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CVS Tags: yamt-pf42-baseX, yamt-pf42-base4, yamt-pf42-base3, yamt-pf42-base2, yamt-pf42-base, yamt-pf42, yamt-pagecache-tag8, yamt-pagecache-base9, yamt-pagecache-base8, yamt-pagecache-base7, yamt-pagecache-base6, yamt-pagecache-base5, yamt-pagecache-base4, yamt-pagecache-base3, yamt-pagecache-base2, yamt-pagecache-base, yamt-pagecache, wrstuden-revivesa-base-3, wrstuden-revivesa-base-2, wrstuden-revivesa-base-1, wrstuden-revivesa-base, wrstuden-revivesa, wrstuden-fixsa-newbase, wrstuden-fixsa-base-1, wrstuden-fixsa-base, wrstuden-fixsa, tls-maxphys-base, tls-maxphys, tls-earlyentropy-base, tls-earlyentropy, riastradh-xf86-video-intel-2-7-1-pre-2-21-15, riastradh-drm2-base3, riastradh-drm2-base2, riastradh-drm2-base1, riastradh-drm2-base, riastradh-drm2, prg-localcount2-base3, prg-localcount2-base2, prg-localcount2-base1, prg-localcount2-base, prg-localcount2, phil-wifi-base, phil-wifi-20200421, phil-wifi-20200411, phil-wifi-20200406, phil-wifi-20191119, phil-wifi-20190609, phil-wifi, pgoyette-localcount-base, pgoyette-localcount-20170426, pgoyette-localcount-20170320, pgoyette-localcount-20170107, pgoyette-localcount-20161104, pgoyette-localcount-20160806, pgoyette-localcount-20160726, pgoyette-localcount, pgoyette-compat-merge-20190127, pgoyette-compat-base, pgoyette-compat-20190127, pgoyette-compat-20190118, pgoyette-compat-1226, pgoyette-compat-1126, pgoyette-compat-1020, pgoyette-compat-0930, pgoyette-compat-0906, pgoyette-compat-0728, pgoyette-compat-0625, pgoyette-compat-0521, pgoyette-compat-0502, pgoyette-compat-0422, pgoyette-compat-0415, pgoyette-compat-0407, pgoyette-compat-0330, pgoyette-compat-0322, pgoyette-compat-0315, pgoyette-compat, perseant-stdc-iso10646-base, perseant-stdc-iso10646, netbsd-9-base, netbsd-9-3-RELEASE, netbsd-9-2-RELEASE, netbsd-9-1-RELEASE, netbsd-9-0-RELEASE, netbsd-9-0-RC2, netbsd-9-0-RC1, netbsd-9, netbsd-8-base, netbsd-8-2-RELEASE, netbsd-8-1-RELEASE, netbsd-8-1-RC1, netbsd-8-0-RELEASE, netbsd-8-0-RC2, netbsd-8-0-RC1, netbsd-8, netbsd-7-nhusb-base-20170116, netbsd-7-nhusb-base, netbsd-7-nhusb, netbsd-7-base, netbsd-7-2-RELEASE, netbsd-7-1-RELEASE, netbsd-7-1-RC2, netbsd-7-1-RC1, netbsd-7-1-2-RELEASE, netbsd-7-1-1-RELEASE, netbsd-7-1, netbsd-7-0-RELEASE, netbsd-7-0-RC3, netbsd-7-0-RC2, netbsd-7-0-RC1, netbsd-7-0-2-RELEASE, netbsd-7-0-1-RELEASE, netbsd-7-0, netbsd-7, netbsd-6-base, netbsd-6-1-RELEASE, netbsd-6-1-RC4, netbsd-6-1-RC3, netbsd-6-1-RC2, netbsd-6-1-RC1, netbsd-6-1-5-RELEASE, netbsd-6-1-4-RELEASE, netbsd-6-1-3-RELEASE, netbsd-6-1-2-RELEASE, netbsd-6-1-1-RELEASE, netbsd-6-1, netbsd-6-0-RELEASE, netbsd-6-0-RC2, netbsd-6-0-RC1, netbsd-6-0-6-RELEASE, netbsd-6-0-5-RELEASE, netbsd-6-0-4-RELEASE, netbsd-6-0-3-RELEASE, netbsd-6-0-2-RELEASE, netbsd-6-0-1-RELEASE, netbsd-6-0, netbsd-6, netbsd-5-base, netbsd-5-2-RELEASE, netbsd-5-2-RC1, netbsd-5-2-3-RELEASE, netbsd-5-2-2-RELEASE, netbsd-5-2-1-RELEASE, netbsd-5-2, netbsd-5-1-RELEASE, netbsd-5-1-RC4, netbsd-5-1-RC3, netbsd-5-1-RC2, netbsd-5-1-RC1, netbsd-5-1-5-RELEASE, netbsd-5-1-4-RELEASE, netbsd-5-1-3-RELEASE, netbsd-5-1-2-RELEASE, netbsd-5-1-1-RELEASE, netbsd-5-1, netbsd-5-0-RELEASE, netbsd-5-0-RC4, netbsd-5-0-RC3, netbsd-5-0-RC2, netbsd-5-0-RC1, netbsd-5-0-2-RELEASE, netbsd-5-0-1-RELEASE, netbsd-5-0, netbsd-5, netbsd-4-base, netbsd-4-0-RELEASE, netbsd-4-0-RC5, netbsd-4-0-RC4, netbsd-4-0-RC3, netbsd-4-0-RC2, netbsd-4-0-RC1, netbsd-4-0-1-RELEASE, netbsd-4-0, netbsd-4, mjf-devfs2-base, mjf-devfs2, matt-premerge-20091211, matt-nb8-mediatek-base, matt-nb8-mediatek, matt-nb6-plus-nbase, matt-nb6-plus-base, matt-nb6-plus, matt-nb5-pq3-base, matt-nb5-pq3, matt-nb5-mips64-u2-k2-k4-k7-k8-k9, matt-nb5-mips64-u1-k1-k5, matt-nb5-mips64-premerge-20101231, matt-nb5-mips64-premerge-20091211, matt-nb5-mips64-k15, matt-nb5-mips64, matt-nb4-mips64-k7-u2a-k9b, matt-mips64-premerge-20101231, matt-mips64-base2, matt-mips64-base, matt-mips64, matt-armv6-prevmlocking, matt-armv6-nbase, matt-armv6-base, matt-armv6, localcount-20160914, keiichi-mipv6-nbase, keiichi-mipv6-base, keiichi-mipv6, jym-xensuspend-nbase, jym-xensuspend-base, jym-xensuspend, is-mlppp-base, is-mlppp, hpcarm-cleanup-nbase, hpcarm-cleanup-base, hpcarm-cleanup, cube-autoconf-base, cube-autoconf, cjep_sun2x-base1, cjep_sun2x-base, cjep_sun2x, cjep_staticlib_x-base1, cjep_staticlib_x-base, cjep_staticlib_x, cherry-xenmp-base, cherry-xenmp, bouyer-socketcan-base1, bouyer-socketcan-base, bouyer-socketcan, bouyer-quota2-nbase, bouyer-quota2-base, bouyer-quota2, agc-symver-base, agc-symver
Changes since 1.4: +2 -2 lines

fix spelling of accommodate; from Zapher.

.\"	$NetBSD: beyond43.ms,v 1.5 2006/11/24 19:46:58 christos Exp $
.\" Copyright (c) 1989 The Regents of the University of California.
.\" All rights reserved.
.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
.\" are met:
.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
.\"    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
.\" 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
.\"    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
.\"    without specific prior written permission.
.\"	@(#)beyond43.ms	5.1 (Berkeley) 6/5/90
.\" *troff -ms
.rm CM
.sp 2
.ce 100
\fB\s+2Current Research by
The Computer Systems Research Group
of Berkeley\s-2\fP
.ds DT "February 10, 1989
.\" \fBDRAFT of \*(DT\fP
.sp 2
Marshall Kirk McKusick
Michael J Karels
Keith Sklower
Kevin Fall
Marc Teitelbaum
Keith Bostic
.sp 2
.ce 1
.ce 0
The release of 4.3BSD in April of 1986 addressed many of the 
performance problems and unfinished interfaces
present in 4.2BSD [Leffler84] [McKusick85].
The Computer Systems Research Group at Berkeley
has now embarked on a new development phase to
update other major components of the system, as well as to offer
new functionality.
There are five major ongoing projects.
The first is to develop an OSI network protocol suite and to integrate
existing ISO applications into Berkeley UNIX.
The second is to develop and support an interface compliant with the
P1003.1 POSIX standard recently approved by the IEEE.
The third is to refine the TCP/IP networking to improve
its performance and limit congestion on slow and/or lossy networks.
The fourth is to provide a standard interface to file systems
so that multiple local and remote file systems can be supported,
much as multiple networking protocols are supported by 4.3BSD.
The fifth is to evaluate alternate access control mechanisms and
audit the existing security features of the system, particularly
with respect to network services.
Other areas of work include multi-architecture support, 
a general purpose kernel memory allocator, disk labels, and
extensions to the 4.2BSD fast filesystem.
We are planning to finish implementation prototypes for each of the
five main areas of work over the next year, and provide an informal
test release sometime next year for interested developers.
After incorporating feedback and refinements from the testers,
they will appear in the next full Berkeley release, which is typically
made about a year after the test release.
.ne 10
.sp 2
Recently Completed Projects
There have been several changes in the system that were included
in the recent 4.3BSD Tahoe release.
.NH 2
Multi-architecture support
Support has been added for the DEC VAX 8600/8650, VAX 8200/8250, 
MicroVAXII and MicroVAXIII.
The largest change has been the incorporation of support for the first
non-VAX processor, the CCI Power 6/32 and 6/32SX.  (This addition also
supports the
Harris HCX-7 and HCX-9, as well as the Sperry 7000/40 and ICL machines.)
The Power 6 version of 4.3BSD is largely based on the compilers and
device drivers done for CCI's 4.2BSD UNIX,
and is otherwise similar to the VAX release of 4.3BSD.
The entire source tree, including all kernel and user-level sources,
has been merged using a structure that will easily accommodate the addition
of other processor families.  A MIPS R2000 has been donated to us,
making the MIPS architecture a likely candidate for inclusion into a future
BSD release.
.NH 2
Kernel Memory Allocator
The 4.3BSD UNIX kernel used 10 different memory allocation mechanisms,
each designed for the particular needs of the particular subsystem.
These mechanisms have been replaced by a general purpose dynamic
memory allocator that can be used by all of the kernel subsystems.
The design of this allocator takes advantage of known memory usage
patterns in the UNIX kernel and a hybrid strategy that is time-efficient
for small allocations and space-efficient for large allocations.
This allocator replaces the multiple memory allocation interfaces 
with a single easy-to-program interface,
results in more efficient use of global memory by eliminating
partitioned and specialized memory pools,
and is quick enough (approximately 15 VAX instructions) that no
performance loss is observed relative to the current implementations.
.NH 2
Disk Labels
During the work on the CCI machine,
it became obvious that disk geometry and filesystem layout information
must be stored on each disk in a pack label.
Disk labels were implemented for the CCI disks and for the most common
types of disk controllers on the VAX.
A utility was written to create and maintain the disk information,
and other user-level programs that use such information now obtain
it from the disk label.
The use of this facility has allowed improvements in the file system's
knowledge of irregular disk geometries such as track-to-track skew.
.NH 2
Fat Fast File System
The 4.2 fast file sytem [McKusick84]
contained several statically sized structures,
imposing limits on the number of cylinders per cylinder group,
inodes per cylinder group,
and number of distinguished rotational positions.
The new ``fat'' filesystem allows these limits to be set at filesystem
creation time.
Old kernels will treat the new filesystems as read-only,
and new kernels
will accommodate both formats.
The filesystem check facility, \fCfsck\fP, has also been modified to check
either type.
.ne 10
.sp 2
Current UNIX Research at Berkeley
Since the release of 4.3BSD in mid 1986,
we have begun work on several new major areas of research.
Our goal is to apply leading edge research ideas into a stable
and reliable implementation that solves current problems in
operating systems development.
.NH 2
OSI network protocol development
The network architecture of 4.2BSD was designed to accommodate
multiple network protocol families and address formats,
and an implementation of the ISO OSI network protocols
should enter into this framework without much difficulty.
We plan to 
implement the OSI connectionless internet protocol (CLNP),
and device drivers for X.25, 802.3, and possibly 802.5 interfaces, and
to integrate these with an OSI transport class 4 (TP-4) implementation.
We will also incorporate into the Berkeley Software Distribution an
updated ISO Development Environment (ISODE)
featuring International Standard (IS) versions of utilities.
ISODE implements the session and presentation layers of the OSI protocol suite,
and will include an implementation of the file transfer protocol (FTAM).
It is also possible that an X.400 implementation now being done at
University College, London and the University of Nottingham
will be available for testing and distribution.  
This implementation is comprised of four areas.
.IP 1)
We are updating the University of
Wisconsin TP-4 to match GOSIP requirements.
The University of Wisconsin developed a transport class 4
implementation for the 4.2BSD kernel under contract to Mitre.
This implementation must be updated to reflect the National Institute
of Standards and Technology (NIST, formerly NBS) workshop agreements,
GOSIP, and 4.3BSD requirements.
We will make this TP-4 operate with an OSI IP,
as the original implementation was built to run over the DoD IP.
.IP 2)
A kernel version of the OSI IP and ES-IS protocols must be produced.
We will implement the kernel version of these protocols.
.IP 3)
The required device drivers need to be integrated into a BSD kernel.
4.3BSD has existing device drivers for many ethernet devices; future
BSD versions may also support X.25 devices as well as token ring
These device drivers must be integrated
into the kernel OSI protocol implementations.
.IP 4)
The existing OSINET interoperability test network is available so 
that the interoperability of the ISODE and BSD kernel protocols
can be established through tests with several vendors.
Testing is crucial because an openly available version of GOSIP protocols
that does not interoperate with DEC, IBM, SUN, ICL, HIS, and other
major vendors would be embarrassing.
To allow testing of the integrated pieces the most desirable
approach is to provide access to OSINET at UCB.
A second approach is to do the interoperability testing at
the site of an existing OSINET member, such as the NBS.
.NH 2
Compliance with POSIX 1003
Berkeley became involved several months ago in the development
of the IEEE POSIX P1003.1 system interface standard.
Since then, we have been parcipating in the working groups
of P1003.2 (shell and application utility interface),
P1003.6 (security), P1003.7 (system administration), and P1003.8
The IEEE published the POSIX P1003.1 standard in late 1988.
POSIX related changes to the BSD system have included a new terminal
driver, support for POSIX sessions and job control, expanded signal
functionality, restructured directory access routines, and new set-user
and set-group id facilities.
We currently have a prototype implementation of the
POSIX driver with extensions to provide binary compatibility with
applications developed for the old Berkeley terminal driver.
We also have a prototype implementation of the 4.2BSD-based POSIX
job control facility.
The P1003.2 draft is currently being voted on by the IEEE
P1003.2 balloting group.
Berkeley is particularly interested in the results of this standard,
as it will profoundly influence the user environment.
The other groups are in comparatively early phases, with drafts
coming to ballot sometime in the 90's.
Berkeley will continue to participate in these groups, and
move in the near future toward a P1003.1 and P1003.2 compliant
We have many of the utilities outlined in the current P1003.2 draft
already implemented, and have other parties willing to contribute
additional implementations.
.NH 2
Improvements to the TCP/IP Networking Protocols
The Internet and the Berkeley collection of local-area networks
have both grown at high rates in the last year.
The Bay Area Regional Research Network (BARRNet),
connecting several UC campuses, Stanford and NASA-Ames
has recently become operational, increasing the complexity
of the network connectivity.
Both Internet and local routing algorithms are showing the strain
of continued growth.
We have made several changes in the local routing algorithm
to keep accommodating the current topology,
and are participating in the development of new routing algorithms
and standard protocols.
Recent work in collaboration with Van Jacobson of the Lawrence Berkeley
Laboratory has led to the design and implementation of several new algorithms
for TCP that improve throughput on both local and long-haul networks
while reducing unnecessary retransmission.
The improvement is especially striking when connections must traverse
slow and/or lossy networks.
The new algorithms include ``slow-start,''
a technique for opening the TCP flow control window slowly
and using the returning stream of acknowledgements as a clock
to drive the connection at the highest speed tolerated by the intervening
A modification of this technique allows the sender to dynamically modify
the send window size to adjust to changing network conditions.
In addition, the round-trip timer has been modified to estimate the variance
in round-trip time, thus allowing earlier retransmission of lost packets
with less spurious retransmission due to increasing network delay.
Along with a scheme proposed by Phil Karn of Bellcore,
these changes reduce unnecessary retransmission over difficult paths
such as Satnet by nearly two orders of magnitude
while improving throughput dramatically.
The current TCP implementation is now being readied
for more widespread distribution via the network and as a 
standard Berkeley distribution unencumbered by any commercial licensing.
We are continuing to refine the TCP and IP implementations
using the ARPANET, BARRNet, the NSF network
and local campus nets as testbeds.
In addition, we are incorporating applicable algorithms from this work
into the TP-4 protocol implementation.
.NH 2
Toward a Compatible File System Interface
The most critical shortcoming of the 4.3BSD UNIX system was in the
area of distributed file systems.
As with networking protocols,
there is no single distributed file system
that provides sufficient speed and functionality for all problems.
It is frequently necessary to support several different remote
file system protocols, just as it is necessary to run several 
different network protocols.
As network or remote file systems have been implemented for UNIX,
several stylized interfaces between the file system implementation
and the rest of the kernel have been developed.
Among these are Sun Microsystems' Virtual File System interface (VFS)
using \fBvnodes\fP [Sandburg85] [Kleiman86],
Digital Equipment's Generic File System (GFS) architecture [Rodriguez86],
AT&T's File System Switch (FSS) [Rifkin86],
the LOCUS distributed file system [Walker85],
and Masscomp's extended file system [Cole85].
Other remote file systems have been implemented in research or
university groups for internal use,
notably the network file system in the Eighth Edition UNIX
system [Weinberger84] and two different file systems used at Carnegie Mellon
University [Satyanarayanan85].
Numerous other remote file access methods have been devised for use
within individual UNIX processes,
many of them by modifications to the C I/O library
similar to those in the Newcastle Connection [Brownbridge82].
Each design attempts to isolate file system-dependent details
below a generic interface and to provide a framework within which
new file systems may be incorporated.
However, each of these interfaces is different from
and incompatible with the others.
Each addresses somewhat different design goals,
having been based on a different version of UNIX,
having targeted a different set of file systems with varying characteristics,
and having selected a different set of file system primitive operations.
Our effort in this area is aimed at providing a common framework to
support these different distributed file systems simultaneously rather than to
simply implement yet another protocol.
This requires a detailed study of the existing protocols, 
and discussion with their implementors to determine whether
they could modify their implementation to fit within our proposed
framework.  We have studied the various file system interfaces to determine
their generality, completeness, robustness, efficiency, and aesthetics
and are currently working on a file system interface
that we believe includes the best features of
each of the existing implementations.
This work and the rationale underlying its development
have been presented to major software vendors as an early step
toward convergence on a standard compatible file system interface.
Briefly, the proposal adopts the 4.3BSD calling convention for file
name lookup but otherwise is closely related to Sun's VFS
and DEC's GFS. [Karels86].
.NH 2
System Security
The recent invasion of the DARPA Internet by a quickly reproducing ``worm''
highlighted the need for a thorough review of the access
safeguards built into the system.
Until now, we have taken a passive approach to dealing with
weaknesses in the system access mechanisms, rather than actively
searching for possible weaknesses.
When we are notified of a problem or loophole in a system utility
by one of our users,
we have a well defined procedure for fixing the problem and 
expeditiously disseminating the fix to the BSD mailing list.
This procedure has proven itself to be effective in
solving known problems as they arise
(witness its success in handling the recent worm).
However, we feel that it would be useful to take a more active
role in identifying problems before they are reported (or exploited).
We will make a complete audit of the system
utilities and network servers to find unintended system access mechanisms.
As a part of the work to make the system more resistant to attack
from local users or via the network, it will be necessary to produce
additional documentation on the configuration and operation of the system.
This documentation will cover such topics as file and directory ownership
and access, network and server configuration,
and control of privileged operations such as file system backups.
We are investigating the addition of access control lists (ACLs) for
filesystem objects.
ACLs provide a much finer granularity of control over file access permissions
than the current
discretionary access control mechanism (mode bits).
Furthermore, they are necessary
in environments where C2 level security or better, as defined in the DoD
TCSEC [DoD83], is required.
The POSIX P1003.6 security group has made notable progress in determining
how an ACL mechanism should work, and several vendors have implemented
ACLs for their commercial systems.
Berkeley will investigate the existing implementations and determine
how to best integrate ACLs with the existing mechanism.
A major shortcoming of the present system is that authentication
over the network is based solely on the privileged port mechanism
between trusting hosts and users.
Although privileged ports can only be created by processes running as root
on a UNIX system,
such processes are easy for a workstation user to obtain;
they simply reboot their workstation in single user mode.
Thus, a better authentication mechanism is needed.
At present, we believe that the MIT Kerberos authentication
server [Steiner88] provides the best solution to this problem.
We propose to investigate Kerberos further as well as other
authentication mechanisms and then to integrate
the best one into Berkeley UNIX.
Part of this integration would be the addition of the
authentication mechanism into utilities such as
telnet, login, remote shell, etc.
We will add support for telnet (eventually replacing rlogin),
the X window system, and the mail system within an authentication
domain (a Kerberos \fIrealm\fP).
We hope to replace the existing password authentication on each host
with the network authentication system.
.IP Brownbridge82
Brownbridge, D.R., L.F. Marshall, B. Randell,
``The Newcastle Connection, or UNIXes of the World Unite!,''
\fISoftware\- Practice and Experience\fP, Vol. 12, pp. 1147-1162, 1982.
.IP Cole85
Cole, C.T., P.B. Flinn, A.B. Atlas,
``An Implementation of an Extended File System for UNIX,''
\fIUsenix Conference Proceedings\fP,
pp. 131-150, June, 1985.
.IP DoD83
Department of Defense,
``Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria,''
DoD Computer Security Center, August, 1983.
.IP Karels86
Karels, M., M. McKusick,
``Towards a Compatible File System Interface,''
\fIProceedings of the European UNIX Users Group Meeting\fP,
Manchester, England, pp. 481-496, September 1986.
.IP Kleiman86
Kleiman, S.,
``Vnodes: An Architecture for Multiple File System Types in Sun UNIX,''
\fIUsenix Conference Proceedings\fP,
pp. 238-247, June, 1986.
.IP Leffler84
Leffler, S., M.K. McKusick, M. Karels,
``Measuring and Improving the Performance of 4.2BSD,''
\fIUsenix Conference Proceedings\fP, pp. 237-252, June, 1984.
.IP McKusick84
McKusick, M.K., W. Joy, S. Leffler, R. Fabry,
``A Fast File System for UNIX'',
\fIACM Transactions on Computer Systems 2\fP, 3.
pp 181-197, August 1984.
.IP McKusick85
McKusick, M.K., M. Karels, S. Leffler,
``Performance Improvements and Functional Enhancements in 4.3BSD,''
\fIUsenix Conference Proceedings\fP, pp. 519-531, June, 1985.
.IP McKusick86
McKusick, M.K., M. Karels,
``A New Virtual Memory Implementation for Berkeley UNIX,''
\fIProceedings of the European UNIX Users Group Meeting\fP,
Manchester, England, pp. 451-460, September 1986.
.IP McKusick88
McKusick, M.K., M. Karels,
``Design of a General Purpose Memory Allocator for the 4.3BSD UNIX Kernel,''
\fIUsenix Conference Proceedings\fP,
pp. 295-303, June, 1988.
.IP Rifkin86
Rifkin, A.P., M.P. Forbes, R.L. Hamilton, M. Sabrio, S. Shah, K. Yueh,
``RFS Architectural Overview,'' \fIUsenix Conference Proceedings\fP,
pp. 248-259, June, 1986.
.IP Rodriguez86
Rodriguez, R., M. Koehler, R. Hyde,
``The Generic File System,''
\fIUsenix Conference Proceedings\fP,
pp. 260-269, June, 1986.
.IP Sandberg85
Sandberg, R., D. Goldberg, S. Kleiman, D. Walsh, B. Lyon,
``Design and Implementation of the Sun Network File System,''
\fIUsenix Conference Proceedings\fP,
pp. 119-130, June, 1985.
.IP Satyanarayanan85
Satyanarayanan, M., \fIet al.\fP,
``The ITC Distributed File System: Principles and Design,''
\fIProc. 10th Symposium on Operating Systems Principles\fP, pp. 35-50,
ACM, December, 1985.
.IP Steiner88
Steiner, J., C. Newman, J. Schiller,
``\fIKerberos:\fP An Authentication Service for Open Network Systems,''
\fIUsenix Conference Proceedings\fP, pp. 191-202, February, 1988.
.IP Walker85
Walker, B.J. and S.H. Kiser, ``The LOCUS Distributed File System,''
\fIThe LOCUS Distributed System Architecture\fP,
G.J. Popek and B.J. Walker, ed., The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1985.
.IP Weinberger84
Weinberger, P.J., ``The Version 8 Network File System,''
\fIUsenix Conference presentation\fP,
June, 1984.