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Annotation of src/lib/libc/gen/getcap.3, Revision 1.21

1.21    ! drochner    1: .\"    $NetBSD: getcap.3,v 1.20 2004/04/23 14:52:42 wiz Exp $
1.4       cgd         2: .\"
                      3: .\" Copyright (c) 1992, 1993
                      4: .\"    The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
1.1       cgd         5: .\"
                      6: .\" This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
                      7: .\" Casey Leedom of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
                      8: .\"
                      9: .\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
                     10: .\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
                     11: .\" are met:
                     12: .\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
                     13: .\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
                     14: .\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
                     15: .\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
                     16: .\"    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
1.18      agc        17: .\" 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
1.1       cgd        18: .\"    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
                     19: .\"    without specific prior written permission.
                     20: .\"
                     21: .\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
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1.6       perry      33: .\"    @(#)getcap.3    8.4 (Berkeley) 5/13/94
1.1       cgd        34: .\"
1.20      wiz        35: .Dd April 23, 2004
1.10      fair       36: .Dt GETCAP 3
1.1       cgd        37: .Os
                     38: .Sh NAME
                     39: .Nm cgetent ,
                     40: .Nm cgetset ,
                     41: .Nm cgetmatch ,
                     42: .Nm cgetcap ,
                     43: .Nm cgetnum ,
                     44: .Nm cgetstr ,
                     45: .Nm cgetustr ,
                     46: .Nm cgetfirst ,
                     47: .Nm cgetnext ,
                     48: .Nm cgetclose
                     49: .Nd capability database access routines
1.8       perry      50: .Sh LIBRARY
                     51: .Lb libc
1.1       cgd        52: .Sh SYNOPSIS
1.15      wiz        53: .In stdlib.h
1.1       cgd        54: .Ft int
1.19      christos   55: .Fn cgetent "char **buf" "const char * const *db_array" "const char *name"
1.1       cgd        56: .Ft int
1.11      kleink     57: .Fn cgetset "const char *ent"
1.1       cgd        58: .Ft int
1.11      kleink     59: .Fn cgetmatch "const char *buf" "const char *name"
1.1       cgd        60: .Ft char *
1.11      kleink     61: .Fn cgetcap "char *buf" "const char *cap" "int type"
1.1       cgd        62: .Ft int
1.11      kleink     63: .Fn cgetnum "char *buf" "const char *cap" "long *num"
1.1       cgd        64: .Ft int
1.11      kleink     65: .Fn cgetstr "char *buf" "const char *cap" "char **str"
1.1       cgd        66: .Ft int
1.11      kleink     67: .Fn cgetustr "char *buf" "const char *cap" "char **str"
1.1       cgd        68: .Ft int
1.19      christos   69: .Fn cgetfirst "char **buf" "const char * const *db_array"
1.1       cgd        70: .Ft int
1.19      christos   71: .Fn cgetnext "char **buf" "const char * const *db_array"
1.1       cgd        72: .Ft int
                     73: .Fn cgetclose "void"
                     74: .Sh DESCRIPTION
1.10      fair       75: .Fn cgetent
1.6       perry      76: extracts the capability
1.1       cgd        77: .Fa name
                     78: from the database specified by the
                     79: .Dv NULL
                     80: terminated file array
                     81: .Fa db_array
                     82: and returns a pointer to a
1.9       fair       83: .Xr malloc 3 Ns \&'d
1.1       cgd        84: copy of it in
1.10      fair       85: .Fa buf .
                     86: .Fn cgetent
                     87: will first look for files ending in
                     88: .Pa .db
1.1       cgd        89: (see
1.9       fair       90: .Xr cap_mkdb 1 )
1.10      fair       91: before accessing the
                     92: .Tn ASCII
                     93: file.
                     94: .Pp
                     95: .Fa buf
1.1       cgd        96: must be retained through all subsequent calls to
                     97: .Fn cgetmatch ,
                     98: .Fn cgetcap ,
                     99: .Fn cgetnum ,
                    100: .Fn cgetstr ,
                    101: and
                    102: .Fn cgetustr ,
                    103: but may then be
1.12      wiz       104: .Xr free 3 Ns \&'d .
1.10      fair      105: .Pp
                    106: On success 0 is returned, 1 if the returned record contains an unresolved
                    107: .Qq tc
                    108: expansion, \-1 if the requested record couldn't be found, \-2 if
                    109: a system error was encountered (couldn't open/read a file, etc.)
                    110: also setting
                    111: .Va errno ,
1.1       cgd       112: and \-3 if a potential reference loop is detected (see
1.10      fair      113: .Qq tc=name
1.1       cgd       114: comments below).
                    115: .Pp
1.10      fair      116: .Fn cgetset
1.1       cgd       117: enables the addition of a character buffer containing a single capability
1.10      fair      118: record entry to the capability database.
1.1       cgd       119: Conceptually, the entry is added as the first ``file'' in the database, and
1.10      fair      120: is therefore searched first on the call to
                    121: .Fn cgetent .
                    122: The entry is passed in
1.1       cgd       123: .Fa ent .
1.10      fair      124: If
                    125: .Fa ent
1.1       cgd       126: is
                    127: .Dv NULL ,
1.10      fair      128: the current entry is removed from the database.
                    129: .Pp
                    130: .Fn cgetset
                    131: must precede the database traversal.
                    132: It must be called before the
                    133: .Fn cgetent
                    134: call.
                    135: If a sequential access is being performed (see below), it must be called
                    136: before the first sequential access call
                    137: .Po
                    138: .Fn cgetfirst
1.1       cgd       139: or
1.10      fair      140: .Fn cgetnext
                    141: .Pc ,
                    142: or be directly preceded by a
                    143: .Fn cgetclose
1.1       cgd       144: call.
                    145: On success 0 is returned and \-1 on failure.
                    146: .Pp
1.10      fair      147: .Fn cgetmatch
1.1       cgd       148: will return 0 if
                    149: .Fa name
                    150: is one of the names of the capability record
                    151: .Fa buf ,
1.10      fair      152: \-1 if not.
1.1       cgd       153: .Pp
1.10      fair      154: .Fn cgetcap
1.1       cgd       155: searches the capability record
                    156: .Fa buf
                    157: for the capability
                    158: .Fa cap
                    159: with type
                    160: .Fa type .
                    161: A
                    162: .Fa type
1.10      fair      163: is specified using any single character.
                    164: If a colon (`:') is used, an untyped capability will be searched
                    165: for (see below for explanation of types).
                    166: A pointer to the value of
1.1       cgd       167: .Fa cap
                    168: in
                    169: .Fa buf
                    170: is returned on success,
                    171: .Dv NULL
1.10      fair      172: if the requested capability couldn't be found.
                    173: The end of the capability value is signaled by a `:' or
1.1       cgd       174: .Tn ASCII
                    175: .Dv NUL
                    176: (see below for capability database syntax).
                    177: .Pp
1.10      fair      178: .Fn cgetnum
1.1       cgd       179: retrieves the value of the numeric capability
                    180: .Fa cap
                    181: from the capability record pointed to by
                    182: .Fa buf .
                    183: The numeric value is returned in the
                    184: .Ft long
                    185: pointed to by
                    186: .Fa num .
1.10      fair      187: 0 is returned on success,
                    188: \-1 if the requested numeric capability couldn't be found.
1.1       cgd       189: .Pp
1.10      fair      190: .Fn cgetstr
1.1       cgd       191: retrieves the value of the string capability
                    192: .Fa cap
                    193: from the capability record pointed to by
                    194: .Fa buf .
                    195: A pointer to a decoded,
                    196: .Dv NUL
                    197: terminated,
1.9       fair      198: .Xr malloc 3 Ns \&'d
1.1       cgd       199: copy of the string is returned in the
                    200: .Ft char *
                    201: pointed to by
                    202: .Fa str .
                    203: The number of characters in the decoded string not including the trailing
                    204: .Dv NUL
                    205: is returned on success, \-1 if the requested string capability couldn't
                    206: be found, \-2 if a system error was encountered (storage allocation
                    207: failure).
                    208: .Pp
1.10      fair      209: .Fn cgetustr
                    210: is identical to
                    211: .Fn cgetstr
1.1       cgd       212: except that it does not expand special characters, but rather returns each
                    213: character of the capability string literally.
                    214: .Pp
1.10      fair      215: .Fn cgetfirst ,
                    216: .Fn cgetnext ,
                    217: comprise a function group that provides for sequential access of the
1.1       cgd       218: .Dv NULL
                    219: pointer terminated array of file names,
                    220: .Fa db_array .
1.10      fair      221: .Fn cgetfirst
1.1       cgd       222: returns the first record in the database and resets the access
                    223: to the first record.
1.10      fair      224: .Fn cgetnext
1.1       cgd       225: returns the next record in the database with respect to the
                    226: record returned by the previous
1.10      fair      227: .Fn cgetfirst
1.1       cgd       228: or
1.10      fair      229: .Fn cgetnext
                    230: call.
                    231: If there is no such previous call,
                    232: the first record in the database is returned.
1.1       cgd       233: Each record is returned in a
1.10      fair      234: .Xr malloc 3 Ns \&'d
                    235: copy pointed to by
                    236: .Fa buf .
                    237: .Qq tc
1.1       cgd       238: expansion is done (see
1.10      fair      239: .Qq tc=name
1.1       cgd       240: comments below).
1.10      fair      241: .Pp
1.1       cgd       242: Upon completion of the database 0 is returned,  1 is returned upon successful
1.10      fair      243: return of record with possibly more remaining (we haven't reached the end of
1.1       cgd       244: the database yet), 2 is returned if the record contains an unresolved
1.10      fair      245: .Qq tc
1.3       jtc       246: expansion, \-1 is returned if an system error occurred, and \-2
1.10      fair      247: is returned if a potential reference loop is detected (see
                    248: .Qq tc=name
1.1       cgd       249: comments below).
                    250: Upon completion of database (0 return) the database is closed.
                    251: .Pp
1.10      fair      252: .Fn cgetclose
                    253: closes the sequential access and frees any memory and file descriptors
                    254: being used.
                    255: Note that it does not erase the buffer pushed by a call to
                    256: .Fn cgetset .
1.1       cgd       257: .Sh CAPABILITY DATABASE SYNTAX
                    258: Capability databases are normally
                    259: .Tn ASCII
1.10      fair      260: and may be edited with standard text editors.
                    261: Blank lines and lines beginning with a `#' are comments and are ignored.
                    262: Lines ending with a `\|\e' indicate that the next line is a continuation
                    263: of the current line; the `\|\e' and following newline are ignored.
                    264: Long lines are usually continued onto several physical
1.1       cgd       265: lines by ending each line except the last with a `\|\e'.
                    266: .Pp
1.10      fair      267: Capability databases consist of a series of records, one per logical line.
                    268: Each record contains a variable number of `:'-separated fields (capabilities).
                    269: Empty fields consisting entirely of white space
1.1       cgd       270: characters (spaces and tabs) are ignored.
                    271: .Pp
                    272: The first capability of each record specifies its names, separated by `|'
1.10      fair      273: characters.
                    274: These names are used to reference records in the database.
1.1       cgd       275: By convention, the last name is usually a comment and is not intended as
1.10      fair      276: a lookup tag.
                    277: For example, the
1.1       cgd       278: .Em vt100
                    279: record from the
1.10      fair      280: .Pa termcap
1.1       cgd       281: database begins:
                    282: .Pp
                    283: .Dl "d0\||\|vt100\||\|vt100-am\||\|vt100am\||\|dec vt100:"
                    284: .Pp
                    285: giving four names that can be used to access the record.
                    286: .Pp
                    287: The remaining non-empty capabilities describe a set of (name, value)
1.16      wiz       288: bindings, consisting of a name optionally followed by a typed value:
1.1       cgd       289: .Bl -column "nameTvalue"
                    290: .It name Ta "typeless [boolean] capability"
                    291: .Em name No "is present [true]"
                    292: .It name Ns Em \&T Ns value Ta capability
                    293: .Pq Em name , \&T
                    294: has value
                    295: .Em value
                    296: .It name@ Ta "no capability" Em name No exists
                    297: .It name Ns Em T Ns \&@ Ta capability
                    298: .Pq Em name , T
                    299: does not exist
                    300: .El
                    301: .Pp
1.10      fair      302: Names consist of one or more characters.
                    303: Names may contain any character except `:', but it's usually best
                    304: to restrict them to the printable characters and avoid use of
                    305: graphics like `#', `=', `%', `@', etc.
                    306: .Pp
                    307: Types are single characters used to separate capability names from
                    308: their associated typed values.
                    309: Types may be any character except a `:'.
                    310: Typically, graphics like `#', `=', `%', etc. are used.
                    311: Values may be any number of characters and may contain any character except `:'.
1.1       cgd       312: .Sh CAPABILITY DATABASE SEMANTICS
1.10      fair      313: Capability records describe a set of (name, value) bindings.
                    314: Names may have multiple values bound to them.
                    315: Different values for a name are distinguished by their
1.1       cgd       316: .Fa types .
1.10      fair      317: .Fn cgetcap
1.1       cgd       318: will return a pointer to a value of a name given the capability name and
                    319: the type of the value.
                    320: .Pp
                    321: The types `#' and `=' are conventionally used to denote numeric and
1.10      fair      322: string typed values, but no restriction on those types is enforced.
                    323: The functions
                    324: .Fn cgetnum
1.1       cgd       325: and
1.10      fair      326: .Fn cgetstr
                    327: can be used to implement the traditional syntax and semantics of `#' and `='.
1.1       cgd       328: Typeless capabilities are typically used to denote boolean objects with
                    329: presence or absence indicating truth and false values respectively.
                    330: This interpretation is conveniently represented by:
                    331: .Pp
                    332: .Dl "(getcap(buf, name, ':') != NULL)"
                    333: .Pp
                    334: A special capability,
1.10      fair      335: .Qq tc=name ,
1.1       cgd       336: is used to indicate that the record specified by
                    337: .Fa name
                    338: should be substituted for the
1.10      fair      339: .Qq tc
1.1       cgd       340: capability.
1.10      fair      341: .Qq tc
1.1       cgd       342: capabilities may interpolate records which also contain
1.10      fair      343: .Qq tc
1.1       cgd       344: capabilities and more than one
1.10      fair      345: .Qq tc
                    346: capability may be used in a record.
                    347: A
                    348: .Qq tc
                    349: expansion scope (i.e. where the argument is searched for) contains the
1.1       cgd       350: file in which the
1.10      fair      351: .Qq tc
1.1       cgd       352: is declared and all subsequent files in the file array.
                    353: .Pp
                    354: When a database is searched for a capability record, the first matching
1.10      fair      355: record in the search is returned.
                    356: When a record is scanned for a capability, the first matching
                    357: capability is returned; the capability
                    358: .Qq :nameT@:
1.1       cgd       359: will hide any following definition of a value of type
                    360: .Em T
                    361: for
                    362: .Fa name ;
                    363: and the capability
1.10      fair      364: .Qq :name@:
1.1       cgd       365: will prevent any following values of
                    366: .Fa name
                    367: from being seen.
                    368: .Pp
                    369: These features combined with
1.10      fair      370: .Qq tc
1.1       cgd       371: capabilities can be used to generate variations of other databases and
                    372: records by either adding new capabilities, overriding definitions with new
                    373: definitions, or hiding following definitions via `@' capabilities.
                    374: .Sh EXAMPLES
                    375: .Bd -unfilled -offset indent
                    376: example\||\|an example of binding multiple values to names:\e
                    377:        :foo%bar:foo^blah:foo@:\e
                    378:        :abc%xyz:abc^frap:abc$@:\e
                    379:        :tc=more:
                    380: .Ed
                    381: .Pp
1.10      fair      382: The capability
                    383: .Em foo
                    384: has two values bound to it
                    385: .Po
                    386: .Em bar
                    387: of type `%' and
                    388: .Em blah
                    389: of type `^'
                    390: .Pc
                    391: and any other value bindings are hidden.
                    392: The capability
                    393: .Em abc
1.1       cgd       394: also has two values bound but only a value of type `$' is prevented from
                    395: being defined in the capability record more.
                    396: .Pp
                    397: .Bd -unfilled -offset indent
                    398: file1:
                    399:        new\||\|new_record\||\|a modification of "old":\e
                    400:                :fript=bar:who-cares@:tc=old:blah:tc=extensions:
                    401: file2:
                    402:        old\||\|old_record\||\|an old database record:\e
                    403:                :fript=foo:who-cares:glork#200:
                    404: .Ed
                    405: .Pp
                    406: The records are extracted by calling
1.10      fair      407: .Fn cgetent
                    408: with
                    409: .Fa file1
                    410: preceding
                    411: .Fa file2 .
                    412: In the capability record
                    413: .Em new
                    414: in
                    415: .Fa file1 ,
                    416: .Qq fript=bar
                    417: overrides the definition of
                    418: .Qq fript=foo
                    419: interpolated from the capability record
                    420: .Em old
                    421: in
1.12      wiz       422: .Fa file2 ,
1.10      fair      423: .Qq who-cares@
                    424: prevents the definition of any who-cares definitions in
                    425: .Em old
                    426: from being seen,
                    427: .Qq glork#200
                    428: is inherited from
                    429: .Em old ,
                    430: and
                    431: .Em blah
                    432: and anything defined by the record extensions is added to those
                    433: definitions in
                    434: .Em old .
                    435: Note that the position of the
                    436: .Qq fript=bar
                    437: and
                    438: .Qq who-cares@
                    439: definitions before
                    440: .Qq tc=old
                    441: is important here.
                    442: If they were after, the definitions in
                    443: .Em old
1.1       cgd       444: would take precedence.
                    445: .Sh CGETNUM AND CGETSTR SYNTAX AND SEMANTICS
                    446: Two types are predefined by
1.10      fair      447: .Fn cgetnum
1.1       cgd       448: and
1.10      fair      449: .Fn cgetstr :
1.1       cgd       450: .Bl -column "nameXnumber"
1.17      wiz       451: .It Em name Ns \&# Ns Em number Ta numeric
1.1       cgd       452: capability
                    453: .Em name
                    454: has value
                    455: .Em number
1.17      wiz       456: .It Em name Ns = Ns Em string Ta "string capability"
1.1       cgd       457: .Em name
1.10      fair      458: has value
1.1       cgd       459: .Em string
1.17      wiz       460: .It Em name Ns \&#@ Ns Ta "the numeric capability"
1.1       cgd       461: .Em name
                    462: does not exist
1.17      wiz       463: .It Em name Ns \&=@ Ns Ta "the string capability"
1.1       cgd       464: .Em name
                    465: does not exist
                    466: .El
                    467: .Pp
                    468: Numeric capability values may be given in one of three numeric bases.
                    469: If the number starts with either
                    470: .Ql 0x
                    471: or
                    472: .Ql 0X
                    473: it is interpreted as a hexadecimal number (both upper and lower case a-f
                    474: may be used to denote the extended hexadecimal digits).
                    475: Otherwise, if the number starts with a
                    476: .Ql 0
                    477: it is interpreted as an octal number.
                    478: Otherwise the number is interpreted as a decimal number.
                    479: .Pp
1.10      fair      480: String capability values may contain any character.
                    481: Non-printable
1.1       cgd       482: .Dv ASCII
                    483: codes, new lines, and colons may be conveniently represented by the use
                    484: of escape sequences:
                    485: .Bl -column "\e\|X,X\e\|X" "(ASCII octal nnn)"
1.14      ross      486: ^X     ('\fIX\fP' \*[Am] 037)  control-\fIX\fP
1.1       cgd       487: \e\|b, \e\|B   (ASCII 010)     backspace
                    488: \e\|t, \e\|T   (ASCII 011)     tab
                    489: \e\|n, \e\|N   (ASCII 012)     line feed (newline)
                    490: \e\|f, \e\|F   (ASCII 014)     form feed
                    491: \e\|r, \e\|R   (ASCII 015)     carriage return
                    492: \e\|e, \e\|E   (ASCII 027)     escape
                    493: \e\|c, \e\|C   (:)     colon
                    494: \e\|\e (\e\|)  back slash
                    495: \e\|^  (^)     caret
                    496: \e\|\fInnn\fP  (ASCII octal \fInnn\fP)
                    497: .El
                    498: .Pp
1.16      wiz       499: A `\|\e' followed by up to three octal digits directly specifies
1.10      fair      500: the numeric code for a character.
                    501: The use of
1.1       cgd       502: .Tn ASCII
                    503: .Dv NUL Ns s ,
                    504: while easily
                    505: encoded, causes all sorts of problems and must be used with care since
                    506: .Dv NUL Ns s
                    507: are typically used to denote the end of strings; many applications
                    508: use `\e\|200' to represent a
                    509: .Dv NUL .
                    510: .Sh DIAGNOSTICS
1.10      fair      511: .Fn cgetent ,
                    512: .Fn cgetset ,
                    513: .Fn cgetmatch ,
                    514: .Fn cgetnum ,
                    515: .Fn cgetstr ,
                    516: .Fn cgetustr ,
                    517: .Fn cgetfirst ,
1.1       cgd       518: and
1.10      fair      519: .Fn cgetnext
1.4       cgd       520: return a value greater than or equal to 0 on success and a value less
1.1       cgd       521: than 0 on failure.
1.10      fair      522: .Fn cgetcap
1.1       cgd       523: returns a character pointer on success and a
                    524: .Dv NULL
                    525: on failure.
                    526: .Pp
1.10      fair      527: .Fn cgetent ,
                    528: and
1.21    ! drochner  529: .Fn cgetset
1.10      fair      530: may fail and set
1.1       cgd       531: .Va errno
                    532: for any of the errors specified for the library functions:
1.10      fair      533: .Xr fopen 3 ,
                    534: .Xr fclose 3 ,
1.1       cgd       535: .Xr open 2 ,
1.10      fair      536: and
1.1       cgd       537: .Xr close 2 .
                    538: .Pp
1.10      fair      539: .Fn cgetent ,
                    540: .Fn cgetset ,
                    541: .Fn cgetstr ,
1.1       cgd       542: and
1.10      fair      543: .Fn cgetustr
                    544: may fail and set
                    545: .Va errno
1.1       cgd       546: as follows:
                    547: .Bl -tag -width Er
                    548: .It Bq Er ENOMEM
                    549: No memory to allocate.
                    550: .El
                    551: .Sh SEE ALSO
                    552: .Xr cap_mkdb 1 ,
                    553: .Xr malloc 3
                    554: .Sh BUGS
                    555: Colons (`:') can't be used in names, types, or values.
                    556: .Pp
                    557: There are no checks for
1.10      fair      558: .Qq tc=name
1.1       cgd       559: loops in
1.10      fair      560: .Fn cgetent .
1.1       cgd       561: .Pp
1.10      fair      562: The buffer added to the database by a call to
                    563: .Fn cgetset
1.1       cgd       564: is not unique to the database but is rather prepended to any database used.

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