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Revision 1.3, Thu Aug 7 10:30:48 2003 UTC (17 years, 8 months ago) by agc
Move UCB-licensed code from 4-clause to 3-clause licence. Patches provided by Joel Baker in PR 22309, verified by myself.
.\" $NetBSD: Title,v 1.3 2003/08/07 10:30:48 agc Exp $ .\" .\" Copyright (c) 1986, 1993, 1994 The Regents of the University of California. .\" All rights reserved. .\" .\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without .\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions .\" are met: .\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. .\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the .\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. .\" 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors .\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software .\" without specific prior written permission. .\" .\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND .\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE .\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE .\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE .\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL .\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS .\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) .\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT .\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY .\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF .\" SUCH DAMAGE. .\" .\" @(#)Title 8.4 (Berkeley) 8/8/94 .\" .af % i .nr LL 6.5i .EH '''' .OH '''' .EF '''' .OF '''' \& .sp |1.5i .nr PS 36 .nr VS 39 .LP .ft B .ce 3 4.4BSD Programmer's Supplementary Documents .nr PS 24 .nr VS 32 .LP .ft B .ce 1 (PSD) .bp \& .sp |0.83i .nr PS 14 .nr VS 16.5 .LP Now in its twentieth year, the USENIX Association, the UNIX and Advanced Computing Systems professional and technical organization, is a not-for-profit membership association of individuals and institutions with an interest in UNIX and UNIX-like systems, and, by extension, C++, X windows, and other advanced tools and technologies. .LP USENIX and its members are dedicated to: .IP \(bu fostering innovation and communicating research and technological developments, .IP \(bu sharing ideas and experience relevant to UNIX, UNIX-related, and advanced computing systems, and .IP \(bu providing a neutral forum for the exercise of critical thought and airing of technical issues. .LP USENIX publishes a journal (\fBComputing Systems\fP), a newsletter (\fI;login:\fP), Proceedings from its frequent Conferences and Symposia, and a Book Series. .LP SAGE, The Systems Administrators Guild, a Special Technical Group with the USENIX Association, is dedicated to the advancement of system administration as a profession. .LP SAGE brings together systems managers and administrators to: .IP \(bu propagate knowledge of good professional practice, .IP \(bu recruit talented individuals to the profession, .IP \(bu recognize individuals who attain professional excellence, .IP \(bu foster technical development and share solutions to technical problems, and .IP \(bu communicate in an organized voice with users, management, and vendors on system administration topics. .bp \& .sp |1i .nr PS 36 .nr VS 39 .LP .ft B .ce 3 4.4BSD Programmer's Supplementary Documents .nr PS 24 .nr VS 32 .LP .ft B .ce 1 (PSD) .sp 1i .nr PS 24 .nr VS 26 .LP .ft B .ce 1 Berkeley Software Distribution .nr PS 18 .nr VS 26 .LP .ft B .ce 1 April, 1994 .sp 1i .nr PS 18 .nr VS 20 .LP .ft B .ce 2 Computer Systems Research Group University of California at Berkeley .sp 2.25i .nr PS 12 .nr VS 14.5 .LP .ft B .ce 4 A USENIX Association Book O'Reilly & Associates, Inc. 103 Morris Street, Suite A Sebastopol, CA 94572 .bp .hy 0 .nr PS 9 .nr VS 11 .LP First Printing, 1994 .br Second Printing, 1995 .sp 1.6 .LP Copyright 1979, 1980, 1983, 1986, 1988, 1989, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994 The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved. .sp 1.6 .LP Other than the specific manual pages and documents listed below as copyrighted by AT&T, redistribution and use of this manual in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: .IP 1) Redistributions of this manual must retain the copyright notices on this page, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. .IP 2) Software or documentation that incorporates part of this manual must reproduce the copyright notices on this page, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. .IP 3) All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software must display the following acknowledgement: ``This product includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors.'' .IP 4) Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission. .LP \fB\s-1THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.\s+1\fP .sp 1.6 .LP Documents PSD:1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 11, 15, 16, and 17 are copyright 1979, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Incorporated. Document PSD:8 is a modification of an earlier document that is copyrighted 1979 by AT&T Bell Laboratories, Incorporated. Holders of \x'-1p'UNIX\v'-4p'\s-3TM\s0\v'4p'/32V, System III, or System V software licenses are permitted to copy these documents, or any portion of them, as necessary for licensed use of the software, provided this copyright notice and statement of permission are included. .sp 1.6 Document PSD:10 is part of the user contributed software and is copyright 1992 by the Free Software Foundation, Inc. Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this document provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies. .sp 1.6 Document PSD:13 is part of the user contributed software and is copyright 1983 by Walter F. Tichy. Permission to copy the RCS documentation or any portion thereof as necessary for licensed use of the software is granted to licensees of this software, provided this copyright notice is included. .sp 1.6 .LP The views and conclusions contained in this manual are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing official policies, either expressed or implied, of the Regents of the University of California. .sp 1.6 .LP The 4.4BSD Daemon used on the cover is copyright 1994 by Marshall Kirk McKusick and is reproduced with permission. .br This book was printed and bound in the United States of America. .br Distributed by O'Reilly & Associates, Inc. .sp 1 .IP "[recycle logo]" 16 This book is printed on acid-free paper with 50% recycled content, 10-13% post-consumer waste. O'Reilly & Associates is committed to using paper with the highest recycled content available consistent with high quality. .LP .sp 1 ISBN: 1-56592-079-1 .bp .OH '\s10Contents''- % -\s0' .EH '\s10- % -''Contents\s0' \& .sp |1.5i .nr PS 24 .nr VS 26 .LP .ce 1 \fBContents\fP .sp 1 .nr PS 12 .nr VS 14 .IP .tl 'Introduction''ix' .sp .SH Documents of Historical Interest .sp .IP .tl 'The Unix Time\-Sharing System''tabbed 1' .QP Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson's original paper about UNIX, reprinted from Communications of the ACM. .sp .IP .tl 'Unix Implementation''tabbed 2' .QP Ken Thompson's description of the implementation of the Version 7 kernel and file system. .sp .IP .tl 'The Unix I/O System''tabbed 3' .QP Dennis Ritchie's overview of the I/O System of Version 7; still helpful for those writing device drivers. .sp .IP .tl 'Unix Programming \- Second Edition ''tabbed 4' .QP Describes the programming interface to the UNIX version 7 operating system and the standard I/O library. Should be supplemented by Kernighan and Pike, ``The UNIX Programming Environment'', Prentice-Hall, 1984 and especially by the Programmer Reference Manual section 2 (system calls) and 3 (library routines). .sp .IP .tl 'Berkeley Software Architecture Manual (4.4 Edition)''tabbed 5' .QP A concise and terse description of the system call interface provided in Berkeley Unix, as revised for 4.4BSD. This will never be a best seller. .sp .SH Languages in common use .sp .IP .tl 'The C Programming Language \- Reference Manual''tabbed 6' .QP Official statement of the syntax of C. Should be supplemented by ``The C Programming Language,'' B.W. Kernighan and D.M. Ritchie, Prentice-Hall, 1978, that contains a tutorial introduction and many examples. .sp .ne 1i .IP .tl 'Berkeley Pascal User\'s Manual''tabbed 7' .QP An implementation of this language popular for learning to program. .sp .IP .tl 'A Portable Fortran 77 Compiler''tabbed 8' .QP A revised version of the document which originally appeared in Volume 2b of the Bell Labs documentation; this version reflects the work done at Berkeley. .sp .IP .tl 'Introduction to the f77 I/O Library''tabbed 9' .QP A description of the revised input/output library for Fortran 77, reflecting work carried out at Berkeley. .sp .SH Programming Tools .sp .IP .tl 'Debugging with GDB: The GNU Source-Level Debugger''tabbed 10' .QP How to debug programs using the source level \fIgdb\fP debugger (or how to debug programs without having to know much about machine language). .sp .IP .tl 'A Tutorial Introduction to ADB''tabbed 11' .QP How to debug programs using the assembly-language level \fIadb\fP debugger. .sp .IP .tl 'Make \- A Program for Maintaining Computer Programs''tabbed 12' .QP Indispensable tool for making sure large programs are properly compiled with minimal effort. .sp .IP .tl 'An Introduction to the Revision Control System''tabbed 13' .QP RCS is a user-contributed tool for working together with other people without stepping on each other's toes. An alternative to \fIsccs\fR for controlling software changes. .sp .IP .tl 'An Introduction to the Source Code Control System''tabbed 14' .QP A useful introductory article for those users with installations licensed for SCCS. .sp .IP .tl 'YACC: Yet Another Compiler-Compiler''tabbed 15' .QP Converts a BNF specification of a language and semantic actions written in C into a compiler for that language. .sp .IP .tl 'LEX \- A Lexical Analyzer Generator''tabbed 16' .QP Creates a recognizer for a set of regular expressions: each regular expression can be followed by arbitrary C code to be executed upon finding the regular expression. .sp .ne 1i .IP .tl 'The M4 Macro Processor''tabbed 17' .QP M4 is a macro processor useful in its own right and as a front-end for C, Ratfor, and Cobol. .sp .IP .tl 'gprof: a Call Graph Execution Profiler''tabbed 18' .QP A program to show the call graph and execution time of a program. Indispensable aid for improving the running time of almost everything. .sp .SH Programming Libraries .sp .IP .tl 'Screen Updating and Cursor Movement Optimization''tabbed 19' .QP Describes the \fIcurses\fP package, an aid for writing screen-oriented, terminal-independent programs. .sp .SH General Reference .sp .IP .tl 'An Introductory 4.4BSD Interprocess Communication Tutorial''tabbed 20' .QP How to write programs that use the Interprocess Communication Facilities of 4.4BSD. .sp .IP .tl 'An Advanced 4.4BSD Interprocess Communication Tutorial''tabbed 21' .QP The reference document (with some examples) for the Interprocess Communication Facilities of 4.4BSD. .sp .IP .tl 'List of Documents''inside back cover' .EH '''' .OH '''' .if o .bp \& .bp .OH '\s10Introduction''- % -\s0' .EH '\s10- % -''Introduction\s0' .de IR \fI\\$1\^\fR\\$2 .. .de RI \fR\\$1\fI\\$2\^\fR\\$3 .. .ce \fB\s24Introduction\s0\fP .sp 2 .nr PS 10 .nr VS 12 .LP The documentation for 4.4BSD is in a format similar to the one used for the 4.2BSD and 4.3BSD manuals. It is divided into three sets; each set consists of one or more volumes. The abbreviations for the volume names are listed in square brackets; the abbreviations for the manual sections are listed in parenthesis. .DS I. User's Documents User's Reference Manual [URM] Commands (1) Games (6) Macro packages and language conventions (7) User's Supplementary Documents [USD] Getting Started Basic Utilities Communicating with the World Text Editing Document Preparation Amusements II. Programmer's Documents Programmer's Reference Manual [PRM] System calls (2) Subroutines (3) Special files (4) File formats and conventions (5) Programmer's Supplementary Documents [PSD] Documents of Historic Interest Languages in common use Programming Tools Programming Libraries General Reference III. System Manager's Manual [SMM] Maintenance commands (8) System Installation and Administration .DE .LP References to individual documents are given as ``volume:document'', thus USD:1 refers to the first document in the ``User's Supplementary Documents''. References to manual pages are given as ``\fIname\fP(section)'' thus .IR sh (1) refers to the shell manual entry in section 1. .LP The manual pages give descriptions of the features of the 4.4BSD system, as developed at the University of California at Berkeley. They do not attempt to provide perspective or tutorial information about the 4.4BSD operating system, its facilities, or its implementation. Various documents on those topics are contained in the ``\s-1UNIX\s+1 User's Supplementary Documents'' (USD), the ``\s-1UNIX\s+1 Programmer's Supplementary Documents'' (PSD), and ``\s-1UNIX\s+1 System Manager's Manual'' (SMM). In particular, for an overview see ``The \s-1UNIX\s+1 Time-Sharing System'' (PSD:1) by Ritchie and Thompson; for a tutorial see ``\s8\s-1UNIX\s+1\s10 for Beginners'' (USD:1) by Kernighan, and for an guide to the new features of this latest version, see ``Berkeley Software Architecture Manual (4.4 Edition)'' (PSD:5). .LP Within the area it surveys, this volume attempts to be timely, complete and concise. Where the latter two objectives conflict, the obvious is often left unsaid in favor of brevity. It is intended that each program be described as it is, not as it should be. Inevitably, this means that various sections will soon be out of date. .LP Commands are programs intended to be invoked directly by the user, in contrast to subroutines, that are intended to be called by the user's programs. User commands are described in URM section 1. Commands generally reside in directory .I /bin (for .IR bin \|ary programs). Some programs also reside in .I /\|usr/\|bin, .R to save space in .I /\|bin. .R These directories are searched automatically by the command interpreters. Additional directories that may be of interest include .I /\|usr/\|contrib/\|bin, .R which has contributed software .I /\|usr/\|old/\|bin, .R which has old but sometimes still useful software and .I /\|usr/\|local/\|bin, .R which contains software local to your site. .LP Games have been relegated to URM section 6 and .I /\|usr/\|games, .R to keep them from contaminating the more staid information of URM section 1. .LP Miscellaneous collection of information necessary for writing in various specialized languages such as character codes, macro packages for typesetting, etc is contained in URM section 7. .LP System calls are entries into the BSD kernel. The system call interface is identical to a C language procedure call; the equivalent C procedures are described in PRM section 2. .LP An assortment of subroutines is available; they are described in PRM section 3. The primary libraries in which they are kept are described in .IR intro (3). The functions are described in terms of C. .LP PRM section 4 discusses the characteristics of each system ``file'' that refers to an I/O device. The names in this section refer to the HP300 device names for the hardware, instead of the names of the special files themselves. .LP The file formats and conventions (PRM section 5) documents the structure of particular kinds of files; for example, the form of the output of the loader and assembler is given. Excluded are files used by only one command, for example the assembler's intermediate files. .LP Commands and procedures intended for use primarily by the system administrator are described in SMM section 8. The files described here are almost all kept in the directory .I /\|etc. The system administration binaries reside in .I /\|sbin, .R and .I /\|usr/\|sbin. .LP Each section consists of independent entries of a page or so each. The name of the entry is in the upper corners of its pages, together with the section number. Entries within each section are alphabetized. The page numbers of each entry start at 1; it is infeasible to number consecutively the pages of a document like this that is republished in many variant forms. .LP All entries are based on a common format; not all subsections always appear. .RS .LP The .I name subsection lists the exact names of the commands and subroutines covered under the entry and gives a short description of their purpose. .LP The .IR synopsis "" summarizes the use of the program being described. A few conventions are used, particularly in the Commands subsection: .LP .RS .B Boldface words are considered literals, and are typed just as they appear. .LP Square brackets [ ] around an argument show that the argument is optional. When an argument is given as ``name'', it always refers to a file name. .LP Ellipses ``.\|.\|.'' are used to show that the previous argument-prototype may be repeated. .LP A final convention is used by the commands themselves. An argument beginning with a minus sign ``\-'' usually means that it is an option-specifying argument, even if it appears in a position where a file name could appear. Therefore, it is unwise to have files whose names begin with ``\-''. .LP .RE The .IR description "" subsection discusses in detail the subject at hand. .LP The .IR files "" subsection gives the names of files that are built into the program. .LP A .I see also .R subsection gives pointers to related information. .LP A .I diagnostics subsection discusses the diagnostic indications that may be produced. Messages that are intended to be self-explanatory are not listed. .LP The .IR bugs "" subsection gives known bugs and sometimes deficiencies. Occasionally the suggested fix is also described. .LP .RE At the beginning of URM, PRM, and SSM is a List of Manual Pages, organized by section and alphabetically within each section, and a Permuted Index derived from that List. Within each index entry, the title of the writeup to which it refers is followed by the appropriate section number in parentheses. This fact is important because there is considerable name duplication among the sections, arising principally from commands that exist only to exercise a particular system call. Finally, there is a list of documents on the inside back cover of each volume. .if o .bp \& .EH '''' .OH ''''