis macros (.TM),
the special accent mark definitions (.AM),
table of contents macros (.XS and .XE),
and macros to format the optional cover page.
The code for the \*ms package lives in /usr/lib/tmac/tmac.s,
and sourced files reside in the directory /usr/ucb/lib/ms.
.if \nR==0 \