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Annotation of src/lib/libc/time/calendars, Revision 1.1

1.1     ! christos    1: ----- Calendrical issues -----
        !             2:
        !             3: As mentioned in Theory.html, although calendrical issues are out of
        !             4: scope for tzdb, they indicate the sort of problems that we would run
        !             5: into if we extended tzdb further into the past.  The following
        !             6: information and sources go beyond Theory.html's brief discussion.
        !             7: They sometimes disagree.
        !             8:
        !             9:
        !            10: France
        !            11:
        !            12: Gregorian calendar adopted 1582-12-20.
        !            13: French Revolutionary calendar used 1793-11-24 through 1805-12-31,
        !            14: and (in Paris only) 1871-05-06 through 1871-05-23.
        !            15:
        !            16:
        !            17: Russia
        !            18:
        !            19: From Chris Carrier (1996-12-02):
        !            20: On 1929-10-01 the Soviet Union instituted an "Eternal Calendar"
        !            21: with 30-day months plus 5 holidays, with a 5-day week.
        !            22: On 1931-12-01 it changed to a 6-day week; in 1934 it reverted to the
        !            23: Gregorian calendar while retaining the 6-day week; on 1940-06-27 it
        !            24: reverted to the 7-day week.  With the 6-day week the usual days
        !            25: off were the 6th, 12th, 18th, 24th and 30th of the month.
        !            26: (Source: Evitiar Zerubavel, _The Seven Day Circle_)
        !            27:
        !            28:
        !            29: Mark Brader reported a similar story in "The Book of Calendars", edited
        !            30: by Frank Parise (1982, Facts on File, ISBN 0-8719-6467-8), page 377.  But:
        !            31:
        !            32: From: Petteri Sulonen (via Usenet)
        !            33: Date: 14 Jan 1999 00:00:00 GMT
        !            34: ...
        !            35:
        !            36: If your source is correct, how come documents between 1929 and 1940 were
        !            37: still dated using the conventional, Gregorian calendar?
        !            38:
        !            39: I can post a scan of a document dated December 1, 1934, signed by
        !            40: Yenukidze, the secretary, on behalf of Kalinin, the President of the
        !            41: Executive Committee of the Supreme Soviet, if you like.
        !            42:
        !            43:
        !            44:
        !            45: Sweden (and Finland)
        !            46:
        !            47: From: Mark Brader
        !            48: Subject: Re: Gregorian reform - a part of locale?
        !            49: <news:1996Jul6.012937.29190@sq.com>
        !            50: Date: 1996-07-06
        !            51:
        !            52: In 1700, Denmark made the transition from Julian to Gregorian.  Sweden
        !            53: decided to *start* a transition in 1700 as well, but rather than have one of
        !            54: those unsightly calendar gaps :-), they simply decreed that the next leap
        !            55: year after 1696 would be in 1744 - putting the whole country on a calendar
        !            56: different from both Julian and Gregorian for a period of 40 years.
        !            57:
        !            58: However, in 1704 something went wrong and the plan was not carried through;
        !            59: they did, after all, have a leap year that year.  And one in 1708.  In 1712
        !            60: they gave it up and went back to Julian, putting 30 days in February that
        !            61: year!...
        !            62:
        !            63: Then in 1753, Sweden made the transition to Gregorian in the usual manner,
        !            64: getting there only 13 years behind the original schedule.
        !            65:
        !            66: (A previous posting of this story was challenged, and Swedish readers
        !            67: produced the following references to support it: "Tideräkning och historia"
        !            68: by Natanael Beckman (1924) and "Tid, en bok om tideräkning och
        !            69: kalenderväsen" by Lars-Olof Lodén (1968).
        !            70:
        !            71:
        !            72: Grotefend's data
        !            73:
        !            74: From: "Michael Palmer" [with one obvious typo fixed]
        !            75: Subject: Re: Gregorian Calendar (was Re: Another FHC related question
        !            76: Newsgroups: soc.genealogy.german
        !            77: Date: Tue, 9 Feb 1999 02:32:48 -800
        !            78: ...
        !            79:
        !            80: The following is a(n incomplete) listing, arranged chronologically, of
        !            81: European states, with the date they converted from the Julian to the
        !            82: Gregorian calendar:
        !            83:
        !            84: 04/15 Oct 1582 - Italy (with exceptions), Spain, Portugal, Poland (Roman
        !            85:                  Catholics and Danzig only)
        !            86: 09/20 Dec 1582 - France, Lorraine
        !            87:
        !            88: 21 Dec 1582/
        !            89:    01 Jan 1583 - Holland, Brabant, Flanders, Hennegau
        !            90: 10/21 Feb 1583 - bishopric of Liege (Lüttich)
        !            91: 13/24 Feb 1583 - bishopric of Augsburg
        !            92: 04/15 Oct 1583 - electorate of Trier
        !            93: 05/16 Oct 1583 - Bavaria, bishoprics of Freising, Eichstedt, Regensburg,
        !            94:                  Salzburg, Brixen
        !            95: 13/24 Oct 1583 - Austrian Oberelsaß and Breisgau
        !            96: 20/31 Oct 1583 - bishopric of Basel
        !            97: 02/13 Nov 1583 - duchy of Jülich-Berg
        !            98: 02/13 Nov 1583 - electorate and city of Köln
        !            99: 04/15 Nov 1583 - bishopric of Würzburg
        !           100: 11/22 Nov 1583 - electorate of Mainz
        !           101: 16/27 Nov 1583 - bishopric of Strassburg and the margraviate of Baden
        !           102: 17/28 Nov 1583 - bishopric of Münster and duchy of Cleve
        !           103: 14/25 Dec 1583 - Steiermark
        !           104:
        !           105: 06/17 Jan 1584 - Austria and Bohemia
        !           106: 11/22 Jan 1584 - Lucerne, Uri, Schwyz, Zug, Freiburg, Solothurn
        !           107: 12/23 Jan 1584 - Silesia and the Lausitz
        !           108: 22 Jan/
        !           109:    02 Feb 1584 - Hungary (legally on 21 Oct 1587)
        !           110:       Jun 1584 - Unterwalden
        !           111: 01/12 Jul 1584 - duchy of Westfalen
        !           112:
        !           113: 16/27 Jun 1585 - bishopric of Paderborn
        !           114:
        !           115: 14/25 Dec 1590 - Transylvania
        !           116:
        !           117: 22 Aug/
        !           118:    02 Sep 1612 - duchy of Prussia
        !           119:
        !           120: 13/24 Dec 1614 - Pfalz-Neuburg
        !           121:
        !           122:           1617 - duchy of Kurland (reverted to the Julian calendar in
        !           123:                  1796)
        !           124:
        !           125:           1624 - bishopric of Osnabrück
        !           126:
        !           127:           1630 - bishopric of Minden
        !           128:
        !           129: 15/26 Mar 1631 - bishopric of Hildesheim
        !           130:
        !           131:           1655 - Kanton Wallis
        !           132:
        !           133: 05/16 Feb 1682 - city of Strassburg
        !           134:
        !           135: 18 Feb/
        !           136:    01 Mar 1700 - Protestant Germany (including Swedish possessions in
        !           137:                  Germany), Denmark, Norway
        !           138: 30 Jun/
        !           139:    12 Jul 1700 - Gelderland, Zutphen
        !           140: 10 Nov/
        !           141:    12 Dec 1700 - Utrecht, Overijssel
        !           142:
        !           143: 31 Dec 1700/
        !           144:    12 Jan 1701 - Friesland, Groningen, Zürich, Bern, Basel, Geneva,
        !           145:                  Turgau, and Schaffhausen
        !           146:
        !           147:           1724 - Glarus, Appenzell, and the city of St. Gallen
        !           148:
        !           149: 01 Jan 1750    - Pisa and Florence
        !           150:
        !           151: 02/14 Sep 1752 - Great Britain
        !           152:
        !           153: 17 Feb/
        !           154:    01 Mar 1753 - Sweden
        !           155:
        !           156: 1760-1812      - Graubünden
        !           157:
        !           158: The Russian empire (including Finland and the Baltic states) did not
        !           159: convert to the Gregorian calendar until the Soviet revolution of 1917.
        !           160:
        !           161: Source: H. Grotefend, _Taschenbuch der Zeitrechnung des deutschen
        !           162: Mittelalters und der Neuzeit_, herausgegeben von Dr. O. Grotefend
        !           163: (Hannover: Hahnsche Buchhandlung, 1941), pp. 26-28.
        !           164:
        !           165: -----
        !           166:
        !           167: This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of 2009-05-17 by
        !           168: Arthur David Olson.
        !           169:
        !           170: -----
        !           171: Local Variables:
        !           172: coding: utf-8
        !           173: End:

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