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File: [cvs.NetBSD.org] / src / lib / libc / time / zic.8 (download)

Revision 1.33, Wed Jul 3 15:50:16 2019 UTC (16 months, 3 weeks ago) by christos
Branch: MAIN
CVS Tags: phil-wifi-20200421, phil-wifi-20200411, phil-wifi-20200406, phil-wifi-20191119, netbsd-9-base, netbsd-9-1-RELEASE, netbsd-9-0-RELEASE, netbsd-9-0-RC2, netbsd-9-0-RC1, netbsd-9, is-mlppp-base, is-mlppp
Changes since 1.32: +148 -65 lines

Sync with 2019b:

    zic's new -b option supports a way to control data bloat and to
    test for year-2038 bugs in software that reads TZif files.
    'zic -b fat' and 'zic -b slim' generate larger and smaller output;
    for example, changing from fat to slim shrinks the Europe/London
    file from 3648 to 1599 bytes, saving about 56%.  Fat and slim
    files represent the same set of timestamps and use the same TZif
    format as documented in tzfile(5) and in Internet RFC 8536.
    Fat format attempts to work around bugs or incompatibilities in
    older software, notably software that mishandles 64-bit TZif data
    or uses obsolete TZ strings like "EET-2EEST" that lack DST rules.
    Slim format is more efficient and does not work around 64-bit bugs
    or obsolete TZ strings.  Currently zic defaults to fat format
    unless you compile with -DZIC_BLOAT_DEFAULT=\"slim\"; this
    out-of-the-box default is intended to change in future releases
    as the buggy software often mishandles timestamps anyway.

    zic no longer treats a set of rules ending in 2037 specially.
    Previously, zic assumed that such a ruleset meant that future
    timestamps could not be predicted, and therefore omitted a
    POSIX-like TZ string in the TZif output.  The old behavior is no
    longer needed for current tzdata, and caused problems with newlib
    when used with older tzdata (reported by David Gauchard).

    zic no longer generates some artifact transitions.  For example,
    Europe/London no longer has a no-op transition in January 1996.

.\"	$NetBSD: zic.8,v 1.33 2019/07/03 15:50:16 christos Exp $
.Dd July 2, 2019
.Dt ZIC 8
.Nm zic
.Nd timezone compiler
.Op Fl \-version
.Op Fl \-help
.Op Fl b
.Op Fl d Ar directory
.Op Fl L Ar leapsecondfilename
.Op Fl l Ar localtime
.Op Fl p Ar posixrules
.Op Fl s
.Op Fl t Ar file
.Op Fl v
.Op Fl y Ar command
.Op Ar Filename ...
program reads text from the file(s) named on the command line
and creates the time conversion information files specified in this input.
If a
.Ar filename
.Ar \&- ,
standard input is read.
.Bl -tag -width XXXXXXXXXX -compact
.It Fl \-version
Output version information and exit.
.It Fl \-help
Output short usage message and exit.
.It Fl b Ar bloat
Output backward-compatibility data as specified by
.Ar bloat .
.Ar bloat
.Dv fat ,
generate additional data entries that work around potential bugs or
incompatibilities in older software, such as software that mishandles
the 64-bit generated data.
.Ar bloat
.Dv slim ,
keep the output files small; this can help check for the bugs
and incompatibilities.
Although the default is currently
.Dv fat ,
this is intended to change in future
versions, as software that mishandles the 64-bit data typically
mishandles timestamps after the year 2038 anyway.
Also see the
.Fl r
option for another way to shrink output size.
.It Fl d Ar directory
Create time conversion information files in the named directory rather than
in the standard directory named below.
.It Fl l Ar timezone
Use the 
.Ar timezone
as local time.
will act as if the input contained a link line of the form
.Dl Link	timezone	localtime
.It Fl L Ar leapsecondfilename
Read leap second information from the file with the given name.
If this option is not used,
no leap second information appears in output files.
.It Fl p Ar timezone
.Ar timezone's
rules when handling POSIX-format
TZ strings like 
that lack transition rules.
will act as if the input contained a link line of the form
.Dl Link	timezone	posixrules
This feature is obsolete and poorly supported.
Among other things it should not be used for timestamps after the year 2037,
and it should not be combined with
.Fl b Ar slim
.Va timezone's
transitions are at standard time or UT instead of local time.
.It Fl r Op Ar @lo / Op Ar @hi
Reduce the size of output files by limiting their applicability
to timestamps in the range from
.Ar lo
(inclusive) to
.Ar hi
(exclusive), where
.Ar lo
.Ar hi
are possibly-signed decimal counts of seconds since the Epoch
(1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC).
Omitted counts default to extreme values.
For example,
.Bd literal
zic -r @0
omits data intended for negative timestamps (i.e., before the Epoch), and
.Bd literal
zic -r @0/@2147483648
outputs data intended only for nonnegative timestamps that fit into
31-bit signed integers.
Or using 
.Xr date 1 ,
.Bd literal
zic -r @$(date +%s)
omits data intended for past timestamps.
Also see the
.Fl b Ar slim
option for another way to shrink output size.
.It Fl t Ar file
When creating local time information, put the configuration link in
the named file rather than in the standard location.
.It Fl v
Be more verbose, and complain about the following situations:
.Bl -dash
The input specifies a link to a link.
A year that appears in a data file is outside the range
of representable years.
A time of 24:00 or more appears in the input.
Pre-1998 versions of
prohibit 24:00, and pre-2007 versions prohibit times greater than 24:00.
A rule goes past the start or end of the month.
Pre-2004 versions of
prohibit this.
A time zone abbreviation uses a
.Dv %z
Pre-2015 versions of
do not support this.
A timestamp contains fractional seconds.
Pre-2018 versions of
do not support this.
The input contains abbreviations that are mishandled by pre-2018 versions of
due to a longstanding coding bug.
These abbreviations include
.Qq L
.Qq Link ,
.Qq mi
.Qq min ,
.Qq Sa
.Qq Sat ,
.Qq Su
.Qq Sun .
The output file does not contain all the information about the
long-term future of a timezone, because the future cannot be summarized as
an extended POSIX TZ string.
For example, as of 2019 this problem
occurs for Iran's daylight-saving rules for the predicted future, as
these rules are based on the Iranian calendar, which cannot be
The output contains data that may not be handled properly by client
code designed for older
.Xr zic 8
output formats.
These compatibility issues affect only timestamps
before 1970 or after the start of 2038.
The output file contains more than 1200 transitions,
which may be mishandled by some clients.
The current reference client supports at most 2000 transitions;
pre-2014 versions of the reference client support at most 1200
A time zone abbreviation has fewer than 3 or more than 6 characters.
POSIX requires at least 3, and requires implementations to support
at least 6.
An output file name contains a byte that is not an ASCII letter,
.Qq - ,
.Qq / ,
.Qq _ ;
or it 
or it contains a file name component that contains more than 14 bytes
or that starts with
.Qq - .
Input files should be text files, that is, they should be a series of
zero or more lines, each ending in a newline byte and containing at
most 511 bytes, and without any
The input text's encoding
is typically UTF-8 or ASCII; it should have a unibyte representation
for the POSIX Portable Character Set (PPCS)
.%U http://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/basedefs/V1_chap06.html
and the encoding's non-unibyte characters should consist entirely of
non-PPCS bytes.
Non-PPCS characters typically occur only in comments:
although output file names and time zone abbreviations can contain
nearly any character, other software will work better if these are
limited to the restricted syntax described under the
.Op v
Input lines are made up of fields.
Fields are separated from one another by one or more white space characters.
The white space characters are space, form feed, carriage return, newline,
tab, and vertical tab.
Leading and trailing white space on input lines is ignored.
An unquoted sharp character (#) in the input introduces a comment which extends
to the end of the line the sharp character appears on.
White space characters and sharp characters may be enclosed in double
.Pq \&"
.\" XXX "
if they're to be used as part of a field.
Any line that is blank (after comment stripping) is ignored.
Nonblank lines are expected to be of one of three types:
rule lines, zone lines, and link lines.
Names must be in English and are case insensitive.
They appear in several contexts, and include month and weekday names
and keywords such as
.Qq maximum ,
.Qq only ,
.Qq Rolling ,
.Qq Zone .
A name can be abbreviated by omitting all but an initial prefix; any
abbreviation must be unambiguous in context.
A rule line has the form
For example:
.Dl Rule	US	1967	1973	\-	Apr	lastSun	2:00w	1:00d	D
The fields that make up a rule line are:
.Bl -tag -width "LETTER/S"
Gives the name of the rule set that contains this line.
The name must start with a character that is neither
an ASCII digit nor
.Ar \&-
.Ar + .
To allow for future extensions,
an unquoted name should not contain characters from the set
.Ar !$%&'()*,/:;<=>?@[\e]^`{|}~ .
Gives the first year in which the rule applies.
Any signed integer year can be supplied; the proleptic Gregorian calendar
is assumed, with year 0 preceding year 1.
The word
.Em minimum
(or an abbreviation) means the indefinite past.
The word
.Em maximum
(or an abbreviation) means the indefinite future.
Rules can describe times that are not representable as time values,
with the unrepresentable times ignored; this allows rules to be portable
among hosts with differing time value types.
.It TO
Gives the final year in which the rule applies.
In addition to
.Em minimum
.Em maximum
(as above),
the word
.Em only
(or an abbreviation)
may be used to repeat the value of the
should be
.Qq -
and is present for compatibility with older versions of
in which it could contain year types.
.It IN
Names the month in which the rule takes effect.
Month names may be abbreviated.
.It ON
Gives the day on which the rule takes effect.
Recognized forms include:
.Bl -tag -width lastSun -compact -offset indent
.It 5
the fifth of the month
.It lastSun
the last Sunday in the month
.It lastMon
the last Monday in the month
.It Sun\*[Ge]8
first Sunday on or after the eighth
.It Sun\*[Le]25
last Sunday on or before the 25th
Names of days of the week may be abbreviated or spelled out in full.
A weekday name (e.g.,
.Qq Sunday )
or a weekday name preceded by
.Qq last
.Qq lastSunday )
may be abbreviated or spelled out in full.
There must be no white space characters within the
.Em ON
.Qq <=
.Qq >=
constructs can result in a day in the neighboring month;
for example, the IN-ON combination
.Qq "Oct Sun>=31"
tands for the first Sunday on or after October 31,
even if that Sunday occurs in November.
.It AT
Gives the time of day at which the rule takes effect,
relative to 00:00, the start of a calendar day.
Recognized forms include:
.Bl -tag -width "00X19X32X13" -compact -offset indent
.It 2
time in hours
.It 2:00
time in hours and minutes
.It 01:28:14
time in hours, minutes, and seconds
.It 00:19:32.13
time with fractional seconds
.It 12:00
midday, 12 hours after 00:00
.It 15:00
3 PM, 15 hours after 00:00
.It 24:00
end of day, 24 hours after 00:00
.It 260:00
260 hours after 00:00
.It \-2:30
2.5 hours before 00:00
.It \-
equivalent to 0
.I zic
rounds times to the nearest integer second
(breaking ties to the even integer), the fractions may be useful
to other applications requiring greater precision.
The source format does not specify any maximum precision.
Any of these forms may be followed by the letter
.Em w
if the given time is local or
.Qq wall clock
.Em s
if the given time is standard time without any adjustment for daylight saving,
.Em u
.Em g
.Em z )
if the given time is universal time;
in the absence of an indicator,
local (wall clock) time is assumed.
These forms ignore leap seconds; for example,
if a leap second occurs at 00:59:60 local time,
.q "1:00"
stands for 3601 seconds after local midnight instead of the usual 3600 seconds.
The intent is that a rule line describes the instants when a
clock/calendar set to the type of time specified in the
.Em AT
field would show the specified date and time of day.
Gives the amount of time to be added to local standard time when the rule is in
effect, and whether the resulting time is standard or daylight saving.
This field has the same format as the
.Em AT
.Em s
for standard time and
.Em d
for daylight saving time.
The suffix letter is typically omitted, and defaults to
.Em s
if the offset is zero and to
.Em d
Negative offsets are allowed; in Ireland, for example, daylight saving
time is observed in winter and has a negative offset relative to
Irish Standard Time.
The offset is merely added to standard time; for example,
does not distinguish a 10:30 standard time plus an 0:30
from a 10:00 standard time plus a 1:00
.Em SAVE .
Gives the
.Qq variable part
(for example, the
.Qq S
.Qq D
.Qq EDT )
of time zone abbreviations to be used when this rule is in effect.
If this field is
.Em \&- ,
the variable part is null.
A zone line has the form
For example:
.Dl Zone	Asia/Amman	2:00	Jordan	EE%sT	2017 Oct 27 1:00
The fields that make up a zone line are:
.Bl -tag -width "RULES/SAVE"
The name of the timezone.
This is the name used in creating the time conversion information file for the
It should not contain a file name component
.Qq .
.Qq .. ;
a file name component is a maximal substring that does not contain
.Qq / .
The amount of time to add to UT to get standard time,
without any adjustment for daylight saving.
This field has the same format as the
.Em AT
fields of rule lines;
begin the field with a minus sign if time must be subtracted from UT.
The name of the rules that apply in the timezone or,
alternatively, a field in the same format as a rule-line SAVE column,
giving of the amount of time to be added to local standard time
effect, and whether the resulting time is standard or daylight saving.
If this field is
.Em \&-
then standard time always applies.
When an amount of time is given, only the sum of standard time and
this amount matters.
The format for time zone abbreviations.
The pair of characters
.Em %s
is used to show where the
.Qq variable part
of the time zone abbreviation goes.
Alternatively, a format can use the pair of characters
.Em %z
+to stand for the UT offset in the form
.Em \(+- hh ,
.Em \(+- hhmm ,
.Em \(+- hhmmss ,
using the shortest form that does not lose information, where
.Em hh ,
.Em mm ,
.Em ss
are the hours, minutes, and seconds east (+) or west (\(mi) of UT.
a slash
.Pq \&/
separates standard and daylight abbreviations.
To conform to POSIX, a time zone abbreviation should contain only
alphanumeric ASCII characters,
.Qq +
.Qq \&- .
The time at which the UT offset or the rule(s) change for a location.
It takes the form of one to four fields YEAR [MONTH [DAY [TIME]]].
If this is specified,
the time zone information is generated from the given UT offset
and rule change until the time specified, which is interpreted using
the rules in effect just before the transition.
The month, day, and time of day have the same format as the IN, ON, and AT
fields of a rule; trailing fields can be omitted, and default to the
earliest possible value for the missing fields.
The next line must be a
.Qq continuation
line; this has the same form as a zone line except that the
.Qq Zone
and the name are omitted, as the continuation line will
place information starting at the time specified as the
.Em until
information in the previous line in the file used by the previous line.
Continuation lines may contain
.Em until
information, just as zone lines do, indicating that the next line is a further
If a zone changes at the same instant that a rule would otherwise take
effect in the earlier zone or continuation line, the rule is ignored.
A zone or continuation line
.I L
with a named rule set starts with standard time by default:
that is, any of
.IR L 's
timestamps preceding
.IR L 's
earliest rule use the rule in effect after
.IR L 's
first transition into standard time.
In a single zone it is an error if two rules take effect at the same
instant, or if two zone changes take effect at the same instant.
A link line has the form
For example:
.Dl Link	Europe/Istanbul	Asia/Istanbul
field should appear as the
field in some zone line.
field is used as an alternative name for that zone;
it has the same syntax as a zone line's
Except for continuation lines,
lines may appear in any order in the input.
However, the behavior is unspecified if multiple zone or link lines
define the same name, or if the source of one link line is the target
of another.
Lines in the file that describes leap seconds have the following form:
For example:
.Dl Leap	2016	Dec		31	23:59:60	+	S
.Em YEAR ,
.Em DAY ,
fields tell when the leap second happened.
should be
.Qq \&+
if a second was added
.Qq \&-
if a second was skipped.
.Em R/S
should be (an abbreviation of)
.Qq Stationary
if the leap second time given by the other fields should be interpreted as UTC
(an abbreviation of)
.Qq Rolling
if the leap second time given by the other fields should be interpreted as
local (wall clock) time.
Here is an extended example of
.Ic zic
input, intended to illustrate many of its features.
In this example, the EU rules are for the European Union
and for its predecessor organization, the European Communities.
.Bl -column -compact -offset indent "# Rule" "Swiss" "FROM" "1995" "TYPE" "Oct" "lastSun" "1:00u" "SAVE" "LETTER/S"
.It Rule	Swiss	1941	1942	-	May	Mon>=1	1:00	1:00	S
.It Rule	Swiss	1941	1942	-	Oct	Mon>=1	2:00	0	-
.It Rule	EU	1977	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=1	1:00u	1:00	S
.It Rule	EU	1977	only	-	Sep	lastSun	1:00u	0	-
.It Rule	EU	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	1:00u	0	-
.It Rule	EU	1979	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	1:00u	0	-
.It Rule	EU	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	1:00u	1:00	S
.It Rule	EU	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	1:00u	0	-
.Bl -column -compact -offset indent "# Zone" "Europe/Zurich" "0:29:45.50" "RULES/SAVE" "FORMAT" "UNTIL"
.It Zone	Europe/Zurich	0:34:08	-	LMT	1853 Jul 16
.It 		0:29:45.50	-	BMT	1894 Jun
.It 		1:00	Swiss	CE%sT	1981
.It 		1:00	EU	CE%sT
.Bl -column -compact -offset indent "# Zone" "Europe/Zurich" "0:34:08" "RULES/SAVE" "FORMAT" "UNTIL"
.It Link	Europe/Zurich	Europe/Vaduz
In this example, the timezone is named Europe/Zurich but it has an alias
as Europe/Vaduz.
This example says that Zurich was 34 minutes and 8
seconds east of UT until 1853-07-16 at 00:00, when the legal offset
was changed to 7\(de\|26\(fm\|22.50\(sd; which this works out to
treats this by rounding it to 0:29:46.
After 1894-06-01 at 00:00 the UT offset became one hour
and Swiss daylight saving rules (defined with lines beginning with
.Qq "Rule Swiss"
From 1981 to the present, EU daylight saving rules have
From 1981 to the present, EU daylight saving rules have
In 1941 and 1942, daylight saving time applied from the first Monday
in May at 01:00 to the first Monday in October at 02:00.
The pre-1981 EU daylight-saving rules have no effect
here, but are included for completeness.
Since 1981, daylight
saving has begun on the last Sunday in March at 01:00 UTC.
Until 1995 it ended the last Sunday in September at 01:00 UTC,
but this changed to the last Sunday in October starting in 1996.
For purposes of display,
were initially used, respectively.
Swiss rules and later EU rules were applied, the time zone abbreviation
has been CET for standard time and CEST for daylight saving
Input files use the format described in this section; output files use
.Xr tzfile 5
.Bl -tag -width /usr/share/zoneinfo -compact
.It Pa /etc/localtime
Default local timezone file    
.It Pa /usr/share/zoneinfo
Default timezone information directory
For areas with more than two types of local time,
you may need to use local standard time in the
.Em AT
field of the earliest transition time's rule to ensure that
the earliest transition time recorded in the compiled file is correct.
for a particular timezone,
a clock advance caused by the start of daylight saving
coincides with and is equal to
a clock retreat caused by a change in UT offset,
.Ic zic
produces a single transition to daylight saving at the new UT offset
without any change in local (wall clock) time.
To get separate transitions
use multiple zone continuation lines
specifying transition instants using universal time.
.Xr tzfile 5 ,
.Xr zdump 8
.\" @(#)zic.8	8.6
.\" This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
.\" 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.