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File: [cvs.NetBSD.org] / pkgsrc / pkgtools / pkg_install / files / add / pkg_add.1 (download)

Revision 1.7, Sat Dec 20 04:23:05 2003 UTC (18 years, 1 month ago) by grant
Branch: MAIN
CVS Tags: pkgsrc-2004Q1-base, pkgsrc-2004Q1
Changes since 1.6: +14 -2 lines

Sync pkgtools/pkg_install with src/usr.sbin/pkg_install from 20031220.
New features include OS/arch/version checking and a large speed
improvement to pkg_info.

.\" $NetBSD: pkg_add.1,v 1.7 2003/12/20 04:23:05 grant Exp $
.\"
.\" FreeBSD install - a package for the installation and maintenance
.\" of non-core utilities.
.\"
.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
.\" are met:
.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
.\"    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
.\"
.\" Jordan K. Hubbard
.\"
.\"
.\"     @(#)pkg_add.1
.\"
.Dd December 20, 2003
.Dt PKG_ADD 1
.Os
.Sh NAME
.Nm pkg_add
.Nd a utility for installing and upgrading software package distributions
.Sh SYNOPSIS
.Nm
.Op Fl fILMnRSuVv
.Bk -words
.Op Fl K Ar pkg_dbdir
.Ek
.Bk -words
.Op Fl p Ar prefix
.Ek
.Bk -words
.Op Fl s Ar verification-type
.Ek
.Bk -words
.Op Fl t Ar template
.Ek
.Bk -words
.Op Fl W Ar viewbase
.Ek
.Bk -words
.Op Fl w Ar view
.Ek
.Ar \fR[[ftp|http]://[\fIuser\fR[:\fIpassword]\fR@]\fIhost\fR[:\fIport\fR]][/\fIpath/\fR]pkg-name ...
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
command is used to extract and upgrade packages that have been
previously created with the
.Xr pkg_create 1
command.
Packages are prepared collections of pre-built binaries, documentation,
configurations, installation instructions and/or other files.
.Nm
can recursively install other packages that the current package
depends on or requires from both local disk and via FTP or HTTP.
.Sh WARNING
.Bf -emphasis
Since the
.Nm
command may execute scripts or programs contained within a package file,
your system may be susceptible to ``Trojan horses'' or other subtle
attacks from miscreants who create dangerous package files.
.Pp
You are advised to verify the competence and identity of those who
provide installable package files.
For extra protection, use the digital signatures provided where possible
(see the
.Fl s
option), or, failing that, use the
.Fl M
flag to extract the package file, and inspect its contents and scripts
to ensure it poses no danger to your system's integrity.
Pay particular attention to any +INSTALL, +DEINSTALL, +REQUIRE
or +MTREE_DIRS files, and inspect the +CONTENTS file for
.Cm @cwd ,
.Cm @mode
(check for setuid),
.Cm @dirrm ,
.Cm @exec ,
and
.Cm @unexec
directives, and/or use the
.Xr pkg_info 1
command to examine the package file.
.Ef
.Sh OPTIONS
The following command line arguments are supported:
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Ar pkg-name [ ... ]
The named packages are installed.
.Ar pkg-name
may be either a URL or a local pathname,
a package name of "-" will cause
.Nm
to read from stdin.
If the packages are not found in the current
working directory,
.Nm
will search them in each directory named by the
.Ev PKG_PATH
environment variable.
Any dependencies required by the installed package will be searched
in the same location that the original package was installed from.
.It Fl f
Force installation to proceed even if prerequisite packages are not
installed or the requirements script fails.
Although
.Nm
will still try to find and auto-install missing prerequisite packages,
a failure to find one will not be fatal.
This flag also overrides the fatal error when the operating system or
architecture the package was built on differ from that of the host.
.It Fl I
If an installation script exists for a given package, do not execute it.
.It Fl K Ar pkg_dbdir
Set
.Ar pkg_dbdir
as the package database directory.
If this option isn't specified, then the package database directory is
taken from the value of the environment variable
.Ev PKG_DBDIR
if it's set, otherwise it defaults to
.Pa /var/db/pkg .
.It Fl L
Don't add the package to any views after installation.
.It Fl M
Run in
.Cm MASTER
mode.
This is a very specialized mode for running
.Nm
and is meant to be run in conjunction with
.Cm SLAVE
mode.
When run in this mode,
.Nm
does no work beyond extracting the package into a temporary staging
area (see the
.Fl t
option), reading in the packing list, and then dumping it (prefaced by
the current staging area) to stdout where it may be filtered by a
program such as
.Xr sed 1 .
When used in conjunction with
.Cm SLAVE
mode, it allows you to make radical changes to the package structure
before acting on its contents.
.It Fl n
Don't actually install a package, just report the steps that
would be taken if it was.
.It Fl p Ar prefix
Set
.Ar prefix
as the directory in which to extract files from a package.
If a package has set its default directory, it will be overridden
by this flag.
Note that only the first
.Cm @cwd
directive will be replaced, since
.Nm
has no way of knowing which directory settings are relative and
which are absolute.
It is rare in any case to see more than one directory transition made,
but when such does happen and you wish to have control over *all* directory
transitions, then you may then wish to look into the use of
.Cm MASTER
and
.Cm SLAVE
modes (see the
.Fl M
and
.Fl S
options).
.It Fl R
Do not record the installation of a package.
This means that you cannot deinstall it later, so only use this option if
you know what you are doing!
.It Fl S
Run in
.Cm SLAVE
mode.
This is a very specialized mode for running
.Nm
and is meant to be run in conjunction with
.Cm MASTER
mode.
When run in this mode,
.Nm
expects the release contents to be already extracted and waiting
in the staging area, the location of which is read as a string
from stdin.
The complete packing list is also read from stdin,
and the contents then acted on as normal.
.It Fl s Ar verification-type
Use a callout to an external program to verify the binary package
being installed against an existing detached signature file.
The signature file must reside in the same directory
as the binary package.
At the present time, the following verification types
are defined: none, gpg and pgp5.
The signature will be verified at install time, and the results
will be displayed.
If the signature type is anything other than none, the user will be asked if
.Nm
should proceed to install the binary package.
The user must then take the decision whether to proceed or not, depending
upon the amount of trust that is placed in the signatory of the binary
package.
Please note that, at the current time, it is not possible to use
the verification feature when using
.Nm
to add a binary package via a URL - the package, and the related
detached signature file, must be local
for the verification to work.
.It Fl t Ar template
Use
.Ar template
as the input to
.Xr mktemp 3
when creating a ``staging area.''
By default, this is the string
.Pa /var/tmp/instmp.XXXXXX ,
but it may be necessary to override it in the situation where
space in your
.Pa /var/tmp
directory is limited.
Be sure to leave some number of `X' characters for
.Xr mktemp 3
to fill in with a unique ID.
.Pp
You can get a performance boost by setting the staging area
.Ar template
to reside on the same disk partition as target directories for package
file installation; often this is
.Pa /usr .
.It Fl u
If the package that's being installed is already installed, either
in the same or a different version, an update is performed.
See below for a more detailed description of the process.
.It Fl V
Print version number and exit.
.It Fl v
Turn on verbose output.
.It Fl W Ar viewbase
Set
.Ar viewbase
as the base directory for the managed views.
The default
.Ar viewbase
directory is set by
.Xr pkg_view 1 .
This value also may be set from the
.Ev LOCALBASE
environment variable.
.It Fl w Ar view
Set the
.Ar view
to which packages should be added after installation.
The default
.Ar view
is set by
.Xr pkg_view 1 .
This value also may be set from the
.Ev PKG_VIEW
environment variable.
.El
.Pp
One or more
.Ar pkg-name
arguments may be specified, each being either a file containing the
package (these usually ending with the ``.tgz'' suffix) or a
URL pointing at a file available on an ftp or web site.
Thus you may extract files directly from their anonymous ftp or WWW
locations (e.g.,
.Nm
ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/packages/1.5/i386/shells/bash-2.04.tgz
or
.Nm
http://www.example.org/packages/screen-4.0.tbz).
Note:  For ftp transfers, if you wish to use
.Bf -emphasis
passive mode
.Ef
ftp in such transfers, set the variable
.Bf -emphasis
FTP_PASSIVE_MODE
.Ef
to some value in your environment.
Otherwise, the more standard ACTIVE mode may be used.
If
.Nm
consistently fails to fetch a package from a site known to work,
it may be because you have a firewall that demands the usage of
.Bf -emphasis
passive mode
.Ef
ftp.
.Sh TECHNICAL DETAILS
.Nm
extracts each package's "packing list"
into a special staging directory in /var/tmp (or $PKG_TMPDIR if set)
and then runs through the following sequence to fully extract the contents
of the package:
.Bl -enum -offset indent
.It
A check is made to determine if the package or another version of it
is already recorded as installed.
If it is,
installation is terminated if the
.Fl u
option is not given.
.Pp
If the
.Fl u
option is given, it's assumed the package should be replaced by the
new version instead.  Before doing so, all packages that depend on the
pkg being upgraded are checked if they also work with the new version.
If that test is successful, replacing is prepared by moving an existing
.Pa +REQUIRED_BY
file aside (if it exists), and running
.Xr pkg_delete 1
on the installed package.
Installation then proceeds as if the package
was not installed, and restores the
.Pa +REQUIRED_BY
file afterwards.
.It
A check is made to determine if the package conflicts (from
.Cm @pkgcfl
directives, see
.Xr pkg_create 1 )
with an already recorded as installed package.
If it is, installation is terminated.
.It
All package dependencies (from
.Cm @pkgdep
directives, see
.Xr pkg_create 1 )
are read from the packing list.
If any of these required packages are not currently installed,
an attempt is made to find and install it;
if the missing package cannot be found or installed,
the installation is terminated.
.It
A search is made for any
.Cm @option
directives which control how the package is added to the system.
The only currently implemented option is
.Cm @option extract-in-place ,
which causes the package to be extracted directly into its
prefix directory rather than moving it through a staging area in
.Pa /var/tmp .
.It
If
.Cm @option extract-in-place
is enabled, the package is now extracted directly into its
final location, otherwise it is extracted into the staging area.
.It
The package build information is extracted from the
.Pa +BUILD_INFO
file and compared against the result of
.Xr uname 3 .
If the operating system or architecture of the package differ from
that of the host, installation is aborted.
This behavior is overridable with the
.Fl f
flag.
.It
If the package contains a
.Ar require
script (see
.Xr pkg_create 1 ) ,
it is executed with the following arguments:
.Bl -tag -width indentindent
.It Ar pkg-name
The name of the package being installed
.It Cm INSTALL
Keyword denoting to the script that it is to run an installation requirements
check.
(The keyword is useful only to scripts which serve multiple functions).
.El
.Pp
If the
.Ar require
script exits with a non-zero status code, the installation is terminated.
.It
If the package contains an
.Ar install
script, it is executed with the following arguments:
.Bl -tag -width indentindent
.It Ar pkg-name
The name of the package being installed.
.It Cm PRE-INSTALL
Keyword denoting that the script is to perform any actions needed before
the package is installed.
.El
.Pp
If the
.Ar install
script exits with a non-zero status code, the installation is terminated.
.It
If
.Cm @option extract-in-place
is not present in the packing list,
then it is used as a guide for moving (or copying, as necessary) files from
the staging area into their final locations.
.It
If the package contains an
.Ar mtreefile
file (see
.Xr pkg_create 1 ) ,
then mtree is invoked as:
.Bd -filled -offset indent -compact
.Cm mtree
.Fl u
.Fl f
.Ar mtreefile
.Fl d
.Fl e
.Fl p
.Pa prefix
.Ed
where
.Pa prefix
is either the prefix specified with the
.Fl p
flag or, if no
.Fl p
flag was specified, the name of the first directory named by a
.Cm @cwd
directive within this package.
.It
If an
.Ar install
script exists for the package, it is executed with the following arguments:
.Bl -tag -width indentindent
.It Ar pkg_name
The name of the package being installed.
.It Cm POST-INSTALL
Keyword denoting that the script is to perform any actions needed
after the package has been installed.
.El
.It
After installation is complete, a copy of the packing list,
.Ar deinstall
script, description, and display files are copied into
.Pa /var/db/pkg/\*[Lt]pkg-name\*[Gt]
for subsequent possible use by
.Xr pkg_delete 1 .
Any package dependencies are recorded in the other packages'
.Pa /var/db/pkg/\*[Lt]other-pkg\*[Gt]/+REQUIRED_BY
file
(if an alternate package database directory is specified, then it
overrides the
.Pa /var/db/pkg
path shown above).
.It
If the package is a depoted package, then add it to the default view.
.It
The staging area is deleted and the program terminates.
.It
Finally, if we were upgrading a package, any
.Pa +REQUIRED_BY
file that was moved aside before upgrading was started is now moved
back into place.
.El
.Pp
The
.Ar install
and
.Ar require
scripts are called with the environment variable
.Ev PKG_PREFIX
set to the installation prefix (see the
.Fl p
option above).
This allows a package author to write a script
that reliably performs some action on the directory where the package
is installed, even if the user might change it with the
.Fl p
flag to
.Cm pkg_add .
.Sh ENVIRONMENT
.Bl -tag -width PKG_TMPDIR
.It Ev LOCALBASE
This is the location of the
.Ar viewbase
directory in which all the views are managed.
The default
.Ar viewbase
directory is
.Pa /usr/pkg .
.It Ev PKG_DBDIR
If the
.Fl K
flag isn't given, then
.Ev PKG_DBDIR
is the location of the package database directory.
The default package database directory is
.Pa /var/db/pkg .
.It Ev PKG_PATH
The value of the
.Ev PKG_PATH
is used if a given package can't be found, it's usually set to
.Pa /usr/pkgsrc/packages/All .
The environment variable
should be a series of entries separated by semicolons.
Each entry consists of a directory name or URL.
The current directory may be indicated implicitly by an empty directory
name, or explicitly by a single period.
FTP URLs may not end with a slash.
.It Ev PKG_TMPDIR
Staging directory for installing packages, defaults to /var/tmp.
Set to directory with lots of free disk if you run out of
space when installing a binary package.
.It Ev PKG_VIEW
The default view can be specified in the
.Ev PKG_VIEW
environment variable.
.El
.Sh EXAMPLES
In all cases,
.Nm
will try to install binary packages listed in dependencies list.
.Pp
You can specify a compiled binary package explicitly on the command line.
.Bd -literal
# pkg_add /usr/pkgsrc/packages/All/tcsh-6.10.00.tgz
.Ed
.Pp
If you omit the version number,
.Nm
will install the latest version available.
With
.Fl v ,
.Nm
emits more messages to terminal.
.Bd -literal
# pkg_add -v /usr/pkgsrc/packages/All/unzip
.Ed
.Pp
You can grab a compiled binary package from remote location, by specifying
a URL.
The URL can be put into an environment variable,
.Ev PKG_PATH .
.Bd -literal
# pkg_add -v ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/packages/1.5/i386/All/mozilla-0.8.1.tgz

# export PKG_PATH=ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/packages/1.5/i386/All
# pkg_add -v mozilla
.Ed
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr pkg_admin 1 ,
.Xr pkg_create 1 ,
.Xr pkg_delete 1 ,
.Xr pkg_info 1 ,
.Xr mktemp 3 ,
.Xr sysconf 3 ,
.Xr packages 7 ,
.Xr mtree 8
.Sh AUTHORS
.Bl -tag -width indent -compact
.It "Jordan Hubbard"
Initial work and ongoing development.
.It "John Kohl"
.Nx
refinements.
.It "Hubert Feyrer"
.Nx
wildcard dependency processing, pkgdb, upgrading, etc.
.It Thomas Klausner
HTTP support.
.El
.Sh BUGS
Hard links between files in a distribution are only preserved if either
(1) the staging area is on the same file system as the target directory of
all the links to the file, or (2) all the links to the file are bracketed by
.Cm @cwd
directives in the contents file,
.Em and
and the link names are extracted with a single
.Cm tar
command (not split between
invocations due to exec argument-space limitations--this depends on the
value returned by
.Fn sysconf _SC_ARG_MAX ) .
.Pp
Pkg upgrading needs a lot more work to be really universal.
.Pp
Sure to be others.