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Revision 1.32, Sat Sep 23 11:24:44 2006 UTC (14 years, 2 months ago) by wiz
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.\" $NetBSD: cat.1,v 1.32 2006/09/23 11:24:44 wiz Exp $ .\" .\" Copyright (c) 1989, 1990, 1993 .\" The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved. .\" .\" This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by .\" the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. .\" .\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without .\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions .\" are met: .\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. .\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the .\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. .\" 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors .\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software .\" without specific prior written permission. .\" .\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND .\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE .\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE .\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE .\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL .\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS .\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) .\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT .\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY .\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF .\" SUCH DAMAGE. .\" .\" @(#)cat.1 8.3 (Berkeley) 5/2/95 .\" .Dd September 23, 2006 .Dt CAT 1 .Os .Sh NAME .Nm cat .Nd concatenate and print files .Sh SYNOPSIS .Nm .Op Fl beflnstuv .Op Fl .Op Ar .Sh DESCRIPTION The .Nm utility reads files sequentially, writing them to the standard output. The .Ar file operands are processed in command line order. A single dash represents the standard input, and may appear multiple times in the .Ar file list. .Pp The word .Dq concatenate is just a verbose synonym for .Dq catenate . .Pp The options are as follows: .Bl -tag -width Ds .It Fl b Implies the .Fl n option but doesn't number blank lines. .It Fl e Implies the .Fl v option, and displays a dollar sign .Pq Ql \&$ at the end of each line as well. .It Fl f Only attempt to display regular files. .It Fl l Set an exclusive advisory lock on the standard output file descriptor. This lock is set using .Xr fcntl 2 with the .Dv F_SETLKW command. If the output file is already locked, .Nm will block until the lock is acquired. .It Fl n Number the output lines, starting at 1. .It Fl s Squeeze multiple adjacent empty lines, causing the output to be single spaced. .It Fl t Implies the .Fl v option, and displays tab characters as .Ql ^I as well. .It Fl u The .Fl u option guarantees that the output is unbuffered. .It Fl v Displays non-printing characters so they are visible. Control characters print as .Ql ^X for control-X; the delete character (octal 0177) prints as .Ql ^? . Non-ascii characters (with the high bit set) are printed as .Ql M- (for meta) followed by the character for the low 7 bits. .El .Sh EXIT STATUS The .Nm utility exits 0 on success, and \*[Gt]0 if an error occurs. .Sh EXAMPLES The command: .Bd -literal -offset indent .Ic cat file1 .Ed .Pp will print the contents of .Ar file1 to the standard output. .Pp The command: .Bd -literal -offset indent .Ic cat file1 file2 \*[Gt] file3 .Ed .Pp will sequentially print the contents of .Ar file1 and .Ar file2 to the file .Ar file3 , truncating .Ar file3 if it already exists. See the manual page for your shell (i.e., .Xr sh 1 ) for more information on redirection. .Pp The command: .Bd -literal -offset indent .Ic cat file1 - file2 - file3 .Ed .Pp will print the contents of .Ar file1 , print data it receives from the standard input until it receives an .Dv EOF .Pq Sq ^D character, print the contents of .Ar file2 , read and output contents of the standard input again, then finally output the contents of .Ar file3 . Note that if the standard input referred to a file, the second dash on the command-line would have no effect, since the entire contents of the file would have already been read and printed by .Nm when it encountered the first .Ql \&- operand. .Sh SEE ALSO .Xr head 1 , .Xr hexdump 1 , .Xr lpr 1 , .Xr more 1 , .Xr pr 1 , .Xr tail 1 , .Xr view 1 , .Xr vis 1 , .Xr fcntl 2 .Rs .%A Rob Pike .%T "UNIX Style, or cat -v Considered Harmful" .%J "USENIX Summer Conference Proceedings" .%D 1983 .Re .Sh STANDARDS The .Nm utility is expected to conform to the .St -p1003.2-92 specification. .Pp The flags .Op Fl belnstv are extensions to the specification. .Sh HISTORY A .Nm utility appeared in .At v1 . Dennis Ritchie designed and wrote the first man page. It appears to have been .Xr cat 1 . .Sh BUGS Because of the shell language mechanism used to perform output redirection, the command .Dq Li cat file1 file2 \*[Gt] file1 will cause the original data in file1 to be destroyed! This is performed by the shell before .Nm is run.