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<body bgcolor="white" text="black" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084" alink="#0000FF"><div class="book" title="The pkgsrc guide">
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<div><h1 class="title">
<a name="the-pkgsrc-guide"></a>The pkgsrc guide</h1></div>
<div><h2 class="subtitle">Documentation on the NetBSD packages system</h2></div>
<div><div class="authorgroup">
<div class="author">
<h3 class="author">
<span class="firstname">Alistair</span> <span class="surname">Crooks</span>
</h3>
<div class="affiliation"><div class="address"><p><code class="email">&lt;<a class="email" href="mailto:agc@NetBSD.org">agc@NetBSD.org</a>&gt;</code></p></div></div>
</div>
<div class="author">
<h3 class="author">
<span class="firstname">Hubert</span> <span class="surname">Feyrer</span>
</h3>
<div class="affiliation"><div class="address"><p><code class="email">&lt;<a class="email" href="mailto:hubertf@NetBSD.org">hubertf@NetBSD.org</a>&gt;</code></p></div></div>
</div>
<h3 class="corpauthor">
        The pkgsrc Developers
      </h3>
</div></div>
<div><p class="copyright">Copyright 1994-2007 The NetBSD Foundation, Inc</p></div>
<div><p class="pubdate">$NetBSD: pkgsrc.xml,v 1.26 2007/09/18 08:17:21 rillig Exp $</p></div>
<div><div class="abstract" title="Abstract">
<p class="title"><b>Abstract</b></p>
<p>pkgsrc is a centralized package management system for
	Unix-like operating systems. This guide provides information for
	users and developers of pkgsrc. It covers installation of binary
	and source packages, creation of binary and source packages and
	a high-level overview about the infrastructure.</p>
</div></div>
</div>
<hr>
</div>
<div class="toc">
<p><b>Table of Contents</b></p>
<dl>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#introduction">1. What is pkgsrc?</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#introduction-section">1.1. Introduction</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#why-pkgsrc">1.1.1. Why pkgsrc?</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#intro.platforms">1.1.2. Supported platforms</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#overview">1.2. Overview</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#terminology">1.3. Terminology</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#term.roles">1.3.1. Roles involved in pkgsrc</a></span></dt></dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#typography">1.4. Typography</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="part"><a href="#users-guide">I. The pkgsrc user's guide</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#getting">2. Where to get pkgsrc and how to keep it up-to-date</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#getting-first">2.1. Getting pkgsrc for the first time</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#getting-via-tar">2.1.1. As tar file</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#getting-via-cvs">2.1.2. Via anonymous CVS</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#uptodate">2.2. Keeping pkgsrc up-to-date</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#uptodate-tar">2.2.1. Via tar files</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#uptodate-cvs">2.2.2. Via CVS</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#platforms">3. Using pkgsrc on systems other than NetBSD</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#binarydist">3.1. Binary distribution</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#bootstrapping-pkgsrc">3.2. Bootstrapping pkgsrc</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#platform-specific-notes">3.3. Platform-specific notes</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#darwin">3.3.1. Darwin (Mac OS X)</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#freebsd">3.3.2. FreeBSD</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#interix">3.3.3. Interix</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#irix">3.3.4. IRIX</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#linux">3.3.5. Linux</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#openbsd">3.3.6. OpenBSD</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#solaris">3.3.7. Solaris</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#using">4. Using pkgsrc</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#using-pkg">4.1. Using binary packages</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#finding-binary-packages">4.1.1. Finding binary packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#installing-binary-packages">4.1.2. Installing binary packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#using.pkg_delete">4.1.3. Deinstalling packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#using.pkg_info">4.1.4. Getting information about installed packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#vulnerabilities">4.1.5. Checking for security vulnerabilities in installed packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#pkg_versions">4.1.6. Finding if newer versions of your installed packages are in pkgsrc</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#using.pkg_admin">4.1.7. Other administrative functions</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#a-word-of-warning">4.1.8. A word of warning</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#building-packages-from-source">4.2. Building packages from source</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#requirements">4.2.1. Requirements</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#fetching-distfiles">4.2.2. Fetching distfiles</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#how-to-build-and-install">4.2.3. How to build and install</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#configuring">5. Configuring pkgsrc</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#general-configuration">5.1. General configuration</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#variables-affecting-build">5.2. Variables affecting the build process</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#variables-affecting-installation">5.3. Variables affecting the installation process</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#conf.compiler">5.4. Selecting and configuring the compiler</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#selecting-the-compiler">5.4.1. Selecting the compiler</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#conf.cflags">5.4.2. Additional flags to the compiler (<code class="varname">CFLAGS</code>)</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#conf.ldflags">5.4.3. Additional flags to the linker (<code class="varname">LDFLAGS</code>)</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#developer-advanced-settings">5.5. Developer/advanced settings</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#selecting-build-options">5.6. Selecting Build Options</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#binary">6. Creating binary packages</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#building-a-single-binary-package">6.1. Building a single binary package</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#settings-for-creationg-of-binary-packages">6.2. Settings for creation of binary packages</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#bulk">7. Creating binary packages for everything in pkgsrc (bulk
builds)</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#bulk.pre">7.1. Think first, build later</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#bulk.req">7.2. Requirements of a bulk build</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#bulk.old">7.3. Running an old-style bulk build</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#binary.configuration">7.3.1. Configuration</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#other-environmental-considerations">7.3.2. Other environmental considerations</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#operation">7.3.3. Operation</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#what-it-does">7.3.4. What it does</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#disk-space-requirements">7.3.5. Disk space requirements</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#setting-up-a-sandbox">7.3.6. Setting up a sandbox for chrooted builds</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#building-a-partial-set">7.3.7. Building a partial set of packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#bulk-upload">7.3.8. Uploading results of a bulk build</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#bulk.pbulk">7.4. Running a pbulk-style bulk build</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#bulk.pbulk.prepare">7.4.1. Preparation</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#bulk.pbulk.conf">7.4.2. Configuration</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#creating-cdroms">7.5. Creating a multiple CD-ROM packages collection</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#cdpack-example">7.5.1. Example of cdpack</a></span></dt></dl></dd>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#files">8. Directory layout of the installed files</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#files.localbase">8.1. File system layout in <code class="literal">${LOCALBASE}</code></a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#files.varbase">8.2. File system layout in <code class="literal">${VARBASE}</code></a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#faq">9. Frequently Asked Questions</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#mailing-list-pointers">9.1. Are there any mailing lists for pkg-related discussion?</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#pkgviews-docs">9.2. Where's the pkgviews documentation?</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#faq-pkgtools">9.3. Utilities for package management (pkgtools)</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#non-root-pkgsrc">9.4. How to use pkgsrc as non-root</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#resume-transfers">9.5. How to resume transfers when fetching distfiles?</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#x.org-from-pkgsrc">9.6. How can I install/use modular X.org from pkgsrc?</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#fetch-behind-firewall">9.7. How to fetch files from behind a firewall</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#passive-ftp">9.8. How do I tell <span class="command"><strong>make fetch</strong></span> to do passive FTP?</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#fetching-all-distfiles">9.9. How to fetch all distfiles at once</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#tmac.andoc-missing">9.10. What does <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">Don't know how to make
/usr/share/tmac/tmac.andoc</span>&#8221;</span> mean?</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#bsd.own.mk-missing">9.11. What does <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">Could not find bsd.own.mk</span>&#8221;</span> mean?</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#using-sudo-with-pkgsrc">9.12. Using 'sudo' with pkgsrc</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#faq.conf">9.13. How do I change the location of configuration files?</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#audit-packages">9.14. Automated security checks</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#ufaq-cflags">9.15. Why do some packages ignore my <code class="varname">CFLAGS</code>?</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#ufaq-fail">9.16. A package does not build.  What shall I do?</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#faq.rcs-conflicts">9.17. What does <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">Makefile appears to contain unresolved cvs/rcs/??? merge conflicts</span>&#8221;</span> mean?</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="part"><a href="#developers-guide">II. The pkgsrc developer's guide</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#creating">10. Creating a new pkgsrc package from scratch</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#creating.common">10.1. Common types of packages</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#creating.perl-module">10.1.1. Perl modules</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#creating.kde-app">10.1.2. KDE applications</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#creating.python-module">10.1.3. Python modules and programs</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#creating.examples">10.2. Examples</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#creating.nvu">10.2.1. How the www/nvu package came into pkgsrc</a></span></dt></dl></dd>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#components">11. Package components - files, directories and contents</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#components.Makefile">11.1. <code class="filename">Makefile</code></a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#components.distinfo">11.2. <code class="filename">distinfo</code></a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#components.patches">11.3. patches/*</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#components.patch.structure">11.3.1. Structure of a single patch file</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#components.patches.caveats">11.3.2. Creating patch files</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#components.patches.sources">11.3.3. Sources where the patch files come from</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#components.patches.guidelines">11.3.4. Patching guidelines</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#components.patches.feedback">11.3.5. Feedback to the author</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#other-mandatory-files">11.4. Other mandatory files</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#components.optional">11.5. Optional files</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#components.optional.bin">11.5.1. Files affecting the binary package</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#components.optional.build">11.5.2. Files affecting the build process</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#components.optional.none">11.5.3. Files affecting nothing at all</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#work-dir">11.6. <code class="filename">work*</code></a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#files-dir">11.7. <code class="filename">files/*</code></a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#makefile">12. Programming in <code class="filename">Makefile</code>s</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#makefile.style">12.1. Caveats</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#makefile.variables">12.2. <code class="filename">Makefile</code> variables</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#makefile.variables.names">12.2.1. Naming conventions</a></span></dt></dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#makefile.code">12.3. Code snippets</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#adding-to-list">12.3.1. Adding things to a list</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#converting-internal-to-external">12.3.2. Converting an internal list into an external list</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#passing-variable-to-shell">12.3.3. Passing variables to a shell command</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#quoting-guideline">12.3.4. Quoting guideline</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#bsd-make-bug-workaround">12.3.5. Workaround for a bug in BSD Make</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#plist">13. PLIST issues</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#rcs-id">13.1. RCS ID</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#automatic-plist-generation">13.2. Semi-automatic <code class="filename">PLIST</code> generation</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#print-PLIST">13.3. Tweaking output of <span class="command"><strong>make print-PLIST</strong></span></a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#plist.misc">13.4. Variable substitution in PLIST</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#manpage-compression">13.5. Man page compression</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#using-PLIST_SRC">13.6. Changing PLIST source with <code class="varname">PLIST_SRC</code></a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#platform-specific-plist">13.7. Platform-specific and differing PLISTs</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#faq.common-dirs">13.8. Sharing directories between packages</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#buildlink">14. Buildlink methodology</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#converting-to-buildlink3">14.1. Converting packages to use buildlink3</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#creating-buildlink3.mk">14.2. Writing <code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code> files</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#anatomy-of-bl3">14.2.1. Anatomy of a buildlink3.mk file</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#updating-buildlink-depends">14.2.2. Updating
      <code class="varname">BUILDLINK_API_DEPENDS.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>
      and
      <code class="varname">BUILDLINK_ABI_DEPENDS.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>
      in <code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code> files</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#writing-builtin.mk">14.3. Writing <code class="filename">builtin.mk</code> files</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#anatomy-of-builtin.mk">14.3.1. Anatomy of a <code class="filename">builtin.mk</code> file</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#native-or-pkgsrc-preference">14.3.2. Global preferences for native or pkgsrc software</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#pkginstall">15. The pkginstall framework</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#files-and-dirs-outside-prefix">15.1. Files and directories outside the installation prefix</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#dirs-outside-prefix">15.1.1. Directory manipulation</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#files-outside-prefix">15.1.2. File manipulation</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#conf-files">15.2. Configuration files</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#conf-files-sysconfdir">15.2.1. How <code class="varname">PKG_SYSCONFDIR</code> is set</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#conf-files-configure">15.2.2. Telling the software where configuration files are</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#conf-files-patching">15.2.3. Patching installations</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#conf-files-disable">15.2.4. Disabling handling of configuration files</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#rcd-scripts">15.3. System startup scripts</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#rcd-scripts-disable">15.3.1. Disabling handling of system startup scripts</a></span></dt></dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#users-and-groups">15.4. System users and groups</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#shells">15.5. System shells</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#shells-disable">15.5.1. Disabling shell registration</a></span></dt></dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#fonts">15.6. Fonts</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#fonts-disable">15.6.1. Disabling automatic update of the fonts databases</a></span></dt></dl></dd>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#options">16. Options handling</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#global-default-options">16.1. Global default options</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#converting-to-options">16.2. Converting packages to use <code class="filename">bsd.options.mk</code></a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#option-names">16.3. Option Names</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#option-build">16.4. Determining the options of dependencies</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#build">17. The build process</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.intro">17.1. Introduction</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.prefix">17.2. Program location</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.builddirs">17.3. Directories used during the build process</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.running">17.4. Running a phase</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.fetch">17.5. The <span class="emphasis"><em>fetch</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#build.fetch.what">17.5.1. What to fetch and where to get it from</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#build.fetch.how">17.5.2. How are the files fetched?</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.checksum">17.6. The <span class="emphasis"><em>checksum</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.extract">17.7. The <span class="emphasis"><em>extract</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.patch">17.8. The <span class="emphasis"><em>patch</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.tools">17.9. The <span class="emphasis"><em>tools</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.wrapper">17.10. The <span class="emphasis"><em>wrapper</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.configure">17.11. The <span class="emphasis"><em>configure</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.build">17.12. The <span class="emphasis"><em>build</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.test">17.13. The <span class="emphasis"><em>test</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.install">17.14. The <span class="emphasis"><em>install</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.package">17.15. The <span class="emphasis"><em>package</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.clean">17.16. Cleaning up</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.helpful-targets">17.17. Other helpful targets</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#tools">18. Tools needed for building or running</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#pkgsrc-tools">18.1. Tools for pkgsrc builds</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#package-tools">18.2. Tools needed by packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#platform-tools">18.3. Tools provided by platforms</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#tools.questions">18.4. Questions regarding the tools</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#fixes">19. Making your package work</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#general-operation">19.1. General operation</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#portability-of-packages">19.1.1. Portability of packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#pulling-vars-from-etc-mk.conf">19.1.2. How to pull in user-settable variables from <code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#user-interaction">19.1.3. User interaction</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#handling-licenses">19.1.4. Handling licenses</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#restricted-packages">19.1.5. Restricted packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#dependencies">19.1.6. Handling dependencies</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#conflicts">19.1.7. Handling conflicts with other packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#not-building-packages">19.1.8. Packages that cannot or should not be built</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#undeletable-packages">19.1.9. Packages which should not be deleted, once installed</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#security-handling">19.1.10. Handling packages with security problems</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#bumping-pkgrevision">19.1.11. How to handle incrementing versions when fixing an existing package</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#fixes.subst">19.1.12. Substituting variable text in the package files (the SUBST framework)</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#fixes.fetch">19.2. Fixing problems in the <span class="emphasis"><em>fetch</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#no-plain-download">19.2.1. Packages whose distfiles aren't available for plain downloading</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#modified-distfiles-same-name">19.2.2. How to handle modified distfiles with the 'old' name</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#fixes.configure">19.3. Fixing problems in the <span class="emphasis"><em>configure</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#fixes.libtool">19.3.1. Shared libraries - libtool</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#using-libtool">19.3.2. Using libtool on GNU packages that already support libtool</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#autoconf-automake">19.3.3. GNU Autoconf/Automake</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#programming-languages">19.4. Programming languages</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#basic-programming-languages">19.4.1. C, C++, and Fortran</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#java-programming-language">19.4.2. Java</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#perl-scripts">19.4.3. Packages containing perl scripts</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#other-programming-languages">19.4.4. Other programming languages</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#fixes.build">19.5. Fixing problems in the <span class="emphasis"><em>build</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#fixes.build.cpp">19.5.1. Compiling C and C++ code conditionally</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#compiler-bugs">19.5.2. How to handle compiler bugs</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#undefined-reference">19.5.3. Undefined reference to <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">...</span>&#8221;</span></a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#out-of-memory">19.5.4. Running out of memory</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#fixes.install">19.6. Fixing problems in the <span class="emphasis"><em>install</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#install-scripts">19.6.1. Creating needed directories</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#where-to-install-documentation">19.6.2. Where to install documentation</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#installing-score-files">19.6.3. Installing highscore files</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#destdir-support">19.6.4. Adding DESTDIR support to packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#hardcoded-paths">19.6.5. Packages with hardcoded paths to other interpreters</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#perl-modules">19.6.6. Packages installing perl modules</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#faq.info-files">19.6.7. Packages installing info files</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#manpages">19.6.8. Packages installing man pages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#gconf-data-files">19.6.9. Packages installing GConf data files</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#scrollkeeper-data-files">19.6.10. Packages installing scrollkeeper/rarian data files</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#x11-fonts">19.6.11. Packages installing X11 fonts</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#gtk2-modules">19.6.12. Packages installing GTK2 modules</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#sgml-xml-data">19.6.13. Packages installing SGML or XML data</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#mime-database">19.6.14. Packages installing extensions to the MIME database</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#intltool">19.6.15. Packages using intltool</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#startup-scripts">19.6.16. Packages installing startup scripts</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#tex-packages">19.6.17. Packages installing TeX modules</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#emulation-packages">19.6.18. Packages supporting running binaries in
    emulation</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#hicolor-theme">19.6.19. Packages installing hicolor theme icons</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#desktop-files">19.6.20. Packages installing desktop files</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#punting">19.7. Marking packages as having problems</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#debug">20. Debugging</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#submit">21. Submitting and Committing</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#submitting-binary-packages">21.1. Submitting binary packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#submitting-your-package">21.2. Submitting source packages (for non-NetBSD-developers)</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#general-notes-for-changes">21.3. General notes when adding, updating, or removing packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#committing-importing">21.4. Committing: Importing a package into CVS</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#updating-package">21.5. Updating a package to a newer version</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#renaming-package">21.6. Renaming a package in pkgsrc</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#moving-package">21.7. Moving a package in pkgsrc</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#devfaq">22. Frequently Asked Questions</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#gnome">23. GNOME packaging and porting</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#meta-packages">23.1. Meta packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#new-package">23.2. Packaging a GNOME application</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#full-update">23.3. Updating GNOME to a newer version</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#patching">23.4. Patching guidelines</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="part"><a href="#infrastructure">III. The pkgsrc infrastructure internals</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#infr.design">24. Design of the pkgsrc infrastructure</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#infr.vardef">24.1. The meaning of variable definitions</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#infr.vardef.problems">24.2. Avoiding problems before they arise</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#infr.var">24.3. Variable evaluation</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#infr.var.load">24.3.1. At load time</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#infr.var.run">24.3.2. At runtime</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#infr.varspec">24.4. How can variables be specified?</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#infr.design.intf">24.5. Designing interfaces for Makefile fragments</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#infr.design.intf.proc">24.5.1. Procedures with parameters</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#infr.design.intf.action">24.5.2. Actions taken on behalf of parameters</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#infr.order">24.6. The order in which files are loaded</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#infr.order.prefs">24.6.1. The order in <code class="filename">bsd.prefs.mk</code></a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#infr.order.pkg">24.6.2. The order in <code class="filename">bsd.pkg.mk</code></a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#regression">25. Regression tests</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#regression.descr">25.1. The regression tests framework</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#regression.run">25.2. Running the regression tests</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#regression.new">25.3. Adding a new regression test</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#regression.fun.override">25.3.1. Overridable functions</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#regression.fun.helper">25.3.2. Helper functions</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#porting">26. Porting pkgsrc</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#porting.opsys">26.1. Porting pkgsrc to a new operating system</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#porting.compiler">26.2. Adding support for a new compiler</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="appendix"><a href="#examples">A. A simple example package: bison</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#example-files">A.1. files</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#example-Makefile">A.1.1. Makefile</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#example-descr">A.1.2. DESCR</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#example-plist">A.1.3. PLIST</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#checking-package-with-pkglint">A.1.4. Checking a package with <span class="command"><strong>pkglint</strong></span></a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#steps-for-b-i-p">A.2. Steps for building, installing, packaging</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="appendix"><a href="#logs">B. Build logs</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#logs.building">B.1. Building figlet</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#logs.package">B.2. Packaging figlet</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="appendix"><a href="#ftp-layout">C. Directory layout of the pkgsrc FTP server</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#ftp-distfiles">C.1. <code class="filename">distfiles</code>: The distributed source files</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#ftp-misc">C.2. <code class="filename">misc</code>: Miscellaneous things</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#ftp-packages">C.3. <code class="filename">packages</code>: Binary packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#ftp-reports">C.4. <code class="filename">reports</code>: Bulk build reports</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#ftp-source">C.5. <code class="filename">current</code>,
<code class="filename">pkgsrc-20<em class="replaceable"><code>xx</code></em>Q<em class="replaceable"><code>y</code></em></code>:
source packages</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="appendix"><a href="#editing">D. Editing guidelines for the pkgsrc guide</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#targets">D.1. Make targets</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#procedure">D.2. Procedure</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
</dl>
</div>
<div class="list-of-tables">
<p><b>List of Tables</b></p>
<dl>
<dt>1.1. <a href="#supported-platforms">Platforms supported by pkgsrc</a>
</dt>
<dt>11.1. <a href="#patch-examples">Patching examples</a>
</dt>
<dt>23.1. <a href="#plist-handling">PLIST handling for GNOME packages</a>
</dt>
</dl>
</div>
<div class="chapter" title="Chapter.†◊hat is pkgsrc?">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title">
<a name="introduction"></a>Chapter.†◊hat is pkgsrc?</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="toc">
<p><b>Table of Contents</b></p>
<dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#introduction-section">1.1. Introduction</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#why-pkgsrc">1.1.1. Why pkgsrc?</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#intro.platforms">1.1.2. Supported platforms</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#overview">1.2. Overview</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#terminology">1.3. Terminology</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#term.roles">1.3.1. Roles involved in pkgsrc</a></span></dt></dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#typography">1.4. Typography</a></span></dt>
</dl>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="1.1.†…ntroduction">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="introduction-section"></a>1.1.†…ntroduction</h2></div></div></div>
<p>There is a lot of software freely available for Unix-based
systems, which is usually available in form of the source code. Before
such software can be used, it needs to be configured to the local
system, compiled and installed, and this is exactly what The NetBSD
Packages Collection (pkgsrc) does. pkgsrc also has some basic commands
to handle binary packages, so that not every user has to build the
packages for himself, which is a time-costly task.</p>
<p>pkgsrc currently contains several thousand packages,
      including:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p><a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/www/apache/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">www/apache</code></a> - The Apache
	  web server</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/www/firefox/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">www/firefox</code></a> - The Firefox
	  web browser</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/meta-pkgs/gnome/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">meta-pkgs/gnome</code></a> - The GNOME
	  Desktop Environment</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/meta-pkgs/kde3/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">meta-pkgs/kde3</code></a> - The K
	  Desktop Environment</p></li>
</ul></div>
<p>...just to name a few.</p>
<p>pkgsrc has built-in support for handling varying dependencies,
      such as pthreads and X11, and extended features such as IPv6 support on
      a range of platforms.</p>
<div class="sect2" title="1.1.1.†◊hy pkgsrc?">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="why-pkgsrc"></a>1.1.1.†◊hy pkgsrc?</h3></div></div></div>
<p>
pkgsrc provides the following key features:
</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p>Easy building of software from source as well as the creation
  and installation of binary packages. The source and latest
  patches are retrieved from a master or mirror download site, checksum
  verified, then built on your system. Support for binary-only
  distributions is available for both native platforms and NetBSD
  emulated platforms.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>All packages are installed in a consistent directory tree,
  including binaries, libraries, man pages and other
  documentation.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Package dependencies, including when performing package updates,
  are handled automatically. The configuration files of various
  packages are handled automatically during updates, so local changes
  are preserved.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Like NetBSD, pkgsrc is designed with portability in mind and
  consists of highly portable code. This allows the greatest speed of
  development when porting to a new platform. This portability also
  ensures that pkgsrc is <span class="emphasis"><em>consistent across all
  platforms</em></span>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>The installation prefix, acceptable software licenses,
  international encryption requirements and build-time options for a
  large number of packages are all set in a simple, central
  configuration file.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>The entire source (not including the distribution files) is
  freely available under a BSD license, so you may extend and adapt
  pkgsrc to your needs. Support for local packages and patches is
  available right out of the box, so you can configure it specifically
  for your environment.</p></li>
</ul></div>
<p>The following principles are basic to pkgsrc:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p><span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">It should only work if it's right.</span>&#8221;</span>
&mdash; That means, if a package contains bugs, it's better to find
them and to complain about them rather than to just install the package
and hope that it works. There are numerous checks in pkgsrc that try to
find such bugs: Static analysis tools (<a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/pkglint/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/pkglint</code></a>), build-time checks (portability
of shell scripts), and post-installation checks (installed files,
references to shared libraries, script interpreters).</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">If it works, it should work everywhere</span>&#8221;</span>
&mdash; Like NetBSD has been ported to many hardware architectures,
pkgsrc has been ported to many operating systems. Care is taken that
packages behave the same on all platforms.</p></li>
</ul></div>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="1.1.2.†”upported platforms">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="intro.platforms"></a>1.1.2.†”upported platforms</h3></div></div></div>
<p>pkgsrc consists of both a source distribution and a binary
distribution for these operating systems. After retrieving the required
source or binaries, you can be up and running with pkgsrc in just
minutes!</p>
<p>pkgsrc was derived from FreeBSD's ports system, and
      initially developed for NetBSD only. Since then, pkgsrc has
      grown a lot, and now supports the following platforms:</p>
<div class="table">
<a name="supported-platforms"></a><p class="title"><b>Table.1.†–latforms supported by pkgsrc</b></p>
<div class="table-contents"><table summary="Platforms supported by pkgsrc" border="1">
<colgroup>
<col>
<col>
</colgroup>
<thead><tr>
<th>Platform</th>
<th>Date Support Added</th>
</tr></thead>
<tbody>
<tr>
<td><a class="ulink" href="http://www.NetBSD.org/" target="_top">NetBSD</a></td>
<td align="center">Aug 1997</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a class="ulink" href="http://wwws.sun.com/software/solaris/" target="_top">Solaris</a></td>
<td align="center">Mar 1999</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a class="ulink" href="http://www.kernel.org/" target="_top">Linux</a></td>
<td align="center">Jun 1999</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
          <a class="ulink" href="http://developer.apple.com/darwin/" target="_top">Darwin</a>
          (<a class="ulink" href="http://developer.apple.com/macosx/" target="_top">Mac OS X</a>)
        </td>
<td align="center">Oct 2001</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a class="ulink" href="http://www.freebsd.org/" target="_top">FreeBSD</a></td>
<td align="center">Nov 2002</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a class="ulink" href="http://www.openbsd.org/" target="_top">OpenBSD</a></td>
<td align="center">Nov 2002</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a class="ulink" href="http://www.sgi.com/software/irix/" target="_top">IRIX</a></td>
<td align="center">Dec 2002</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>BSD/OS</td>
<td align="center">Dec 2003</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a class="ulink" href="http://www-1.ibm.com/servers/aix/" target="_top">AIX</a></td>
<td align="center">Dec 2003</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
          <a class="ulink" href="http://www.microsoft.com/windows/sfu/" target="_top">Interix</a>
          (Microsoft Windows Services for Unix)
        </td>
<td align="center">Mar 2004</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a class="ulink" href="http://www.dragonflybsd.org/" target="_top">DragonFlyBSD</a></td>
<td align="center">Oct 2004</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a class="ulink" href="http://www.tru64.org/" target="_top">OSF/1</a></td>
<td align="center">Nov 2004</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a class="ulink" href="http://www.hp.com/products1/unix/" target="_top">HP-UX</a></td>
<td align="center">Apr 2007</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a class="ulink" href="http://www.haiku-os.org/" target="_top">Haiku</a></td>
<td align="center">Sep 2010</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table></div>
</div>
<br class="table-break">
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="1.2.†Ōverview">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="overview"></a>1.2.†Ōverview</h2></div></div></div>
<p>This document is divided into three parts. The first,
	<a class="link" href="#users-guide" title="Part†….†‘he pkgsrc user's guide">The pkgsrc user's guide</a>,
	describes how one can use one of the packages in the Package
	Collection, either by installing a precompiled binary package,
	or by building one's own copy using the NetBSD package system.
	The second part, <a class="link" href="#developers-guide" title="Part†…I.†‘he pkgsrc developer's guide">The pkgsrc developer's guide</a>, explains how to prepare a
	package so it can be easily built by other NetBSD users without
	knowing about the package's building details. The third part,
	<a class="link" href="#infrastructure" title="Part†…II.†‘he pkgsrc infrastructure internals">The pkgsrc infrastructure internals</a>
	is intended for those who want to understand how pkgsrc is
	implemented.</p>
<p>This document is available in various formats:
	<span class="simplelist"><a class="ulink" href="index.html" target="_top">HTML</a>, <a class="ulink" href="pkgsrc.pdf" target="_top">PDF</a>, <a class="ulink" href="pkgsrc.ps" target="_top">PS</a>, <a class="ulink" href="pkgsrc.txt" target="_top">TXT</a></span>.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="1.3.†‘erminology">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="terminology"></a>1.3.†‘erminology</h2></div></div></div>
<p>There has been a lot of talk about <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">ports</span>&#8221;</span>,
      <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">packages</span>&#8221;</span>, etc. so far. Here is a description of all the
      terminology used within this document.</p>
<div class="variablelist"><dl>
<dt><span class="term">Package</span></dt>
<dd><p>A set of files and building instructions
	    that describe what's necessary
	    to build a certain piece of software using
            pkgsrc. Packages are traditionally stored under
	    <code class="filename">/usr/pkgsrc</code>.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term">The NetBSD package system</span></dt>
<dd><p>This is the former name of <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">pkgsrc</span>&#8221;</span>.  It
	  is part of the NetBSD operating system and can be bootstrapped
	  to run on non-NetBSD operating systems as well.  It handles
	  building (compiling), installing, and removing of
	  packages.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term">Distfile</span></dt>
<dd><p>This term describes the file or files that are
	    provided by the author of the piece of software to
	    distribute his work. All the changes necessary to build on
	    NetBSD are reflected in the corresponding package. Usually
	    the distfile is in the form of a compressed tar-archive,
	    but other types are possible, too. Distfiles are usually
	    stored below
	    <code class="filename">/usr/pkgsrc/distfiles</code>.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term">Port</span></dt>
<dd><p>This is the term used by FreeBSD and OpenBSD people
	    for what we call a package.
	    In NetBSD terminology, <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">port</span>&#8221;</span> refers to a different
	    architecture.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term">Precompiled/binary package</span></dt>
<dd>
<p>A set of binaries built with pkgsrc from a distfile
	    and stuffed together in a single <code class="filename">.tgz</code>
	    file so it can be installed on machines of the same
	    machine architecture without the need to
	    recompile. Packages are usually generated in
	    <code class="filename">/usr/pkgsrc/packages</code>; there is also
	    an archive on <a class="ulink" href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/packages/" target="_top">ftp.NetBSD.org</a>.</p>
<p>Sometimes, this is referred to by the term <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">package</span>&#8221;</span> too,
	    especially in the context of precompiled packages.</p>
</dd>
<dt><span class="term">Program</span></dt>
<dd><p>The piece of software to be installed which will be
	  constructed from all the files in the distfile by the
	  actions defined in the corresponding package.</p></dd>
</dl></div>
<div class="sect2" title="1.3.1.†“oles involved in pkgsrc">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="term.roles"></a>1.3.1.†“oles involved in pkgsrc</h3></div></div></div>
<div class="variablelist"><dl>
<dt><span class="term">pkgsrc users</span></dt>
<dd>
<p>The
	pkgsrc users are people who use the packages provided by pkgsrc.
	Typically they are system administrators. The people using the
	software that is inside the packages (maybe called <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">end
	users</span>&#8221;</span>) are not covered by the pkgsrc guide.</p>
<p>There are two kinds of pkgsrc users: Some only want to
	install pre-built binary packages. Others build the pkgsrc
	packages from source, either for installing them directly or for
	building binary packages themselves. For pkgsrc users <a class="xref" href="#users-guide" title="Part†….†‘he pkgsrc user's guide">Part†…, &#8220;The pkgsrc user's guide&#8221;</a> should provide all necessary
	documentation.</p>
</dd>
<dt><span class="term">package maintainers</span></dt>
<dd><p>A
	package maintainer creates packages as described in <a class="xref" href="#developers-guide" title="Part†…I.†‘he pkgsrc developer's guide">Part†…I, &#8220;The pkgsrc developer's guide&#8221;</a>.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term">infrastructure developers</span></dt>
<dd><p>These people are involved in all those files
	that live in the <code class="filename">mk/</code> directory and below.
	Only these people should need to read through <a class="xref" href="#infrastructure" title="Part†…II.†‘he pkgsrc infrastructure internals">Part†…II, &#8220;The pkgsrc infrastructure internals&#8221;</a>, though others might be curious,
	too.</p></dd>
</dl></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="1.4.†‘ypography">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="typography"></a>1.4.†‘ypography</h2></div></div></div>
<p>When giving examples for commands, shell prompts are used to
      show if the command should/can be issued as root, or if
      <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">normal</span>&#8221;</span> user privileges are sufficient. We use a
      <code class="prompt">#</code> for root's shell prompt, and a <code class="prompt">%</code> for users'
      shell prompt, assuming they use the C-shell or tcsh.</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="part" title="Part†….†‘he pkgsrc user's guide">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h1 class="title">
<a name="users-guide"></a>Part†….†‘he pkgsrc user's guide</h1></div></div></div>
<div class="toc">
<p><b>Table of Contents</b></p>
<dl>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#getting">2. Where to get pkgsrc and how to keep it up-to-date</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#getting-first">2.1. Getting pkgsrc for the first time</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#getting-via-tar">2.1.1. As tar file</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#getting-via-cvs">2.1.2. Via anonymous CVS</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#uptodate">2.2. Keeping pkgsrc up-to-date</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#uptodate-tar">2.2.1. Via tar files</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#uptodate-cvs">2.2.2. Via CVS</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#platforms">3. Using pkgsrc on systems other than NetBSD</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#binarydist">3.1. Binary distribution</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#bootstrapping-pkgsrc">3.2. Bootstrapping pkgsrc</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#platform-specific-notes">3.3. Platform-specific notes</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#darwin">3.3.1. Darwin (Mac OS X)</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#freebsd">3.3.2. FreeBSD</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#interix">3.3.3. Interix</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#irix">3.3.4. IRIX</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#linux">3.3.5. Linux</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#openbsd">3.3.6. OpenBSD</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#solaris">3.3.7. Solaris</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#using">4. Using pkgsrc</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#using-pkg">4.1. Using binary packages</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#finding-binary-packages">4.1.1. Finding binary packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#installing-binary-packages">4.1.2. Installing binary packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#using.pkg_delete">4.1.3. Deinstalling packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#using.pkg_info">4.1.4. Getting information about installed packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#vulnerabilities">4.1.5. Checking for security vulnerabilities in installed packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#pkg_versions">4.1.6. Finding if newer versions of your installed packages are in pkgsrc</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#using.pkg_admin">4.1.7. Other administrative functions</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#a-word-of-warning">4.1.8. A word of warning</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#building-packages-from-source">4.2. Building packages from source</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#requirements">4.2.1. Requirements</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#fetching-distfiles">4.2.2. Fetching distfiles</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#how-to-build-and-install">4.2.3. How to build and install</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#configuring">5. Configuring pkgsrc</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#general-configuration">5.1. General configuration</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#variables-affecting-build">5.2. Variables affecting the build process</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#variables-affecting-installation">5.3. Variables affecting the installation process</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#conf.compiler">5.4. Selecting and configuring the compiler</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#selecting-the-compiler">5.4.1. Selecting the compiler</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#conf.cflags">5.4.2. Additional flags to the compiler (<code class="varname">CFLAGS</code>)</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#conf.ldflags">5.4.3. Additional flags to the linker (<code class="varname">LDFLAGS</code>)</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#developer-advanced-settings">5.5. Developer/advanced settings</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#selecting-build-options">5.6. Selecting Build Options</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#binary">6. Creating binary packages</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#building-a-single-binary-package">6.1. Building a single binary package</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#settings-for-creationg-of-binary-packages">6.2. Settings for creation of binary packages</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#bulk">7. Creating binary packages for everything in pkgsrc (bulk
builds)</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#bulk.pre">7.1. Think first, build later</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#bulk.req">7.2. Requirements of a bulk build</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#bulk.old">7.3. Running an old-style bulk build</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#binary.configuration">7.3.1. Configuration</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#other-environmental-considerations">7.3.2. Other environmental considerations</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#operation">7.3.3. Operation</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#what-it-does">7.3.4. What it does</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#disk-space-requirements">7.3.5. Disk space requirements</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#setting-up-a-sandbox">7.3.6. Setting up a sandbox for chrooted builds</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#building-a-partial-set">7.3.7. Building a partial set of packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#bulk-upload">7.3.8. Uploading results of a bulk build</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#bulk.pbulk">7.4. Running a pbulk-style bulk build</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#bulk.pbulk.prepare">7.4.1. Preparation</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#bulk.pbulk.conf">7.4.2. Configuration</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#creating-cdroms">7.5. Creating a multiple CD-ROM packages collection</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#cdpack-example">7.5.1. Example of cdpack</a></span></dt></dl></dd>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#files">8. Directory layout of the installed files</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#files.localbase">8.1. File system layout in <code class="literal">${LOCALBASE}</code></a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#files.varbase">8.2. File system layout in <code class="literal">${VARBASE}</code></a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#faq">9. Frequently Asked Questions</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#mailing-list-pointers">9.1. Are there any mailing lists for pkg-related discussion?</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#pkgviews-docs">9.2. Where's the pkgviews documentation?</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#faq-pkgtools">9.3. Utilities for package management (pkgtools)</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#non-root-pkgsrc">9.4. How to use pkgsrc as non-root</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#resume-transfers">9.5. How to resume transfers when fetching distfiles?</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#x.org-from-pkgsrc">9.6. How can I install/use modular X.org from pkgsrc?</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#fetch-behind-firewall">9.7. How to fetch files from behind a firewall</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#passive-ftp">9.8. How do I tell <span class="command"><strong>make fetch</strong></span> to do passive FTP?</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#fetching-all-distfiles">9.9. How to fetch all distfiles at once</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#tmac.andoc-missing">9.10. What does <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">Don't know how to make
/usr/share/tmac/tmac.andoc</span>&#8221;</span> mean?</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#bsd.own.mk-missing">9.11. What does <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">Could not find bsd.own.mk</span>&#8221;</span> mean?</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#using-sudo-with-pkgsrc">9.12. Using 'sudo' with pkgsrc</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#faq.conf">9.13. How do I change the location of configuration files?</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#audit-packages">9.14. Automated security checks</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#ufaq-cflags">9.15. Why do some packages ignore my <code class="varname">CFLAGS</code>?</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#ufaq-fail">9.16. A package does not build.  What shall I do?</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#faq.rcs-conflicts">9.17. What does <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">Makefile appears to contain unresolved cvs/rcs/??? merge conflicts</span>&#8221;</span> mean?</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
</dl>
</div>
<div class="chapter" title="Chapter.†◊here to get pkgsrc and how to keep it up-to-date">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title">
<a name="getting"></a>Chapter.†◊here to get pkgsrc and how to keep it up-to-date</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="toc">
<p><b>Table of Contents</b></p>
<dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#getting-first">2.1. Getting pkgsrc for the first time</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#getting-via-tar">2.1.1. As tar file</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#getting-via-cvs">2.1.2. Via anonymous CVS</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#uptodate">2.2. Keeping pkgsrc up-to-date</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#uptodate-tar">2.2.1. Via tar files</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#uptodate-cvs">2.2.2. Via CVS</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
</dl>
</div>
<p>Before you download and extract the files, you need to decide
where you want to extract them. When using pkgsrc as root user, pkgsrc
is usually installed in <code class="filename">/usr/pkgsrc</code>. You are though
free to install the sources and binary packages wherever you want in
your filesystem, provided that the pathname does not contain white-space
or other characters that are interpreted specially by the shell and some
other programs. A safe bet is to use only letters, digits, underscores
and dashes.</p>
<div class="sect1" title="2.1.†«etting pkgsrc for the first time">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="getting-first"></a>2.1.†«etting pkgsrc for the first time</h2></div></div></div>
<p>Before you download any pkgsrc files, you should decide
	whether you want the <span class="emphasis"><em>current</em></span> branch or the
	<span class="emphasis"><em>stable</em></span> branch. The latter is forked on a
	quarterly basis from the current branch and only gets modified
	for security updates. The names of the stable branches are built
	from the year and the quarter, for example
	<code class="literal">2009Q1</code>.</p>
<p>The second step is to decide <span class="emphasis"><em>how</em></span> you
	want to download pkgsrc. You can get it as a tar file or via CVS.
	Both ways are described here.</p>
<div class="sect2" title="2.1.1.†Ńs tar file">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="getting-via-tar"></a>2.1.1.†Ńs tar file</h3></div></div></div>
<p>The primary download location for all pkgsrc files is
	<a class="ulink" href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/" target="_top">ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/</a>. There are a
	number of subdirectories for different purposes, which are
	described in detail in <a class="xref" href="#ftp-layout" title="Appendix†√.†ńirectory layout of the pkgsrc FTP server">Appendix†√, <i>Directory layout of the pkgsrc FTP server</i></a>.</p>
<p>The tar file for the current branch is in the directory
	<code class="filename">current</code> and is called <a class="ulink" href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc.tar.gz" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgsrc.tar.gz</code></a>.
	It is autogenerated daily.</p>
<p>The tar file for the stable branch 2009Q1 is in the
	directory <code class="filename">pkgsrc-2009Q1</code> and is also called <a class="ulink" href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/pkgsrc-2009Q1/pkgsrc-2009Q1.tar.gz" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgsrc-2009Q1.tar.gz</code></a>.</p>
<p>To download a pkgsrc stable tarball, run:</p>
<pre class="screen">
<code class="prompt">$</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>ftp ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/<em class="replaceable"><code>pkgsrc-20xxQy</code></em>/<em class="replaceable"><code>pkgsrc-20xxQy</code></em>.tar.gz</code></strong></pre>
<p>Where <em class="replaceable"><code>pkgsrc-20xxQy</code></em> is the
	stable branch to be downloaded, for example, 
	<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">pkgsrc-2009Q1</span>&#8221;</span>.</p>
<p>Then, extract it with:</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">$</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>tar -xzf <em class="replaceable"><code>pkgsrc-20xxQy</code></em>.tar.gz -C /usr</code></strong></pre>
<p>This will create the directory <code class="filename">pkgsrc/</code>
	in <code class="filename">/usr/</code> and all the package source will be 
	stored under <code class="filename">/usr/pkgsrc/</code>.</p>
<p>To download pkgsrc-current, run:</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">$</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>ftp ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc.tar.gz</code></strong></pre>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="2.1.2.†÷ia anonymous CVS">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="getting-via-cvs"></a>2.1.2.†÷ia anonymous CVS</h3></div></div></div>
<p>To fetch a specific pkgsrc stable branch, run:</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">$</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>cd /usr &amp;&amp; cvs -q -z3 -d anoncvs@anoncvs.NetBSD.org:/cvsroot checkout -r <em class="replaceable"><code>pkgsrc-20xxQy</code></em> -P pkgsrc</code></strong>
</pre>
<p>Where <em class="replaceable"><code>pkgsrc-20xxQy</code></em> is the stable 
	branch to be checked out, for example, <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">pkgsrc-2009Q1</span>&#8221;</span></p>
<p>This will create the directory <code class="filename">pkgsrc/</code> 
	in your <code class="filename">/usr/</code> directory and all the package source 
	will be stored under <code class="filename">/usr/pkgsrc/</code>.</p>
<p>To fetch the pkgsrc current branch, run:</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">$</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>cd /usr &amp;&amp; cvs -q -z3 -d anoncvs@anoncvs.NetBSD.org:/cvsroot checkout -P pkgsrc</code></strong>
</pre>
<p>Refer to <a class="ulink" href="http://NetBSD.org/FIXME" target="_top">list of available CVS mirrors</a> to choose faster one.</p>
<p>If you get error messages from <code class="literal">rsh</code>, you need to set CVS_RSH variable. E.g.:</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">$</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>cd /usr &amp;&amp; env CVS_RSH=ssh cvs -q -z3 -d anoncvs@anoncvs.NetBSD.org:/cvsroot checkout -P pkgsrc</code></strong>
</pre>
<p>Refer to documentation on your command shell how to set CVS_RSH=ssh permanently.
	For Bourne shells, you can set it in your <code class="filename">.profile</code>
	or better globally in <code class="filename">/etc/profile</code>:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
# set CVS remote shell command
CVS_RSH=ssh
export CVS_RSH
</pre>
<p>By default, CVS doesn't do things like most people would expect it to do.
	But there is a way to convince CVS, by creating a file called <code class="filename">.cvsrc</code>
	in your home directory and saving the following lines to it.
	This file will save you lots of headache and some bug reports, so we strongly recommend it.
	You can find an explanation of this file in the CVS documentation.</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
# recommended CVS configuration file from the pkgsrc guide
cvs -q -z3
checkout -P
update -dP
diff -upN
rdiff -u
release -d
</pre>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="2.2.†ňeeping pkgsrc up-to-date">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="uptodate"></a>2.2.†ňeeping pkgsrc up-to-date</h2></div></div></div>
<p>The preferred way to keep pkgsrc up-to-date is via CVS
	(which also works if you have first installed it via a tar
	file). It saves bandwidth and hard disk activity, compared to
	downloading the tar file again.</p>
<div class="sect2" title="2.2.1.†÷ia tar files">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="uptodate-tar"></a>2.2.1.†÷ia tar files</h3></div></div></div>
<div class="warning" title="Warning" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;">
<h3 class="title">Warning</h3>
<p>When updating from a tar file, you first need to
	completely remove the old pkgsrc directory. Otherwise those
	files that have been removed from pkgsrc in the mean time will
	not be removed on your local disk, resulting in inconsistencies.
	When removing the old files, any changes that you have done to
	the pkgsrc files will be lost after updating. Therefore updating
	via CVS is strongly recommended.</p>
</div>
<p>Note that by default the distfiles and the binary packages
	are saved in the pkgsrc tree, so don't forget to rescue them
	before updating. You can also configure pkgsrc to use other than
	the default directories by setting the
	<code class="varname">DISTDIR</code> and <code class="varname">PACKAGES</code>
	variables. See <a class="xref" href="#configuring" title="Chapter.†√onfiguring pkgsrc">Chapter, <i>Configuring pkgsrc</i></a> for the details.</p>
<p>To update pkgsrc from a tar file, download the tar file as
	explained above. Then, make sure that you have not made any
	changes to the files in the pkgsrc directory. Remove the pkgsrc
	directory and extract the new tar file. Done.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="2.2.2.†÷ia CVS">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="uptodate-cvs"></a>2.2.2.†÷ia CVS</h3></div></div></div>
<p>To update pkgsrc via CVS, change to the <code class="filename">pkgsrc</code> directory and run cvs:</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">$</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>cd /usr/pkgsrc &amp;&amp; cvs update -dP</code></strong>
</pre>
<p>If you get error messages from <code class="literal">rsh</code>, you need to set CVS_RSH variable as described above. E.g.:</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">$</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>cd /usr/pkgsrc &amp;&amp; env CVS_RSH=ssh cvs up -dP</code></strong>
</pre>
<div class="sect3" title="2.2.2.1.†”witching between different pkgsrc branches">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title">
<a name="uptodate-cvs-switch"></a>2.2.2.1.†”witching between different pkgsrc branches</h4></div></div></div>
<p>When updating pkgsrc, the CVS program keeps track of the
	branch you selected. But if you, for whatever reason, want to
	switch from the stable branch to the current one, you can do it
	by adding the option <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">-A</span>&#8221;</span> after the
	<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">update</span>&#8221;</span> keyword. To switch from the current branch
	back to the stable branch, add the
	<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">-rpkgsrc-2009Q3</span>&#8221;</span> option.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect3" title="2.2.2.2.†◊hat happens to my changes when updating?">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title">
<a name="uptodate-cvs-changes"></a>2.2.2.2.†◊hat happens to my changes when updating?</h4></div></div></div>
<p>When you update pkgsrc, the CVS program will only touch
	those files that are registered in the CVS repository. That
	means that any packages that you created on your own will stay
	unmodified. If you change files that are managed by CVS, later
	updates will try to merge your changes with those that have been
	done by others. See the CVS manual, chapter
	<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">update</span>&#8221;</span> for details.</p>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="chapter" title="Chapter.†’sing pkgsrc on systems other than NetBSD">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title">
<a name="platforms"></a>Chapter.†’sing pkgsrc on systems other than NetBSD</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="toc">
<p><b>Table of Contents</b></p>
<dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#binarydist">3.1. Binary distribution</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#bootstrapping-pkgsrc">3.2. Bootstrapping pkgsrc</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#platform-specific-notes">3.3. Platform-specific notes</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#darwin">3.3.1. Darwin (Mac OS X)</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#freebsd">3.3.2. FreeBSD</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#interix">3.3.3. Interix</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#irix">3.3.4. IRIX</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#linux">3.3.5. Linux</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#openbsd">3.3.6. OpenBSD</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#solaris">3.3.7. Solaris</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
</dl>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="3.1.†¬inary distribution">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="binarydist"></a>3.1.†¬inary distribution</h2></div></div></div>
<p>See <a class="xref" href="#using-pkg" title="4.1.†’sing binary packages">Section.1, &#8220;Using binary packages&#8221;</a>.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="3.2.†¬ootstrapping pkgsrc">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="bootstrapping-pkgsrc"></a>3.2.†¬ootstrapping pkgsrc</h2></div></div></div>
<p>Installing the bootstrap kit from source should be as simple as:</p>
<pre class="screen">
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>env CVS_RSH=ssh cvs -d anoncvs@anoncvs.NetBSD.org:/cvsroot checkout pkgsrc</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>cd pkgsrc/bootstrap</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>./bootstrap</code></strong>
    </pre>
<p>See <a class="xref" href="#getting" title="Chapter.†◊here to get pkgsrc and how to keep it up-to-date">Chapter, <i>Where to get pkgsrc and how to keep it up-to-date</i></a> for other ways to get
    pkgsrc before bootstrapping. The given
    <span class="command"><strong>bootstrap</strong></span> command will use the defaults of
    <code class="filename">/usr/pkg</code> for the
    <span class="emphasis"><em>prefix</em></span> where programs will be installed in,
    and <code class="filename">/var/db/pkg</code> for the package database
    directory where pkgsrc will do its internal bookkeeping.
    However, these can also be set using command-line
    arguments.</p>
<div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;">
<h3 class="title">Note</h3>
<p>The bootstrap installs a <span class="command"><strong>bmake</strong></span> tool.
      Use this <span class="command"><strong>bmake</strong></span> when building via pkgsrc.
      For examples in this guide, use <span class="command"><strong>bmake</strong></span>
      instead of <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">make</span>&#8221;</span>.</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="3.3.†–latform-specific notes">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="platform-specific-notes"></a>3.3.†–latform-specific notes</h2></div></div></div>
<p>Here are some platform-specific notes you should be aware of.</p>
<div class="sect2" title="3.3.1.†ńarwin (Mac OS X)">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="darwin"></a>3.3.1.†ńarwin (Mac OS X)</h3></div></div></div>
<p>Darwin 5.x and up are supported. Before you start, you
      will need to download and install the Mac OS X Developer Tools
      from Apple's Developer Connection. See
      <a class="ulink" href="http://developer.apple.com/macosx/" target="_top">http://developer.apple.com/macosx/</a>
      for details.  Also, make sure you install X11 (an optional
      package included with the Developer Tools) if you intend to
      build packages that use the X11 Window System.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="3.3.2.†∆reeBSD">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="freebsd"></a>3.3.2.†∆reeBSD</h3></div></div></div>
<p>FreeBSD 4.7 and 5.0 have been tested and are supported,
      other versions may work.</p>
<p>Care should be taken so that the tools that this kit installs do not conflict
      with the FreeBSD userland tools. There are several steps:</p>
<div class="orderedlist"><ol class="orderedlist" type="1">
<li class="listitem"><p>FreeBSD stores its ports pkg database in
	  <code class="filename">/var/db/pkg</code>. It is therefore
	  recommended that you choose a different location (e.g.
	  <code class="filename">/usr/pkgdb</code>) by
	  using the --pkgdbdir option to the bootstrap script.</p></li>
<li class="listitem">
<p>If you do not intend to use the FreeBSD ports tools, it's probably a
	  good idea to move them out of the way to avoid confusion, e.g.</p>
<pre class="screen">
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>cd /usr/sbin</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>mv pkg_add pkg_add.orig</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>mv pkg_create pkg_create.orig</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>mv pkg_delete pkg_delete.orig</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>mv pkg_info pkg_info.orig</code></strong>
	  </pre>
</li>
<li class="listitem"><p>An example <a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a> file will be placed in
	  <code class="filename">/etc/mk.conf.example</code> file
	  when you use the bootstrap script.</p></li>
</ol></div>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="3.3.3.†…nterix">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="interix"></a>3.3.3.†…nterix</h3></div></div></div>
<p>Interix is a POSIX-compatible subsystem for the Windows NT kernel,
      providing a Unix-like environment with a tighter kernel integration than
      available with Cygwin.  It is part of the Windows Services for Unix
      package, available for free for any licensed copy of Windows 2000, XP
      (not including XP Home), or 2003.  SFU can be downloaded from <a class="ulink" href="http://www.microsoft.com/windows/sfu/" target="_top">http://www.microsoft.com/windows/sfu/</a>.</p>
<p>Services for Unix 3.5 has been tested.  3.0 or 3.1 may work, but
      are not officially supported.  (The main difference in 3.0/3.1 is lack
      of pthreads, but other parts of libc may also be lacking.)</p>
<p>Services for Unix Applications (aka SUA) is an integrated
      component of Windows Server 2003 R2 (5.2), Windows Vista and
      Windows Server 2008 (6.0), Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2
      (6.1).  As of this writing, the SUA's Interix 6.0 (32bit) and
      6.1 (64bit) subsystems have been tested.  Other versions may
      work as well. The Interix 5.x subsystem has not yet been tested
      with pkgsrc.</p>
<div class="sect3" title="3.3.3.1.†◊hen installing Interix/SFU">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title">
<a name="platform.interix-sfu-install"></a>3.3.3.1.†◊hen installing Interix/SFU</h4></div></div></div>
<p>At an absolute minimum, the following packages must be installed from
	the Windows Services for Unix 3.5 distribution in order to use pkgsrc:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p>Utilities -&gt; Base Utilities</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Interix GNU Components -&gt; (all)</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Remote Connectivity</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Interix SDK</p></li>
</ul></div>
<p>When using pkgsrc on Interix, DO NOT install the Utilities subcomponent
	"UNIX Perl".  That is Perl 5.6 without shared module support, installed to
	/usr/local, and will only cause confusion. Instead, install Perl 5.8 from
	pkgsrc (or from a binary package).</p>
<p>The Remote Connectivity subcomponent "Windows Remote Shell Service" does
	not need to be installed, but Remote Connectivity itself should be
	installed in order to have a working inetd.</p>
<p>During installation you may be asked whether to enable setuid
	behavior for Interix programs, and whether to make pathnames default to
	case-sensitive.  Setuid should be enabled, and case-sensitivity MUST be
	enabled.  (Without case-sensitivity, a large number of packages including
	perl will not build.)</p>
<p>NOTE:  Newer Windows service packs change the way binary execution
	works (via the Data Execution Prevention feature).  In order to use
	pkgsrc and other gcc-compiled binaries reliably, a hotfix containing
	POSIX.EXE, PSXDLL.DLL, PSXRUN.EXE, and PSXSS.EXE (899522 or newer)
	must be installed.  Hotfixes are available from Microsoft through a
	support contract; however, Debian Interix Port has made most Interix
	hotfixes available for personal use from <a class="ulink" href="http://www.debian-interix.net/hotfixes/" target="_top">http://www.debian-interix.net/hotfixes/</a>.</p>
<p>In addition to the hotfix noted above, it may be necessary to
	disable Data Execution Prevention entirely to make Interix functional.
	This may happen only with certain types of CPUs; the cause is not fully
	understood at this time.  If gcc or other applications still segfault
	repeatedly after installing one of the hotfixes note above, the
	following option can be added to the appropriate "boot.ini" line on the
	Windows boot drive:  /NoExecute=AlwaysOff
	(WARNING, this will disable DEP completely, which may be a security
	risk if applications are often run as a user in the Administrators
	group!)</p>
</div>
<div class="sect3" title="3.3.3.2.†◊hat to do if Interix/SFU is already installed">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title">
<a name="platform.interix-sfu-postinstall"></a>3.3.3.2.†◊hat to do if Interix/SFU is already installed</h4></div></div></div>
<p>If SFU is already installed and you wish to alter these settings to work
	with pkgsrc, note the following things.</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p>To uninstall UNIX Perl, use Add/Remove Programs, select Microsoft
	    Windows Services for UNIX, then click Change.  In the installer, choose
	    Add or Remove, then uncheck Utilities-&gt;UNIX Perl.</p></li>
<li class="listitem">
<p>To enable case-sensitivity for the file system, run REGEDIT.EXE, and
	    change the following registry key:</p>
<p>HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager\kernel</p>
<p>Set the DWORD value "obcaseinsensitive" to 0; then reboot.</p>
</li>
<li class="listitem">
<p>To enable setuid binaries (optional), run REGEDIT.EXE, and change the
	    following registry key:</p>
<p>HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Services for UNIX</p>
<p>Set the DWORD value "EnableSetuidBinaries" to 1; then reboot.</p>
</li>
</ul></div>
</div>
<div class="sect3" title="3.3.3.3.†…mportant notes for using pkgsrc">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title">
<a name="platform.interix-notes"></a>3.3.3.3.†…mportant notes for using pkgsrc</h4></div></div></div>
<p>The package manager (either the pkgsrc "su" user, or the user
	running "pkg_add") must be a member of the local Administrators
	group.  Such a user must also be used to run the bootstrap.  This is
	slightly relaxed from the normal pkgsrc requirement of "root".</p>
<p>The package manager should use a umask of 002.  "make install" will
	automatically complain if this is not the case.  This ensures that
	directories written in /var/db/pkg are Administrators-group writeable.</p>
<p>The popular Interix binary packages from http://www.interopsystems.com/
	use an older version of pkgsrc's pkg_* tools.  Ideally, these should
	NOT be used in conjunction with pkgsrc.  If you choose to use them at
	the same time as the pkgsrc packages, ensure that you use the proper
	pkg_* tools for each type of binary package.</p>
<p>The TERM setting used for DOS-type console windows (including those
	invoked by the csh and ksh startup shortcuts) is "interix".  Most systems
	don't have a termcap/terminfo entry for it, but the following .termcap
	entry provides adequate emulation in most cases:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
interix:kP=\E[S:kN=\E[T:kH=\E[U:dc@:DC@:tc=pcansi:
	</pre>
</div>
<div class="sect3" title="3.3.3.4.†Őimitations of the Interix platform">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title">
<a name="platform.interix-limits"></a>3.3.3.4.†Őimitations of the Interix platform</h4></div></div></div>
<p>Though Interix suffices as a familiar and flexible substitute
	for a full Unix-like platform, it has some drawbacks that should
	be noted for those desiring to make the most of Interix.</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem">
<p><span class="strong"><strong>X11:</strong></span></p>
<p>Interix comes with the standard set of X11R6 client libraries,
	  and can run X11 based applications, but it does
	  <span class="emphasis"><em>not</em></span> come with an X server.  Some options are
	  <a class="ulink" href="http://www.starnet.com/products/xwin32/" target="_top">StarNet X-Win32</a>,
	  <a class="ulink" href="http://connectivity.hummingbird.com/products/nc/exceed/" target="_top">Hummingbird Exceed</a>
	  (available in a trimmed version for Interix from Interop Systems as the
	  <a class="ulink" href="http://www.interopsystems.com/InteropXserver.htm" target="_top">Interop X Server</a>),
	  and the free X11 server included with
	  <a class="ulink" href="http://x.cygwin.com/" target="_top">Cygwin</a>.</p>
</li>
<li class="listitem">
<p><span class="strong"><strong>X11 acceleration:</strong></span></p>
<p>Because Interix runs in a completely different NT subsystem from
	  Win32 applications, it does not currently support various X11
	  protocol extensions for acceleration (such as MIT-SHM or DGA).
	  Most interactive applications to a local X server will run
	  reasonably fast, but full motion video and other graphics
	  intensive applications may require a faster-than-expected CPU.</p>
</li>
<li class="listitem">
<p><span class="strong"><strong>Audio:</strong></span></p>
<p>Interix has no native support for audio output.  For audio
	  support, pkgsrc uses the <span class="command"><strong>esound</strong></span> client/server
	  audio system on Interix.  Unlike on most platforms, the
	  <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/audio/esound/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">audio/esound</code></a> package does
	  <span class="emphasis"><em>not</em></span> contain the <span class="command"><strong>esd</strong></span>
	  server component.  To output audio via an Interix host, the
	  <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/emulators/cygwin_esound/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">emulators/cygwin_esound</code></a> package
	  must also be installed.</p>
</li>
<li class="listitem">
<p><span class="strong"><strong>CD/DVDs, USB, and SCSI:</strong></span></p>
<p>Direct device access is not currently supported in Interix, so it
	  is not currently possible to access CD/DVD drives, USB devices,
	  or SCSI devices through non-filesystem means.  Among other things,
	  this makes it impossible to use Interix directly for CD/DVD
	  burning.</p>
</li>
<li class="listitem">
<p><span class="strong"><strong>Tape drives:</strong></span></p>
<p>Due to the same limitations as for CD-ROMs and SCSI devices, tape
	  drives are also not directly accessible in Interix.  However,
	  support is in work to make tape drive access possible by using
	  Cygwin as a bridge (similarly to audio bridged via Cygwin's
	  esound server).</p>
</li>
</ul></div>
</div>
<div class="sect3" title="3.3.3.5.†ňnown issues for pkgsrc on Interix">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title">
<a name="platform.interix-knownissues"></a>3.3.3.5.†ňnown issues for pkgsrc on Interix</h4></div></div></div>
<p>It is not necessary, in general, to have a "root" user on the
	Windows system; any member of the local Administrators group will
	suffice.  However, some packages currently assume that the user
	named "root" is the privileged user.  To accommodate these, you
	may create such a user; make sure it is in the local group
	Administrators (or your language equivalent).</p>
<p><span class="command"><strong>pkg_add</strong></span> creates directories of mode
	0755, not 0775, in <code class="filename">$PKG_DBDIR</code>.  For the
	time being, install packages as the local Administrator (or
	your language equivalent), or run the following command after
	installing a package to work around the issue:</p>
<pre class="screen">
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>chmod -R g+w $PKG_DBDIR</code></strong>
	</pre>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="3.3.4.†…RIX">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="irix"></a>3.3.4.†…RIX</h3></div></div></div>
<p>You will need a working C compiler, either gcc or SGI's MIPS and MIPSpro
      compiler (cc/c89).  Please set the <code class="varname">CC</code> environment variable
      according to your preference.  If you do not have a license for the MIPSpro
      compiler suite, you can download a gcc tardist file from <a class="ulink" href="http://freeware.sgi.com/" target="_top">http://freeware.sgi.com/</a>.</p>
<p>Please note that you will need IRIX 6.5.17 or higher, as this is the earliest
      version of IRIX providing support for <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?if_indextoname+3+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">if_indextoname</span>(3)</span></a>, <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?if_nametoindex+3+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">if_nametoindex</span>(3)</span></a>,
      etc.</p>
<p>At this point in time, pkgsrc only supports one ABI at a time.  That is, you cannot
	switch between the old 32-bit ABI, the new 32-bit ABI and the 64-bit ABI.  If
	you start out using "abi=n32", that's what all your packages will be built
	with.</p>
<p>Therefore, please make sure that you have no conflicting
      <code class="varname">CFLAGS</code> in your environment or the
      <a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a>.  Particularly, make sure that you do not
      try to link n32 object files with lib64 or vice versa.  Check your
      <code class="filename">/etc/compiler.defaults</code>!</p>
<p>If you have the actual pkgsrc tree mounted via NFS from a different host,
      please make sure to set <code class="varname">WRKOBJDIR</code> to a local directory,
      as it appears that IRIX linker occasionally runs into issues when trying to
      link over a network-mounted file system.</p>
<p>The bootstrapping process should set all the right options for programs such
      as imake(1), but you may want to set some options depending on your local
      setup.  Please see <code class="filename">pkgsrc/mk/defaults/mk.conf</code> and, of
      course, your compiler's man pages for details.</p>
<p>If you are using SGI's MIPSPro compiler, please set

      </p>
<pre class="programlisting">
PKGSRC_COMPILER=        mipspro
      </pre>
<p>

      in <a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a>.  Otherwise, pkgsrc will assume you
      are using gcc and may end up passing invalid flags to the compiler.  Note that
      bootstrap should create an appropriate <code class="filename">mk.conf.example</code> by
      default.</p>
<p>If you have both the MIPSPro compiler chain installed as well as gcc,
      but want to make sure that MIPSPro is used, please set your <code class="varname">PATH</code>
      to <span class="emphasis"><em>not</em></span> include the location of gcc (often
      <code class="filename">/usr/freeware/bin</code>), and (important) pass the
      '--preserve-path' flag.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="3.3.5.†Őinux">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="linux"></a>3.3.5.†Őinux</h3></div></div></div>
<p>Some versions of Linux (for example Debian GNU/Linux) need
      either libtermcap or libcurses (libncurses).  Installing the
      distributions libncurses-dev package (or equivalent) should fix
      the problem.</p>
<p>pkgsrc supports both gcc (GNU Compiler Collection) and icc
      (Intel C++ Compiler). gcc is the default. icc 8.0 and 8.1 on
      i386 have been tested.</p>
<p>To bootstrap using icc, assuming the default icc installation
      directory:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
env CC=/opt/intel_cc_80/bin/icc LDFLAGS=-static-libcxa \
ac_cv___attribute__=yes ./bootstrap
      </pre>
<div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;">
<h3 class="title">Note</h3>
<p>icc 8.1 needs the `-i-static' argument instead of -static-libcxa.</p>
</div>
<p>icc supports __attribute__, but the GNU configure test uses a nested
      function, which icc does not support. #undef'ing __attribute__ has the
      unfortunate side-effect of breaking many of the Linux header files, which
      cannot be compiled properly without __attribute__. The test must be
      overridden so that __attribute__ is assumed supported by the
      compiler.</p>
<p>After bootstrapping, you should set <code class="varname">PKGSRC_COMPILER</code>
      in <a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a>:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
PKGSRC_COMPILER=        icc
      </pre>
<p>The default installation directory for icc is
      <code class="filename">/opt/intel_cc_80</code>, which
      is also the pkgsrc default. If you have installed it into a different
      directory, set <code class="varname">ICCBASE</code> in
      <a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a>:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
ICCBASE=                /opt/icc
      </pre>
<p>pkgsrc uses the static linking method of the runtime libraries
      provided by icc, so binaries can be run on other systems which do not
      have the shared libraries installed.</p>
<p>Libtool, however, extracts a list of libraries from the
      <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?ld+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">ld</span>(1)</span></a> command run when linking a C++ shared library and
      records it, throwing away the -Bstatic and -Bdynamic options
      interspersed between the libraries.  This means that
      libtool-linked C++ shared libraries will have a runtime
      dependency on the icc libraries until this is fixed in
      libtool.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="3.3.6.†ŌpenBSD">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="openbsd"></a>3.3.6.†ŌpenBSD</h3></div></div></div>
<p>OpenBSD 3.0 and 3.2 are tested and supported.</p>
<p>Care should be taken so that the tools that this kit installs do not conflict
      with the OpenBSD userland tools. There are several steps:</p>
<div class="orderedlist"><ol class="orderedlist" type="1">
<li class="listitem"><p>OpenBSD stores its ports pkg database in
	  <code class="filename">/var/db/pkg</code>. It is therefore
	  recommended that you choose a different location (e.g.
	  <code class="filename">/usr/pkgdb</code>) by
	  using the --pkgdbdir option to the bootstrap script.</p></li>
<li class="listitem">
<p>If you do not intend to use the OpenBSD ports tools, it's probably a
	  good idea to move them out of the way to avoid confusion, e.g.</p>
<pre class="screen">
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>cd /usr/sbin</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>mv pkg_add pkg_add.orig</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>mv pkg_create pkg_create.orig</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>mv pkg_delete pkg_delete.orig</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>mv pkg_info pkg_info.orig</code></strong>
	  </pre>
</li>
<li class="listitem">
<p>An example <a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a> file will be placed in
	  <code class="filename">/etc/mk.conf.example</code> file
	  when you use the bootstrap script. OpenBSD's make program uses
	  <a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a>
	  as well. You can work around this by enclosing all the pkgsrc-specific parts
	  of the file with:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
.ifdef BSD_PKG_MK
# pkgsrc stuff, e.g. insert defaults/mk.conf or similar here
.else
# OpenBSD stuff
.endif
	  </pre>
</li>
</ol></div>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="3.3.7.†”olaris">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="solaris"></a>3.3.7.†”olaris</h3></div></div></div>
<p>Solaris 2.6 through 9 are supported on both x86 and sparc.
      You will need a working C compiler. Both gcc 2.95.3 and
      Sun WorkShop 5 have been tested.</p>
<p>The following packages are required on Solaris 8 for the bootstrap
      process and to build packages.</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p>SUNWsprot</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>SUNWarc</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>SUNWbtool</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>SUNWtoo</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>SUNWlibm</p></li>
</ul></div>
<p>Please note that the use of GNU binutils on Solaris is
      <span class="emphasis"><em>not</em></span> supported, as of June 2006.</p>
<p>Whichever compiler you use, please ensure the compiler tools and
      your $prefix are in your <code class="varname">PATH</code>. This includes
      <code class="filename">/usr/ccs/{bin,lib}</code>
      and e.g. <code class="filename">/usr/pkg/{bin,sbin}</code>.</p>
<div class="sect3" title="3.3.7.1.†…f you are using gcc">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title">
<a name="solaris-gcc-note"></a>3.3.7.1.†…f you are using gcc</h4></div></div></div>
<p>It makes life much simpler if you only use the same gcc consistently
	for building all packages.</p>
<p>It is recommended that an external gcc be used only for bootstrapping,
	then either build gcc from
	<a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/lang/gcc/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">lang/gcc</code></a> or install a binary gcc
	package, then remove gcc used during bootstrapping.</p>
<p>Binary packages of gcc can be found through <a class="ulink" href="http://www.sunfreeware.com/" target="_top">http://www.sunfreeware.com/</a>.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect3" title="3.3.7.2.†…f you are using Sun WorkShop">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title">
<a name="solaris-sun-workshop-note"></a>3.3.7.2.†…f you are using Sun WorkShop</h4></div></div></div>
<p>You will need at least the following packages installed (from WorkShop
	5.0)</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p>SPROcc
	  - Sun WorkShop Compiler C 5.0</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>SPROcpl
	  - Sun WorkShop Compiler C++ 5.0</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>SPROild
	  - Sun WorkShop Incremental Linker</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>SPROlang
	  - Sun WorkShop Compilers common components</p></li>
</ul></div>
<p>You should set the following variables in your
	<a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a> file:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
CC=     cc
CXX=    CC
CPP=    cc -E
CXXCPP= CC -E
</pre>
<div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;">
<h3 class="title">Note</h3>
<p>The <code class="varname">CPP</code> setting might break some
	packages that use the C preprocessor for processing things other
	than C source code.</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect3" title="3.3.7.3.†¬uilding 64-bit binaries with SunPro">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title">
<a name="solaris-sunpro-64"></a>3.3.7.3.†¬uilding 64-bit binaries with SunPro</h4></div></div></div>
<p>To build 64-bit packages, you just need to have the
	following lines in your <a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a> file:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
PKGSRC_COMPILER=        sunpro
ABI=                    64
</pre>
<div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;">
<h3 class="title">Note</h3>
<p>This setting has been tested for the SPARC
	architecture. Intel and AMD machines need some more
	work.</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect3" title="3.3.7.4.†√ommon problems">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title">
<a name="plat.sunos.problems"></a>3.3.7.4.†√ommon problems</h4></div></div></div>
<p>Sometimes, when using <span class="command"><strong>libtool</strong></span>,
      <code class="filename">/bin/ksh</code> crashes with a segmentation fault.
      The workaround is to use another shell for the configure
      scripts, for example by installing <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/shells/bash/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">shells/bash</code></a> and adding the following lines
      to your <a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a>:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
CONFIG_SHELL=   ${LOCALBASE}/bin/bash
WRAPPER_SHELL=  ${LOCALBASE}/bin/bash
      </pre>
<p>Then, rebuild the <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/devel/libtool-base/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">devel/libtool-base</code></a> package.</p>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="chapter" title="Chapter.†’sing pkgsrc">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title">
<a name="using"></a>Chapter.†’sing pkgsrc</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="toc">
<p><b>Table of Contents</b></p>
<dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#using-pkg">4.1. Using binary packages</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#finding-binary-packages">4.1.1. Finding binary packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#installing-binary-packages">4.1.2. Installing binary packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#using.pkg_delete">4.1.3. Deinstalling packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#using.pkg_info">4.1.4. Getting information about installed packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#vulnerabilities">4.1.5. Checking for security vulnerabilities in installed packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#pkg_versions">4.1.6. Finding if newer versions of your installed packages are in pkgsrc</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#using.pkg_admin">4.1.7. Other administrative functions</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#a-word-of-warning">4.1.8. A word of warning</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#building-packages-from-source">4.2. Building packages from source</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#requirements">4.2.1. Requirements</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#fetching-distfiles">4.2.2. Fetching distfiles</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#how-to-build-and-install">4.2.3. How to build and install</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
</dl>
</div>
<p>Basically, there are two ways of using pkgsrc. The first
is to only install the package tools and to use binary packages
that someone else has prepared. This is the <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">pkg</span>&#8221;</span>
in pkgsrc. The second way is to install the <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">src</span>&#8221;</span>
of pkgsrc, too. Then you are able to build your own packages,
and you can still use binary packages from someone else.</p>
<div class="sect1" title="4.1.†’sing binary packages">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="using-pkg"></a>4.1.†’sing binary packages</h2></div></div></div>
<p>On the <a class="ulink" href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/" target="_top">ftp.NetBSD.org</a>
  server and its mirrors, there are collections of binary packages,
  ready to be installed. These binary packages have been built using the
  default settings for the directories, that is:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="filename">/usr/pkg</code> for <code class="varname">LOCALBASE</code>, where most of the files are installed,</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="filename">/usr/pkg/etc</code> for configuration files,</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="filename">/var</code> for <code class="varname">VARBASE</code>, where those files are installed that may change after installation.</p></li>
</ul></div>
<p>If you cannot use these directories for whatever reasons (maybe
  because you're not root), you cannot use these binary packages, but
  have to build the packages yourself, which is explained in <a class="xref" href="#bootstrapping-pkgsrc" title="3.2.†¬ootstrapping pkgsrc">Section.2, &#8220;Bootstrapping pkgsrc&#8221;</a>.</p>
<div class="sect2" title="4.1.1.†∆inding binary packages">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="finding-binary-packages"></a>4.1.1.†∆inding binary packages</h3></div></div></div>
<p>To install binary packages, you first need to know from where
    to get them. The first place where you should look is on the main
    pkgsrc FTP server in the directory <a class="ulink" href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/packages/" target="_top"><code class="filename">/pub/pkgsrc/packages</code></a>.</p>
<p>This directory contains binary packages for multiple
    platforms. First, select your operating system. (Ignore the
    directories with version numbers attached to it, they just exist for
    legacy reasons.) Then, select your hardware architecture, and in the
    third step, the OS version and the <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">version</span>&#8221;</span> of pkgsrc.</p>
<p>In this directory, you often find a file called
    <code class="filename">bootstrap.tar.gz</code> which contains the package
    management tools. If the file is missing, it is likely that your
    operating system already provides those tools. Download the file and
    extract it in the <code class="filename">/</code> directory. It will create
    the directories <code class="filename">/usr/pkg</code> (containing the tools
    for managing binary packages) and <code class="filename">/var/db/pkg</code>
    (the database of installed packages).</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="4.1.2.†…nstalling binary packages">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="installing-binary-packages"></a>4.1.2.†…nstalling binary packages</h3></div></div></div>
<p>In the directory from the last section, there is a
    subdirectory called <code class="filename">All</code>, which contains all the
    binary packages that are available for the platform, excluding those
    that may not be distributed via FTP or CDROM (depending on which
    medium you are using).</p>
<p>To install packages directly from an FTP or HTTP server, run
    the following commands in a Bourne-compatible shell (be sure to
    <span class="command"><strong>su</strong></span> to root first):</p>
<pre class="screen">
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>PATH="/usr/pkg/sbin:$PATH"</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>PKG_PATH="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/packages/<em class="replaceable"><code>OPSYS</code></em>/<em class="replaceable"><code>ARCH</code></em>/<em class="replaceable"><code>VERSIONS</code></em>/All"</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>export PATH PKG_PATH</code></strong>
</pre>
<p>Instead of URLs, you can also use local paths, for example if
    you are installing from a set of CDROMs, DVDs or an NFS-mounted
    repository. If you want to install packages from multiple sources,
    you can separate them by a semicolon in
    <code class="varname">PKG_PATH</code>.</p>
<p>After these preparations, installing a package is very
    easy:</p>
<pre class="screen">
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>pkg_add openoffice2</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>pkg_add kde-3.5.7</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>pkg_add ap2-php5-*</code></strong>
</pre>
<p>Note that any prerequisite packages needed to run the
    package in question will be installed, too, assuming they are
    present where you install from.</p>
<p>Adding packages might install vulnerable packages.
    Thus you should run <span class="command"><strong>pkg_admin audit</strong></span>
    regularly, especially after installing new packages, and verify
    that the vulnerabilities are acceptable for your configuration.</p>
<p>After you've installed packages, be sure to have
    <code class="filename">/usr/pkg/bin</code> and <code class="filename">/usr/pkg/sbin</code> in your
    <code class="varname">PATH</code> so you can actually start the just
    installed program.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="4.1.3.†ńeinstalling packages">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="using.pkg_delete"></a>4.1.3.†ńeinstalling packages</h3></div></div></div>
<p>To deinstall a package, it does not matter whether it was
    installed from source code or from a binary package. The
    <span class="command"><strong>pkg_delete</strong></span> command does not know it anyway.
    To delete a package, you can just run <span class="command"><strong>pkg_delete
    <em class="replaceable"><code>package-name</code></em></strong></span>. The package
    name can be given with or without version number. Wildcards can
    also be used to deinstall a set of packages, for example
    <code class="literal">*emacs*</code>. Be sure to include them in quotes,
    so that the shell does not expand them before
    <code class="literal">pkg_delete</code> sees them.</p>
<p>The <code class="option">-r</code> option is very powerful: it
    removes all the packages that require the package in question
    and then removes the package itself. For example:

    </p>
<pre class="screen">
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>pkg_delete -r jpeg</code></strong>
    </pre>
<p>

    will remove jpeg and all the packages that used it; this allows
    upgrading the jpeg package.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="4.1.4.†«etting information about installed packages">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="using.pkg_info"></a>4.1.4.†«etting information about installed packages</h3></div></div></div>
<p>The <span class="command"><strong>pkg_info</strong></span> shows information about
    installed packages or binary package files.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="4.1.5.†√hecking for security vulnerabilities in installed packages">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="vulnerabilities"></a>4.1.5.†√hecking for security vulnerabilities in installed packages</h3></div></div></div>
<p>
      The NetBSD Security-Officer and Packages Groups maintain a list of
      known security vulnerabilities to packages which are (or have been)
      included in pkgsrc.  The list is available from the NetBSD
      FTP site at <a class="ulink" href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/distfiles/vulnerabilities" target="_top">ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/distfiles/vulnerabilities</a>.
    </p>
<p>
      Through <span class="command"><strong>pkg_admin fetch-pkg-vulnerabilities</strong></span>,
      this list can be downloaded
      automatically, and a security audit of all packages installed on a system
      can take place.
    </p>
<p>
      There are two components to auditing.  The first
      step, <span class="command"><strong>pkg_admin fetch-pkg-vulnerabilities</strong></span>,
      is for downloading
      the list of vulnerabilities from the NetBSD FTP site.  The second
      step, <span class="command"><strong>pkg_admin audit</strong></span>, checks to see if any of your
      installed packages are vulnerable.  If a package is vulnerable, you
      will see output similar to the following:
    </p>
<pre class="screen">Package samba-2.0.9 has a local-root-shell vulnerability, see
    http://www.samba.org/samba/whatsnew/macroexploit.html</pre>
<p>
      You may wish to have the
      <a class="ulink" href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/distfiles/vulnerabilities" target="_top">vulnerabilities</a>
      file downloaded daily so that
      it remains current.  This may be done by adding an appropriate entry
      to the root users <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?crontab+5+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">crontab</span>(5)</span></a> entry.  For example the entry
      </p>
<pre class="screen">
# download vulnerabilities file
0 3 * * * /usr/sbin/pkg_admin fetch-pkg-vulnerabilities &gt;/dev/null 2&gt;&amp;1
      </pre>
<p>
      will update the vulnerability list every day at 3AM. You may wish to do
      this more often than once a day.

      In addition, you may wish to run the package audit from the daily
      security script.  This may be accomplished by adding the following
      line to <code class="filename">/etc/security.local</code>:
      </p>
<pre class="screen">
/usr/sbin/pkg_admin audit
      </pre>
<p>
    </p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="4.1.6.†∆inding if newer versions of your installed packages are in pkgsrc">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="pkg_versions"></a>4.1.6.†∆inding if newer versions of your installed packages are in pkgsrc</h3></div></div></div>
<p>
      Install <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/lintpkgsrc/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/lintpkgsrc</code></a> and run
      <span class="command"><strong>lintpkgsrc</strong></span> with the <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">-i</span>&#8221;</span>
      argument to check if your packages are up-to-date, e.g.
    </p>
<pre class="screen">
<code class="prompt">%</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>lintpkgsrc -i</code></strong>
...
Version mismatch: 'tcsh' 6.09.00 vs 6.10.00
    </pre>
<p>You can then use <span class="command"><strong>make update</strong></span> to update the
    package on your system and rebuild any dependencies.
    </p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="4.1.7.†Ōther administrative functions">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="using.pkg_admin"></a>4.1.7.†Ōther administrative functions</h3></div></div></div>
<p>The <span class="command"><strong>pkg_admin</strong></span> executes various
    administrative functions on the package system.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="4.1.8.†Ń word of warning">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="a-word-of-warning"></a>4.1.8.†Ń word of warning</h3></div></div></div>
<p>Please pay very careful attention to the warnings
    expressed in the <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?pkg_add+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">pkg_add</span>(1)</span></a> manual page about the
    inherent dangers of installing binary packages which you did
    not create yourself, and the security holes that can be
    introduced onto your system by indiscriminate adding of such
    files.</p>
<p>The same warning of course applies to every package you
    install from source when you haven't completely read and
    understood the source code of the package, the compiler that
    is used to build the package and all the other tools that are
    involved.</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="4.2.†¬uilding packages from source">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="building-packages-from-source"></a>4.2.†¬uilding packages from source</h2></div></div></div>
<p>After obtaining pkgsrc, the <code class="filename">pkgsrc</code>
  directory now contains a set of packages, organized into
  categories. You can browse the online index of packages, or run
  <span class="command"><strong>make readme</strong></span> from the <code class="filename">pkgsrc</code>
  directory to build local <code class="filename">README.html</code> files for
  all packages, viewable with any web browser such as <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/www/lynx/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">www/lynx</code></a> or <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/www/firefox/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">www/firefox</code></a>.</p>
<p>The default <span class="emphasis"><em>prefix</em></span> for installed packages
  is <code class="filename">/usr/pkg</code>. If you wish to change this, you
  should do so by setting <code class="varname">LOCALBASE</code> in
  <a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a>. You should not try to use multiple
  different <code class="varname">LOCALBASE</code> definitions on the same
  system (inside a chroot is an exception). </p>
<p>The rest of this chapter assumes that the package is already
  in pkgsrc. If it is not, see <a class="xref" href="#developers-guide" title="Part†…I.†‘he pkgsrc developer's guide">Part†…I, &#8220;The pkgsrc developer's guide&#8221;</a> for
  instructions how to create your own packages.</p>
<div class="sect2" title="4.2.1.†“equirements">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="requirements"></a>4.2.1.†“equirements</h3></div></div></div>
<p>To build packages from source, you need a working C
    compiler. On NetBSD, you need to install the
    <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">comp</span>&#8221;</span> and the <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">text</span>&#8221;</span> distribution
    sets. If you want to build X11-related packages, the
    <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">xbase</span>&#8221;</span> and <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">xcomp</span>&#8221;</span> distribution
    sets are required, too.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="4.2.2.†∆etching distfiles">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="fetching-distfiles"></a>4.2.2.†∆etching distfiles</h3></div></div></div>
<p>The first step for building a package is downloading the
    distfiles (i.e. the unmodified source). If they have not yet been
    downloaded, pkgsrc will fetch them automatically.</p>
<p>If you have all files that you need in the
    <code class="filename">distfiles</code> directory,
    you don't need to connect. If the distfiles are on CD-ROM, you can
    mount the CD-ROM on <code class="filename">/cdrom</code> and add:
    </p>
<pre class="screen">DISTDIR=/cdrom/pkgsrc/distfiles</pre>
<p>
    to your <a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a>.</p>
<p>By default a list of distribution sites will be randomly
    intermixed to prevent huge load on servers which holding popular
    packages (for example, SourceForge.net mirrors). Thus, every
    time when you need to fetch yet another distfile all the mirrors
    will be tried in new (random) order. You can turn this feature
    off by setting <code class="varname">MASTER_SORT_RANDOM=NO</code> (for
    <code class="varname">PKG_DEVELOPER</code>s it's already disabled).</p>
<p>You can overwrite some of the major distribution sites to
    fit to sites that are close to your own.  By setting one or two
    variables you can modify the order in which the master sites are
    accessed.  <code class="varname">MASTER_SORT</code> contains a whitespace
    delimited list of domain suffixes.
    <code class="varname">MASTER_SORT_REGEX</code> is even more flexible, it
    contains a whitespace delimited list of regular expressions.  It
    has higher priority than <code class="varname">MASTER_SORT</code>.  Have a
    look at <code class="filename">pkgsrc/mk/defaults/mk.conf</code> to find
    some examples.  This may save some of your bandwidth and
    time.</p>
<p>You can change these settings either in your shell's environment, or,
    if you want to keep the settings, by editing the
    <a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a> file,
    and adding the definitions there.</p>
<p>
      If a package depends on many other packages (such as
      <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/meta-pkgs/kde3/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">meta-pkgs/kde3</code></a>), the build process may
      alternate between periods of
      downloading source, and compiling. To ensure you have all the source
      downloaded initially you can run the command:
      </p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">%</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>make fetch-list | sh</code></strong></pre>
<p>
      which will output and run a set of shell commands to fetch the
      necessary files into the <code class="filename">distfiles</code> directory.  You can
      also choose to download the files manually.
    </p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="4.2.3.†»ow to build and install">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="how-to-build-and-install"></a>4.2.3.†»ow to build and install</h3></div></div></div>
<p>
      Once the software has downloaded, any patches will be applied, then it
      will be compiled for you. This may take some time depending on your
      computer, and how many other packages the software depends on and their
      compile time.
    </p>
<div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;">
<h3 class="title">Note</h3>
<p>If using bootstrap or pkgsrc on a non-NetBSD system,
    use the pkgsrc <span class="command"><strong>bmake</strong></span> command instead of
    <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">make</span>&#8221;</span> in the examples in this guide.</p>
</div>
<p>For example, type</p>
<pre class="screen">
<code class="prompt">%</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>cd misc/figlet</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">%</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>make</code></strong>
    </pre>
<p>at the shell prompt to build the various components of the
    package.</p>
<p>The next stage is to actually install the newly compiled
    program onto your system. Do this by entering:

    </p>
<pre class="screen">
<code class="prompt">%</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>make install</code></strong>
    </pre>
<p>

    while you are still in the directory for whatever package you
    are installing.</p>
<p>Installing the package on your system may require you to
    be root.  However, pkgsrc has a
    <span class="emphasis"><em>just-in-time-su</em></span> feature, which allows you
    to only become root for the actual installation step.</p>
<p>That's it, the software should now be installed and setup for use.
    You can now enter:

    </p>
<pre class="screen">
<code class="prompt">%</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>make clean</code></strong>
    </pre>
<p>

    to remove the compiled files in the work directory, as you shouldn't need
    them any more. If other packages were also added to your system
    (dependencies) to allow your program to compile, you can tidy these up
    also with the command:</p>
<pre class="screen">
<code class="prompt">%</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>make clean-depends</code></strong>
    </pre>
<p>Taking the figlet utility as an example, we can install it on our
    system by building as shown in <a class="xref" href="#logs" title="Appendix†¬.†¬uild logs">Appendix†¬, <i>Build logs</i></a>.</p>
<p>The program is installed under the default root of the
    packages tree - <code class="filename">/usr/pkg</code>. Should this not
    conform to your tastes, set the <code class="varname">LOCALBASE</code>
    variable in your environment, and it will use that value as the
    root of your packages tree. So, to use
    <code class="filename">/usr/local</code>, set
    <code class="varname">LOCALBASE=/usr/local</code> in your environment.
    Please note that you should use a directory which is dedicated to
    packages and not shared with other programs (i.e., do not try and
    use <code class="varname">LOCALBASE=/usr</code>).  Also, you should not try
    to add any of your own files or directories (such as
    <code class="filename">src/</code>, <code class="filename">obj/</code>, or
    <code class="filename">pkgsrc/</code>) below the
    <code class="varname">LOCALBASE</code> tree.  This is to prevent possible
    conflicts between programs and other files installed by the
    package system and whatever else may have been installed
    there.</p>
<p>Some packages look in <a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a> to
    alter some configuration options at build time.  Have a look at
    <code class="filename">pkgsrc/mk/defaults/mk.conf</code> to get an overview
    of what will be set there by default.  Environment variables such
    as <code class="varname">LOCALBASE</code> can be set in
    <a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a> to save having to remember to
    set them each time you want to use pkgsrc.</p>
<p>Occasionally, people want to <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">look under the
    covers</span>&#8221;</span> to see what is going on when a package is building
    or being installed. This may be for debugging purposes, or out of
    simple curiosity. A number of utility values have been added to
    help with this.</p>
<div class="orderedlist"><ol class="orderedlist" type="1">
<li class="listitem">
<p>If you invoke the <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?make+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">make</span>(1)</span></a> command with
	<code class="varname">PKG_DEBUG_LEVEL=2</code>, then a huge amount of
	information will be displayed. For example,</p>
<pre class="screen"><strong class="userinput"><code>make patch PKG_DEBUG_LEVEL=2</code></strong></pre>
<p>will show all the commands that are invoked, up to and
	including the <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">patch</span>&#8221;</span> stage.</p>
</li>
<li class="listitem">
<p>If you want to know the value of a certain <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?make+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">make</span>(1)</span></a>
	definition, then the <code class="varname">VARNAME</code> definition
	should be used, in conjunction with the show-var
	target. e.g. to show the expansion of the <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?make+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">make</span>(1)</span></a>
	variable <code class="varname">LOCALBASE</code>:</p>
<pre class="screen">
<code class="prompt">%</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>make show-var VARNAME=LOCALBASE</code></strong>
/usr/pkg
<code class="prompt">%</code>
	</pre>
</li>
</ol></div>
<p>If you want to install a binary package that you've either
    created yourself (see next section), that you put into
    pkgsrc/packages manually or that is located on a remote FTP
    server, you can use the "bin-install" target. This target will
    install a binary package - if available - via <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?pkg_add+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">pkg_add</span>(1)</span></a>,
    else do a <span class="command"><strong>make package</strong></span>.  The list of remote FTP
    sites searched is kept in the variable
    <code class="varname">BINPKG_SITES</code>, which defaults to
    ftp.NetBSD.org. Any flags that should be added to <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?pkg_add+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">pkg_add</span>(1)</span></a>
    can be put into <code class="varname">BIN_INSTALL_FLAGS</code>.  See
    <code class="filename">pkgsrc/mk/defaults/mk.conf</code> for more
    details.</p>
<p>A final word of warning: If you set up a system that has a
    non-standard setting for <code class="varname">LOCALBASE</code>, be sure to
    set that before any packages are installed, as you cannot use
    several directories for the same purpose. Doing so will result in
    pkgsrc not being able to properly detect your installed packages,
    and fail miserably. Note also that precompiled binary packages are
    usually built with the default <code class="varname">LOCALBASE</code> of
    <code class="filename">/usr/pkg</code>, and that you should
    <span class="emphasis"><em>not</em></span> install any if you use a non-standard
    <code class="varname">LOCALBASE</code>.</p>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="chapter" title="Chapter.†√onfiguring pkgsrc">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title">
<a name="configuring"></a>Chapter.†√onfiguring pkgsrc</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="toc">
<p><b>Table of Contents</b></p>
<dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#general-configuration">5.1. General configuration</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#variables-affecting-build">5.2. Variables affecting the build process</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#variables-affecting-installation">5.3. Variables affecting the installation process</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#conf.compiler">5.4. Selecting and configuring the compiler</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#selecting-the-compiler">5.4.1. Selecting the compiler</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#conf.cflags">5.4.2. Additional flags to the compiler (<code class="varname">CFLAGS</code>)</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#conf.ldflags">5.4.3. Additional flags to the linker (<code class="varname">LDFLAGS</code>)</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#developer-advanced-settings">5.5. Developer/advanced settings</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#selecting-build-options">5.6. Selecting Build Options</a></span></dt>
</dl>
</div>
<a name="mk.conf"></a><p>The whole pkgsrc system is configured in a single file, usually
called <code class="filename">mk.conf</code>. In which directory pkgsrc looks for
that file depends on the installation. On NetBSD, when you use
<a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?make+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">make</span>(1)</span></a> from the base system, it is in the directory
<code class="filename">/etc/</code>. In all other cases the default location is
<code class="literal">${PREFIX}/etc/</code>, depending on where you told the
bootstrap program to install the binary packages.</p>
<p>During the bootstrap, an example configuration file is created. To
use that, you have to create the directory
<code class="filename">${PREFIX}/etc</code> and copy the example file
there.</p>
<p>The format of the configuration file is that of the usual
BSD-style <code class="filename">Makefile</code>s. The whole pkgsrc configuration
is done by setting variables in this file. Note that you can define all
kinds of variables, and no special error checking (for example for
spelling mistakes) takes place, so you have to try it out to see if it
works.</p>
<div class="sect1" title="5.1.†«eneral configuration">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="general-configuration"></a>5.1.†«eneral configuration</h2></div></div></div>
<p>In this section, you can find some variables that apply to all
    pkgsrc packages. A complete list of the variables that can be
    configured by the user is available in
    <code class="filename">mk/defaults/mk.conf</code>, together with some
    comments that describe each variable's intent.</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">LOCALBASE</code>: Where
	    packages will be installed. The default is
	    <code class="filename">/usr/pkg</code>. Do not mix binary packages
	    with different <code class="varname">LOCALBASE</code>s!</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">CROSSBASE</code>: Where
	    <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">cross</span>&#8221;</span> category packages will be
	    installed. The default is
	    <code class="filename">${LOCALBASE}/cross</code>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">X11BASE</code>: Where
	    X11 is installed on the system. The default is
	    <code class="filename">/usr/X11R6</code>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">DISTDIR</code>: Where to store the
	    downloaded copies of the original source distributions used
	    for building pkgsrc packages. The default is
	    <code class="filename">${PKGSRCDIR}/distfiles</code>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">PKG_DBDIR</code>: Where the
	    database about installed packages is stored.  The default is
	    <code class="filename">/var/db/pkg</code>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">MASTER_SITE_OVERRIDE</code>:
	    If set, override the packages'
	    <code class="varname">MASTER_SITES</code> with this value.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">MASTER_SITE_BACKUP</code>:
	    Backup location(s) for distribution files and patch files
	    if not found locally or in
	    <code class="filename">${MASTER_SITES}</code> or
	    <code class="filename">${PATCH_SITES}</code> respectively.
	    The defaults are
	    <code class="filename">ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/distfiles/${DIST_SUBDIR}/</code>
	    and
	    <code class="filename">ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/distfiles/${DIST_SUBDIR}/</code>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">BINPKG_SITES</code>:
	    List of sites carrying binary pkgs. <em class="replaceable"><code>rel</code></em> and
	    <em class="replaceable"><code>arch</code></em> are replaced with OS
	    release (<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">2.0</span>&#8221;</span>, etc.) and architecture
	    (<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">mipsel</span>&#8221;</span>, etc.).</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">ACCEPTABLE_LICENSES</code>:
	    List of acceptable licenses. License names are case-sensitive.
	    Whenever you try to build a package whose license is not in this
	    list, you will get an error message. If the license condition is
	    simple enough, the error message will include specific
	    instructions on how to change this variable.</p></li>
</ul></div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="5.2.†÷ariables affecting the build process">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="variables-affecting-build"></a>5.2.†÷ariables affecting the build process</h2></div></div></div>
<p>XXX
      </p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">PACKAGES</code>: The top level
	    directory for the binary packages. The default is
	    <code class="filename">${PKGSRCDIR}/packages</code>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">WRKOBJDIR</code>:
	    The top level directory where, if defined, the separate
	    working directories will get created, and symbolically
	    linked to from <code class="filename">${WRKDIR}</code> (see below).
	    This is useful for building packages on several
	    architectures, then <code class="filename">${PKGSRCDIR}</code>
	    can be NFS-mounted while <code class="filename">${WRKOBJDIR}</code>
	    is local to every architecture. (It should be noted that
	    <code class="varname">PKGSRCDIR</code> should not be set by the user
	    &mdash; it is an internal definition which refers to the
	    root of the pkgsrc tree. It is possible to have many
	    pkgsrc tree instances.)</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">LOCALPATCHES</code>:
	    Directory for local patches that aren't part of pkgsrc.
	    See <a class="xref" href="#components.patches" title="11.3.†ūatches/*">Section1.3, &#8220;patches/*&#8221;</a> for more
	    information.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">PKGMAKECONF</code>: Location of
	    the <a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a> file used by a package's
	    BSD-style Makefile. If this is not set,
	    <code class="varname">MAKECONF</code> is set to
	    <code class="filename">/dev/null</code> to avoid picking up
	    settings used by builds in <code class="filename">/usr/src</code>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">DEPENDS_TARGET</code>:
	    By default, dependencies are only installed, and no binary
	    package is created for them. You can set this variable to
	    <code class="literal">package</code> to automatically create binary
	    packages after installing dependencies.</p></li>
</ul></div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="5.3.†÷ariables affecting the installation process">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="variables-affecting-installation"></a>5.3.†÷ariables affecting the installation process</h2></div></div></div>
<p>Most packages support installation into a
    subdirectory of <code class="varname">WRKDIR</code>. This allows a package
    to be built, before the actual filesystem is touched. DESTDIR
    support exists in two variations:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p>Basic DESTDIR support means that the package
      installation and packaging is still run as root.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Full DESTDIR support can run the complete
      build, installation and packaging as normal user. Root
      privileges are only needed to add packages.</p></li>
</ul></div>
<p>DESTDIR support is now the default. To switch back to non-DESTDIR,
    you can set
    <code class="varname">USE_DESTDIR=no</code>; this setting will be deprecated though,
    so it's preferable to convert a package to DESTDIR instead.</p>
<p>DESTDIR support changes the behaviour of various targets
    slightly. To install a package after building it, use
    <code class="literal">package-install</code>. <code class="literal">package</code> and
    <code class="literal">install</code> don't do that any
    longer. <code class="literal">package-install</code> can be used as
    <code class="varname">DEPENDS_TARGET</code>.  <code class="literal">bin-install</code>
    will ask for the root password to install the package and fail,
    <code class="literal">package-install</code> will ask again.</p>
<p>With basic DESTDIR support, <strong class="userinput"><code>make
    clean</code></strong> needs to be run as root.</p>
<p>Considering the <code class="filename">foo/bar</code> package,
    DESTDIR full support can be tested using the following commands

</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
<code class="prompt">$</code> id
uid=1000(myusername) gid=100(users) groups=100(users),0(wheel)
<code class="prompt">$</code> mkdir $HOME/packages
<code class="prompt">$</code> cd $PKGSRCDIR/foo/bar
</pre>
<p>

    Verify <code class="varname">DESTDIR</code> full support, no root privileges
    should be needed

</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
<code class="prompt">$</code> make USE_DESTDIR=yes install
</pre>
<p>

    Create a package without root privileges

</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
<code class="prompt">$</code> make USE_DESTDIR=yes PACKAGES=$HOME/packages package
</pre>
<p>

    For the following command, you must be able to gain root
    privileges using <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?su+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">su</span>(1)</span></a>

</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
<code class="prompt">$</code> make USE_DESTDIR=yes PACKAGES=$HOME/packages package-install
</pre>
<p>

    Then, as a simple user

</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
<code class="prompt">$</code> make clean
</pre>
<p>

    </p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="5.4.†”electing and configuring the compiler">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="conf.compiler"></a>5.4.†”electing and configuring the compiler</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="sect2" title="5.4.1.†”electing the compiler">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="selecting-the-compiler"></a>5.4.1.†”electing the compiler</h3></div></div></div>
<p>By default, pkgsrc will use GCC to build packages.  This may be
    overridden by setting the following variables in /etc/mk.conf:</p>
<div class="variablelist"><dl>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">PKGSRC_COMPILER</code>:</span></dt>
<dd>
<p>This is a list of values specifying the chain of
	  compilers to invoke when building packages.  Valid values
	  are:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">distcc</code>:
	    distributed C/C++ (chainable)</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">ccache</code>:
	    compiler cache (chainable)</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">gcc</code>:
	    GNU C/C++ Compiler</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">mipspro</code>:
	    Silicon Graphics, Inc. MIPSpro (n32/n64)</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">mipspro</code>:
	    Silicon Graphics, Inc. MIPSpro (o32)</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">sunpro</code>:
	    Sun Microsystems, Inc. WorkShip/Forte/Sun ONE Studio</p></li>
</ul></div>
<p>The default is
	  <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote"><code class="varname">gcc</code></span>&#8221;</span>.  You can use
	  <code class="varname">ccache</code> and/or
	  <code class="varname">distcc</code> with an appropriate
	  <code class="varname">PKGSRC_COMPILER</code> setting,
	  e.g. <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote"><code class="varname">ccache gcc</code></span>&#8221;</span>.  This
	  variable should always be terminated with a value for
	  a real compiler.  Note that only one real compiler
	  should be listed (e.g. <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote"><code class="varname">sunpro gcc</code></span>&#8221;</span>
	  is not allowed).</p>
</dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">GCC_REQD</code>:</span></dt>
<dd><p>This specifies the minimum version of GCC to use
	  when building packages.  If the system GCC doesn't
	  satisfy this requirement, then pkgsrc will build and
	  install one of the GCC packages to use instead.</p></dd>
</dl></div>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="5.4.2.†Ńdditional flags to the compiler (CFLAGS)">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="conf.cflags"></a>5.4.2.†Ńdditional flags to the compiler (<code class="varname">CFLAGS</code>)</h3></div></div></div>
<p>If you wish to set the <code class="varname">CFLAGS</code> variable,
	please make sure to use the <code class="literal">+=</code> operator
	instead of the <code class="literal">=</code> operator:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
CFLAGS+=        -your -flags
</pre>
<p>Using <code class="varname">CFLAGS=</code> (i.e. without the
	<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">+</span>&#8221;</span>) may lead to problems with packages that
	need to add their own flags.  You may want to take a look
	at the <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/devel/cpuflags/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">devel/cpuflags</code></a>
	package if you're interested in optimization specifically
	for the current CPU. </p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="5.4.3.†Ńdditional flags to the linker (LDFLAGS)">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="conf.ldflags"></a>5.4.3.†Ńdditional flags to the linker (<code class="varname">LDFLAGS</code>)</h3></div></div></div>
<p>If you want to pass flags to the linker, both in the configure
step and the build step, you can do this in two ways.  Either set
<code class="varname">LDFLAGS</code> or <code class="varname">LIBS</code>.  The difference
between the two is that <code class="varname">LIBS</code> will be appended to
the command line, while <code class="varname">LDFLAGS</code> come earlier.
<code class="varname">LDFLAGS</code> is pre-loaded with rpath settings for ELF
machines depending on the setting of <code class="varname">USE_IMAKE</code> or
the inclusion of <code class="filename">mk/x11.buildlink3.mk</code>.  As with
<code class="varname">CFLAGS</code>, if you do not wish to override these
settings, use the <code class="literal">+=</code> operator:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
LDFLAGS+=        -your -linkerflags
</pre>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="5.5.†ńeveloper/advanced settings">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="developer-advanced-settings"></a>5.5.†ńeveloper/advanced settings</h2></div></div></div>
<p>XXX
      </p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem">
<p><code class="varname">PKG_DEVELOPER</code>:
	    Run some sanity checks that package developers want:
	    </p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="circle">
<li class="listitem"><p>make sure patches apply with zero
	      fuzz</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>run check-shlibs to see that all
	      binaries will find their shared libs.</p></li>
</ul></div>
<p>
	</p>
</li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">PKG_DEBUG_LEVEL</code>: The level
	of debugging output which is displayed whilst making and
	installing the package.  The default value for this is 0,
	which will not display the commands as they are executed
	(normal, default, quiet operation); the value 1 will display
	all shell commands before their invocation, and the value 2
	will display both the shell commands before their invocation,
	and their actual execution progress with <span class="command"><strong>set
	-x</strong></span> will be displayed.</p></li>
</ul></div>
<p>
    </p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="5.6.†”electing Build Options">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="selecting-build-options"></a>5.6.†”electing Build Options</h2></div></div></div>
<p>Some packages have build time options, usually to select
    between different dependencies, enable optional support for big
    dependencies or enable experimental features.</p>
<p>To see which options, if any, a package supports, and which
    options are mutually exclusive, run <span class="command"><strong>make
    show-options</strong></span>, for example:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
    The following options are supported by this package:
        ssl      Enable SSL support.
    Exactly one of the following gecko options is required:
        firefox  Use firefox as gecko rendering engine.
        mozilla  Use mozilla as gecko rendering engine.
    At most one of the following database options may be selected:
        mysql    Enable support for MySQL database.
        pgsql    Enable support for PostgreSQL database.

    These options are enabled by default: firefox
    These options are currently enabled: mozilla ssl
</pre>
<p>The following variables can be defined in
    <a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a> to select which options to
    enable for a package: <code class="varname">PKG_DEFAULT_OPTIONS</code>,
    which can be used to select or disable options for all packages
    that support them, and
    <code class="varname">PKG_OPTIONS.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkgbase</code></em></code>,
    which can be used to select or disable options specifically for
    package <em class="replaceable"><code>pkgbase</code></em>.  Options listed in
    these variables are selected, options preceded by <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">-</span>&#8221;</span>
    are disabled. A few examples:</p>
<pre class="screen">
<code class="prompt">$</code> <span class="command"><strong>grep "PKG.*OPTION" <a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a></strong></span>
PKG_DEFAULT_OPTIONS=    -arts -dvdread -esound
PKG_OPTIONS.kdebase=    debug -sasl
PKG_OPTIONS.apache=     suexec </pre>
<p>It is important to note that options that were specifically
    suggested by the package maintainer must be explicitly removed if
    you do not wish to include the option.  If you are unsure you can view
    the current state with <span class="command"><strong>make show-options</strong></span>.</p>
<p>The following settings are consulted in the order given, and
    the last setting that selects or disables an option is
    used:</p>
<div class="orderedlist"><ol class="orderedlist" type="1">
<li class="listitem"><p>the default options as suggested by the package
      maintainer</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>the options implied by the settings of legacy
      variables (see below)</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">PKG_DEFAULT_OPTIONS</code></p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">PKG_OPTIONS.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkgbase</code></em></code></p></li>
</ol></div>
<p>For groups of mutually exclusive options, the last option
    selected is used, all others are automatically disabled.  If an
    option of the group is explicitly disabled, the previously
    selected option, if any, is used.  It is an error if no option
    from a required group of options is selected, and building the
    package will fail.</p>
<p>Before the options framework was introduced, build options
    were selected by setting a variable (often named
    <code class="varname">USE_<em class="replaceable"><code>FOO</code></em></code>) in
    <a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a> for each option.  To ease
    transition to the options framework for the user, these legacy
    variables are converted to the appropriate options setting
    (<code class="varname">PKG_OPTIONS.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkgbase</code></em></code>)
    automatically.  A warning is issued to prompt the user to update
    <a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a> to use the options framework
    directly.  Support for the legacy variables will be removed
    eventually.</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="chapter" title="Chapter.†√reating binary packages">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title">
<a name="binary"></a>Chapter.†√reating binary packages</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="toc">
<p><b>Table of Contents</b></p>
<dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#building-a-single-binary-package">6.1. Building a single binary package</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#settings-for-creationg-of-binary-packages">6.2. Settings for creation of binary packages</a></span></dt>
</dl>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="6.1.†¬uilding a single binary package">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="building-a-single-binary-package"></a>6.1.†¬uilding a single binary package</h2></div></div></div>
<p>Once you have built and installed a package, you can create
    a <span class="emphasis"><em>binary package</em></span> which can be installed on
    another system with <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?pkg_add+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">pkg_add</span>(1)</span></a>. This saves having to build
    the same package on a group of hosts and wasting CPU time. It also
    provides a simple means for others to install your package, should
    you distribute it.</p>
<p>To create a binary package, change into the appropriate
    directory in pkgsrc, and run <span class="command"><strong>make
    package</strong></span>:</p>
<pre class="screen">
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>cd misc/figlet</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>make package</code></strong>
    </pre>
<p>This will build and install your package (if not already done),
    and then build a binary package from what was installed. You can
    then use the <span class="command"><strong>pkg_*</strong></span> tools to manipulate
    it. Binary packages are created by default in
    <code class="filename">/usr/pkgsrc/packages</code>, in the form of a
    gzipped tar file. See <a class="xref" href="#logs.package" title="B.2.†–ackaging figlet">Section†¬.2, &#8220;Packaging figlet&#8221;</a> for a
    continuation of the above <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/misc/figlet/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">misc/figlet</code></a> example.</p>
<p>See <a class="xref" href="#submit" title="Chapter1.†”ubmitting and Committing">Chapter1, <i>Submitting and Committing</i></a> for information on how to submit
    such a binary package.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="6.2.†”ettings for creation of binary packages">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="settings-for-creationg-of-binary-packages"></a>6.2.†”ettings for creation of binary packages</h2></div></div></div>
<p>See <a class="xref" href="#build.helpful-targets" title="17.17.†Ōther helpful targets">Section7.17, &#8220;Other helpful targets&#8221;</a>.</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="chapter" title="Chapter.†√reating binary packages for everything in pkgsrc (bulk builds)">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title">
<a name="bulk"></a>Chapter.†√reating binary packages for everything in pkgsrc (bulk
builds)</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="toc">
<p><b>Table of Contents</b></p>
<dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#bulk.pre">7.1. Think first, build later</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#bulk.req">7.2. Requirements of a bulk build</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#bulk.old">7.3. Running an old-style bulk build</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#binary.configuration">7.3.1. Configuration</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#other-environmental-considerations">7.3.2. Other environmental considerations</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#operation">7.3.3. Operation</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#what-it-does">7.3.4. What it does</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#disk-space-requirements">7.3.5. Disk space requirements</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#setting-up-a-sandbox">7.3.6. Setting up a sandbox for chrooted builds</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#building-a-partial-set">7.3.7. Building a partial set of packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#bulk-upload">7.3.8. Uploading results of a bulk build</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#bulk.pbulk">7.4. Running a pbulk-style bulk build</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#bulk.pbulk.prepare">7.4.1. Preparation</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#bulk.pbulk.conf">7.4.2. Configuration</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#creating-cdroms">7.5. Creating a multiple CD-ROM packages collection</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#cdpack-example">7.5.1. Example of cdpack</a></span></dt></dl></dd>
</dl>
</div>
<p>When you have multiple machines that should run the same packages,
it is wasted time if they all build their packages themselves from
source. There are two ways of getting a set of binary packages: The old
bulk build system, or the new (as of 2007) parallel bulk build (pbulk)
system. This chapter describes how to set them up so that the packages
are most likely to be usable later.</p>
<div class="sect1" title="7.1.†‘hink first, build later">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="bulk.pre"></a>7.1.†‘hink first, build later</h2></div></div></div>
<p>Since a bulk build takes several days or even weeks to finish, you
should think about the setup before you start everything. Pay attention
to at least the following points:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem">
<p>If you want to upload the binary packages to
ftp.NetBSD.org, make sure the setup complies to the requirements for binary
packages:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="circle">
<li class="listitem"><p>To end up on ftp.NetBSD.org, the packages must be built
by a NetBSD developer on a trusted machine (that is, where you and only
you have root access).</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Packages on ftp.NetBSD.org should only be created from
the stable branches (like 2009Q1), so that users browsing the available
collections can see at a glance how old the packages
are.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>The packages must be built as root, since some packages
require set-uid binaries at runtime, and creating those packages as
unprivileged user doesn't work well at the moment.</p></li>
</ul></div>
</li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Make sure that the bulk build cannot break anything in
your system. Most bulk builds run as root, so they should be run at least
in a chroot environment or something even more restrictive, depending on
what the operating system provides. There have been numerous cases where
certain packages tried to install files outside the
<code class="filename">LOCALBASE</code> or wanted to edit some files in
<code class="filename">/etc</code>. Furthermore, the bulk builds install and
deinstall packages in <code class="filename">/usr/pkg</code> (or whatever
<code class="filename">LOCALBASE</code> is) during their operation, so be sure
that you don't need any package during the build.</p></li>
</ul></div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="7.2.†“equirements of a bulk build">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="bulk.req"></a>7.2.†“equirements of a bulk build</h2></div></div></div>
<p>A complete bulk build requires lots of disk space. Some of the
disk space can be read-only, some other must be writable. Some can be on
remote filesystems (such as NFS) and some should be local. Some can be
temporary filesystems, others must survive a sudden reboot.</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p>10 GB for the distfiles (read-write, remote, temporary)</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>10 GB for the binary packages (read-write, remote, permanent)</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>400 MB for the pkgsrc tree (read-only, remote, permanent)</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>5 GB for <code class="filename">LOCALBASE</code> (read-write, local, temporary for pbulk, permanent for old-bulk)</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>5 GB for the log files (read-write, remote, permanent)</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>5 GB for temporary files (read-write, local, temporary)</p></li>
</ul></div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="7.3.†“unning an old-style bulk build">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="bulk.old"></a>7.3.†“unning an old-style bulk build</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;">
<h3 class="title">Note</h3>
<p>There are two ways of doing a bulk build. The old-style
one and the new-style <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">pbulk</span>&#8221;</span>. The latter is the recommended
way.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="7.3.1.†√onfiguration">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="binary.configuration"></a>7.3.1.†√onfiguration</h3></div></div></div>
<div class="sect3" title="7.3.1.1.†‚uild.conf">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title">
<a name="binary.bulk.build.conf"></a>7.3.1.1.code class="filename">build.conf</code>
</h4></div></div></div>
<p>The <code class="filename">build.conf</code> file is the main
	configuration file for bulk builds. You can configure how your
	copy of pkgsrc is kept up to date, how the distfiles are
	downloaded, how the packages are built and how the report is
	generated. You can find an annotated example file in
	<code class="filename">pkgsrc/mk/bulk/build.conf-example</code>. To use
	it, copy <code class="filename">build.conf-example</code> to
	<code class="filename">build.conf</code> and edit it, following the
	comments in that file.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect3" title="7.3.1.2.†Ūk.conf">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title">
<a name="binary.mk.conf"></a>7.3.1.2.a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a>
</h4></div></div></div>
<p>You may want to set variables in <a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a>.
	Look at <code class="filename">pkgsrc/mk/defaults/mk.conf</code> for
	details of the default settings. You will want to ensure that
	<code class="varname">ACCEPTABLE_LICENSES</code> meet your local policy.
	As used in this example, <code class="varname">SKIP_LICENSE_CHECK=yes</code>
	completely bypasses the license check.</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
PACKAGES?=      ${_PKGSRCDIR}/packages/${MACHINE_ARCH}
WRKOBJDIR?=     /usr/tmp/pkgsrc   # build here instead of in pkgsrc
BSDSRCDIR=      /usr/src
BSDXSRCDIR=     /usr/xsrc         # for x11/xservers
OBJHOSTNAME?=   yes               # use work.`hostname`
FAILOVER_FETCH= yes               # insist on the correct checksum
PKG_DEVELOPER?= yes
SKIP_LICENSE_CHECK=    yes
</pre>
<p>Some options that are especially useful for bulk builds
	can be found at the top lines of the file
	<code class="filename">mk/bulk/bsd.bulk-pkg.mk</code>. The most useful
	options of these are briefly described here.</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p>If you are on a slow machine, you may want to
	  set <code class="varname">USE_BULK_BROKEN_CHECK</code> to
	  <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">no</span>&#8221;</span>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>If you are doing bulk builds from a read-only
	  copy of pkgsrc, you have to set <code class="varname">BULKFILESDIR</code>
	  to the directory where all log files are created. Otherwise the
	  log files are created in the pkgsrc directory.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Another important variable is
	  <code class="varname">BULK_PREREQ</code>, which is a list of packages that
	  should be always available while building other
	  packages.</p></li>
</ul></div>
<p>Some other options are scattered in the pkgsrc
	infrastructure:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">ALLOW_VULNERABLE_PACKAGES</code>
	  should be set to <code class="literal">yes</code>. The purpose of the
	  bulk builds is creating binary packages, no matter if they
	  are vulnerable or not. Leaving this variable unset would
	  prevent the bulk build system from even trying to build
	  them, so possible building errors would not show
	  up.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">CHECK_FILES</code>
	  (<code class="filename">pkgsrc/mk/check/check-files.mk</code>) can be set to
	  <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">yes</span>&#8221;</span> to check that the installed set of files
	  matches the <code class="filename">PLIST</code>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">CHECK_INTERPRETER</code>
	  (<code class="filename">pkgsrc/mk/check/check-interpreter.mk</code>) can be set to
	  <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">yes</span>&#8221;</span> to check that the installed
	  <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">#!</span>&#8221;</span>-scripts will find their
	  interpreter.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">PKGSRC_RUN_TEST</code> can be
	  set to <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote"><code class="literal">yes</code></span>&#8221;</span> to run each
	  package's self-test before installing it. Note that some
	  packages make heavy use of <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">good</span>&#8221;</span> random
	  numbers, so you need to assure that the machine on which you
	  are doing the bulk builds is not completely idle. Otherwise
	  some test programs will seem to hang, while they are just
	  waiting for new random data to be
	  available.</p></li>
</ul></div>
</div>
<div class="sect3" title="7.3.1.3.†ūre-build.local">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title">
<a name="pre-build.local"></a>7.3.1.3.code class="filename">pre-build.local</code>
</h4></div></div></div>
<p>It is possible to configure the bulk build to perform
	certain site-specific tasks at the end of the pre-build
	stage.  If the file
	<code class="filename">pre-build.local</code> exists in
	<code class="filename">/usr/pkgsrc/mk/bulk</code>, it will be executed
	(as a <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?sh+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">sh</span>(1)</span></a> script) at the end of the usual pre-build
	stage.  An example use of
	<code class="filename">pre-build.local</code> is to have the line:</p>
<pre class="screen">echo "I do not have enough disk space to build this pig." \
	&gt; misc/openoffice/$BROKENF</pre>
<p>to prevent the system from trying to build a particular package
	which requires nearly 3 GB of disk space.</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="7.3.2.†Ōther environmental considerations">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="other-environmental-considerations"></a>7.3.2.†Ōther environmental considerations</h3></div></div></div>
<p>As <code class="filename">/usr/pkg</code> will be completely
      deleted at the start of bulk builds, make sure your login
      shell is placed somewhere else. Either drop it into
      <code class="filename">/usr/local/bin</code> (and adjust your login
      shell in the passwd file), or (re-)install it via
      <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?pkg_add+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">pkg_add</span>(1)</span></a> from <code class="filename">/etc/rc.local</code>, so
      you can login after a reboot (remember that your current
      process won't die if the package is removed, you just can't
      start any new instances of the shell any more).  Also, if you
      use NetBSD earlier than 1.5, or you still want to use the pkgsrc
      version of ssh for some reason, be sure to install ssh before
      starting it from <code class="filename">rc.local</code>:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
(cd /usr/pkgsrc/security/ssh &amp;&amp; make bulk-install)
if [ -f /usr/pkg/etc/rc.d/sshd ]; then
  /usr/pkg/etc/rc.d/sshd
fi
</pre>
<p>Not doing so will result in you being not able to log in
      via ssh after the bulk build is finished or if the machine
      gets rebooted or crashes. You have been warned! :)</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="7.3.3.†Ōperation">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="operation"></a>7.3.3.†Ōperation</h3></div></div></div>
<p>Make sure you don't need any of the packages still
      installed.</p>
<div class="warning" title="Warning" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;">
<h3 class="title">Warning</h3>
<p>During the bulk build, <span class="emphasis"><em>all packages, their
	configuration files and some more files from
	<code class="filename">/var</code>, <code class="filename">/home</code> and
	possibly other locations will be removed! So don't run a bulk
	build with privileges that might harm your
	system.</em></span></p>
</div>
<p>Be sure to remove all other things that might
      interfere with builds, like some libs installed in
      <code class="filename">/usr/local</code>, etc. then become root and type:</p>
<pre class="screen">
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>cd /usr/pkgsrc</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>sh mk/bulk/build</code></strong>
      </pre>
<p>If for some reason your last build didn't complete (power
      failure, system panic, ...), you can continue it by
      running:</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>sh mk/bulk/build restart</code></strong></pre>
<p>At the end of the bulk build, you will get a summary via mail,
      and find build logs in the directory specified by
      <code class="varname">FTP</code> in the <code class="filename">build.conf</code>
      file.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="7.3.4.†◊hat it does">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="what-it-does"></a>7.3.4.†◊hat it does</h3></div></div></div>
<p>The bulk builds consist of three steps:</p>
<div class="variablelist"><dl>
<dt><span class="term">1. pre-build</span></dt>
<dd><p>The script updates your pkgsrc tree via (anon)cvs, then
	    cleans out any broken distfiles, and removes all
	    packages installed.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term">2. the bulk build</span></dt>
<dd><p>This is basically <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">make bulk-package</span>&#8221;</span> with
	    an optimised order in which packages will be
	    built. Packages that don't require other packages will
	    be built first, and packages with many dependencies will
	    be built later.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term">3. post-build</span></dt>
<dd><p>Generates a report that's placed in the directory
	    specified in the <code class="filename">build.conf</code> file
	    named <code class="filename">broken.html</code>, a short version
	    of that report will also be mailed to the build's
	    admin.</p></dd>
</dl></div>
<p>During the build, a list of broken packages will be compiled
      in <code class="filename">/usr/pkgsrc/.broken</code> (or
      <code class="filename">.../.broken.${MACHINE}</code> if
      <code class="varname">OBJMACHINE</code> is set), individual build logs
      of broken builds can be found in the package's
      directory. These files are used by the bulk-targets to mark
      broken builds to not waste time trying to rebuild them, and
      they can be used to debug these broken package builds
      later.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="7.3.5.†ńisk space requirements">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="disk-space-requirements"></a>7.3.5.†ńisk space requirements</h3></div></div></div>
<p>Currently, roughly the following requirements are valid for
      NetBSD 2.0/i386:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p>10 GB - distfiles (NFS ok)</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>8 GB - full set of all binaries (NFS ok)</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>5 GB - temp space for compiling (local disk recommended)</p></li>
</ul></div>
<p>Note that all pkgs will be de-installed as soon as they are
      turned into a binary package, and that sources are removed,
      so there is no excessively huge demand to disk
      space. Afterwards, if the package is needed again, it will
      be installed via <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?pkg_add+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">pkg_add</span>(1)</span></a> instead of building again, so
      there are no cycles wasted by recompiling.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="7.3.6.†”etting up a sandbox for chrooted builds">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="setting-up-a-sandbox"></a>7.3.6.†”etting up a sandbox for chrooted builds</h3></div></div></div>
<p>If you don't want all the packages nuked from a machine
      (rendering it useless for anything but pkg compiling), there
      is the possibility of doing the package bulk build inside a
      chroot environment.</p>
<p>The first step is to set up a chroot sandbox,
      e.g. <code class="filename">/usr/sandbox</code>.  This can be done by
      using null mounts, or manually.</p>
<p>There is a shell script called
      <code class="filename">pkgsrc/mk/bulk/mksandbox</code> which will set
      up the sandbox environment using null mounts. It will also
      create a script called <code class="filename">sandbox</code> in the
      root of the sandbox environment, which will allow the null
      mounts to be activated using the <span class="command"><strong>sandbox
      mount</strong></span> command and deactivated using the
      <span class="command"><strong>sandbox umount</strong></span> command.</p>
<p>To set up a sandbox environment by hand, after extracting all
      the sets from a NetBSD installation or doing a <span class="command"><strong>make
      distribution DESTDIR=/usr/sandbox</strong></span> in
      <code class="filename">/usr/src/etc</code>, be sure the following items
      are present and properly configured:</p>
<div class="procedure"><ol class="procedure" type="1">
<li class="step" title="Step 1">
<p>Kernel</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>cp /netbsd /usr/sandbox</code></strong></pre>
</li>
<li class="step" title="Step 2">
<p><code class="filename">/dev/*</code></p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>cd /usr/sandbox/dev ; sh MAKEDEV all</code></strong></pre>
</li>
<li class="step" title="Step 3">
<p><code class="filename">/etc/resolv.conf</code> (for <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/security/smtpd/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">security/smtpd</code></a> and mail):</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>cp /etc/resolv.conf /usr/sandbox/etc</code></strong></pre>
</li>
<li class="step" title="Step 4">
<p>Working(!) mail config (hostname, sendmail.cf):</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>cp /etc/mail/sendmail.cf /usr/sandbox/etc/mail</code></strong></pre>
</li>
<li class="step" title="Step 5">
<p><code class="filename">/etc/localtime</code> (for <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/security/smtpd/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">security/smtpd</code></a>):</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/UTC /usr/sandbox/etc/localtime</code></strong></pre>
</li>
<li class="step" title="Step 6">
<p><code class="filename">/usr/src</code> (system sources,
	  e.&nbsp;g. for <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/sysutils/aperture/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">sysutils/aperture</code></a>):</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>ln -s ../disk1/cvs .</code></strong>
	  <code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>ln -s cvs/src-2.0 src</code></strong></pre>
</li>
<li class="step" title="Step 7">
<p>Create <code class="filename">/var/db/pkg</code> (not part of default install):</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>mkdir /usr/sandbox/var/db/pkg</code></strong></pre>
</li>
<li class="step" title="Step 8">
<p>Create <code class="filename">/usr/pkg</code> (not part of default install):</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>mkdir /usr/sandbox/usr/pkg</code></strong></pre>
</li>
<li class="step" title="Step 9">
<p>Checkout pkgsrc via cvs into
	  <code class="filename">/usr/sandbox/usr/pkgsrc</code>:</p>
<pre class="screen">
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>cd /usr/sandbox/usr</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>cvs -d anoncvs@anoncvs.NetBSD.org:/cvsroot checkout -d -P pkgsrc</code></strong>
	  </pre>
<p>Do not mount/link this to the copy of your pkgsrc tree
	  you do development in, as this will likely cause problems!</p>
</li>
<li class="step" title="Step 10"><p>Make
	  <code class="filename">/usr/sandbox/usr/pkgsrc/packages</code> and
	  <code class="filename">.../distfiles</code> point somewhere
	  appropriate. NFS- and/or nullfs-mounts may come in handy!</p></li>
<li class="step" title="Step 11"><p>Edit <a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a>, see <a class="xref" href="#binary.mk.conf" title="7.3.1.2.†Ūk.conf">Section.3.1.2, &#8220;<code class="filename">mk.conf</code>&#8221;</a>.</p></li>
<li class="step" title="Step 12"><p>Adjust <code class="filename">mk/bulk/build.conf</code> to suit your needs.</p></li>
</ol></div>
<p>When the chroot sandbox is set up, you can start
      the build with the following steps:</p>
<pre class="screen">
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>cd /usr/sandbox/usr/pkgsrc</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>sh mk/bulk/do-sandbox-build</code></strong>
      </pre>
<p>This will just jump inside the sandbox and start building.  At
	the end of the build, mail will be sent with the results of
	the build. Created binary pkgs will be in
	<code class="filename">/usr/sandbox/usr/pkgsrc/packages</code>
      (wherever that points/mounts to/from).</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="7.3.7.†¬uilding a partial set of packages">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="building-a-partial-set"></a>7.3.7.†¬uilding a partial set of packages</h3></div></div></div>
<p>In addition to building a complete set of all packages in
      pkgsrc, the <code class="filename">pkgsrc/mk/bulk/build</code> script
      may be used to build a subset of the packages contained in
      pkgsrc.  By setting <code class="varname">SPECIFIC_PKGS</code>
      in <a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a>, the variables</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p>SITE_SPECIFIC_PKGS</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>HOST_SPECIFIC_PKGS</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>GROUP_SPECIFIC_PKGS</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>USER_SPECIFIC_PKGS</p></li>
</ul></div>
<p>will define the set of packages which should be built.
      The bulk build code will also include any packages which are
      needed as dependencies for the explicitly listed packages.</p>
<p>One use of this is to do a bulk build with
      <code class="varname">SPECIFIC_PKGS</code> in a chroot sandbox
      periodically to have a complete set of the binary packages
      needed for your site available without the overhead of
      building extra packages that are not needed.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="7.3.8.†’ploading results of a bulk build">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="bulk-upload"></a>7.3.8.†’ploading results of a bulk build</h3></div></div></div>
<p>This section describes how pkgsrc developers can upload binary
      pkgs built by bulk builds to ftp.NetBSD.org.</p>
<p>If you would like to automatically create checksum files for the
      binary packages you intend to upload, remember to set
      <code class="varname">MKSUMS=yes</code> in your
      <code class="filename">mk/bulk/build.conf</code>.</p>
<p>If you would like to PGP sign the checksum files (highly
      recommended!), remember to set
      <code class="varname">SIGN_AS=username@NetBSD.org</code> in your
      <code class="filename">mk/bulk/build.conf</code>.  This will prompt you for
      your GPG password to sign the files before uploading everything.</p>
<p>Then, make sure that you have <code class="varname">RSYNC_DST</code>
      set properly in your <code class="filename">mk/bulk/build.conf</code>
      file, i.e. adjust it to something like one of the following:</p>
<pre class="screen">RSYNC_DST=ftp.NetBSD.org:/pub/pkgsrc/packages/NetBSD/arch/a.b.c-20xxQy/upload</pre>
<p>Please use appropriate values for "20xxQy" (the branch),
      "a.b.c" (the OS version) and "arch" here. If your login on ftp.NetBSD.org
      is different from your local login, write your login directly
      into the variable, e.g. my local account is "feyrer", but for my
      login "hubertf", I use:</p>
<pre class="screen">RSYNC_DST=hubertf@ftp.NetBSD.org:/pub/pkgsrc/packages/NetBSD/arch/a.b.c-20xxQy/upload</pre>
<p>A separate <code class="filename">upload</code> directory is used
      here to allow "closing" the directory during upload. To do
      so, run the following command on ftp.NetBSD.org next:</p>
<pre class="screen">nbftp% <strong class="userinput"><code>mkdir -p -m 750 /pub/pkgsrc/packages/NetBSD/arch/a.b.c-20xxQy/upload</code></strong></pre>
<p>Before uploading the binary pkgs, ssh authentication needs
      to be set up. This example shows how to set up temporary keys
      for the root account <span class="emphasis"><em>inside the sandbox</em></span>
      (assuming that no keys should be present there usually):</p>
<pre class="screen">
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>chroot /usr/sandbox</code></strong>
chroot-<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>rm $HOME/.ssh/id-dsa*</code></strong>
chroot-<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>ssh-keygen -t rsa</code></strong>
chroot-<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>cat $HOME/.ssh/id-rsa.pub</code></strong>
      </pre>
<p>Now take the output of <code class="filename">id-rsa.pub</code> and
      append it to your <code class="filename">~/.ssh/authorized_keys</code>
      file on ftp.NetBSD.org. You should remove the key after the
      upload is done!</p>
<p>Next, test if your ssh connection really works:</p>
<pre class="screen">chroot-<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>ssh ftp.NetBSD.org date</code></strong> </pre>
<p>Use "-l yourNetBSDlogin" here as appropriate!</p>
<p>Now after all this works, you can exit the sandbox and start
      the upload:</p>
<pre class="screen">
chroot-<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>exit</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>cd /usr/sandbox/usr/pkgsrc</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>sh mk/bulk/do-sandbox-upload</code></strong>
      </pre>
<p>The upload process may take quite some time. Use <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?ls+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">ls</span>(1)</span></a> or
      <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?du+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">du</span>(1)</span></a> on the FTP server to monitor progress of the
      upload. The upload script will take care of not uploading
      restricted packages.</p>
<p>After the upload has ended, first thing is to revoke ssh access:</p>
<pre class="screen">nbftp% <strong class="userinput"><code>vi ~/.ssh/authorized_keys</code></strong>
      Gdd:x! </pre>
<p>Use whatever is needed to remove the key you've entered
      before! Last, move the uploaded packages out of the
      <code class="filename">upload</code> directory to have them accessible
      to everyone:</p>
<pre class="screen">
nbftp% <strong class="userinput"><code>cd /pub/pkgsrc/packages/NetBSD/arch/a.b.c-20xxQy</code></strong>
nbftp% <strong class="userinput"><code>mv upload/* .</code></strong>
nbftp% <strong class="userinput"><code>rmdir upload</code></strong>
nbftp% <strong class="userinput"><code>chgrp -R netbsd .</code></strong>
nbftp% <strong class="userinput"><code>find . -type d | xargs chmod 775</code></strong>
      </pre>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="7.4.†“unning a pbulk-style bulk build">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="bulk.pbulk"></a>7.4.†“unning a pbulk-style bulk build</h2></div></div></div>
<p>Running a pbulk-style bulk build works roughly as follows:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p>First, build the pbulk infrastructure in a fresh pkgsrc location.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Then, build each of the packages from a clean installation directory using the infrastructure.</p></li>
</ul></div>
<div class="sect2" title="7.4.1.†–reparation">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="bulk.pbulk.prepare"></a>7.4.1.†–reparation</h3></div></div></div>
<p>First, you need to create a pkgsrc installation for the pbulk infrastructure. No matter on which platform you are (even on NetBSD), you should bootstrap into its own directory. Let's take the directory <code class="filename">/usr/pbulk</code> or <code class="filename">$HOME/pbulk</code> for it. This installation will be bootstrapped and all the tools that are required for the bulk build will be installed there.</p>
<pre class="screen">
$ <strong class="userinput"><code>cd /usr/pkgsrc</code></strong>
$ <strong class="userinput"><code>./bootstrap/bootstrap --prefix=/usr/pbulk --varbase=/usr/pbulk/var --workdir=/tmp/pbulk-bootstrap</code></strong>
$ <strong class="userinput"><code>rm -rf /tmp/pbulk-bootstrap</code></strong>
</pre>
<p>Now the basic environment for the pbulk infrastructure is installed. The specific tools are still missing. This is a good time to edit the pkgsrc configuration file <code class="filename">/usr/pbulk/etc/mk.conf</code> to fit your needs. Typical things you might set now are:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="literal"><code class="varname">PKG_DEVELOPER</code>=yes</code>, to enable many consistency checks,</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="literal"><code class="varname">WRKOBJDIR</code>=/tmp/pbulk-outer</code>, to keep <code class="filename">/usr/pkgsrc</code> free from any modifications,</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="literal"><code class="varname">DISTDIR</code>=/distfiles</code>, to have only one directory in which all distfiles (for the infrastructure and for the actual packages) are downloaded,</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="literal"><code class="varname">ACCEPTABLE_LICENSES</code>+=...</code>, to select some licenses additional to the usual Free/Open Source licenses that are acceptable to you,</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="literal"><code class="varname">SKIP_LICENSE_CHECK</code>=yes</code>, to bypass the license checks.</p></li>
</ul></div>
<p>Now you are ready to build the rest of the pbulk infrastructure.</p>
<pre class="screen">
$ <strong class="userinput"><code>cd pkgtools/pbulk</code></strong>
$ <strong class="userinput"><code>/usr/pbulk/bin/bmake install</code></strong>
$ <strong class="userinput"><code>rm -rf /tmp/pbulk-outer</code></strong>
</pre>
<p>Now the pbulk infrastructure is built and installed. It still needs to be configured, and after some more preparation, we will be able to start the real bulk build.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="7.4.2.†√onfiguration">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="bulk.pbulk.conf"></a>7.4.2.†√onfiguration</h3></div></div></div>
<p>TODO; see pkgsrc/doc/HOWTO-pbulk for more information.</p>
<p>TODO: continue writing</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="7.5.†√reating a multiple CD-ROM packages collection">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="creating-cdroms"></a>7.5.†√reating a multiple CD-ROM packages collection</h2></div></div></div>
<p>After your pkgsrc bulk-build has completed, you may wish to
    create a CD-ROM set of the resulting binary packages to assist
    in installing packages on other machines.  The
    <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/cdpack/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/cdpack</code></a> package provides
    a simple tool for creating the ISO 9660 images.
    <span class="command"><strong>cdpack</strong></span> arranges the packages on the CD-ROMs in a
    way that keeps all the dependencies for a given package on the same
    CD as that package.</p>
<div class="sect2" title="7.5.1.†Ňxample of cdpack">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="cdpack-example"></a>7.5.1.†Ňxample of cdpack</h3></div></div></div>
<p>Complete documentation for cdpack is found in the cdpack(1)
      man page. The following short example assumes that the binary
      packages are left in
      <code class="filename">/usr/pkgsrc/packages/All</code> and that
      sufficient disk space exists in <code class="filename">/u2</code> to
      hold the ISO 9660 images.</p>
<pre class="screen">
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>mkdir /u2/images</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>pkg_add /usr/pkgsrc/packages/All/cdpack</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>cdpack /usr/pkgsrc/packages/All /u2/images</code></strong>
      </pre>
<p>If you wish to include a common set of files
      (<code class="filename">COPYRIGHT</code>, <code class="filename">README</code>,
      etc.) on each CD in the collection, then you need to create a
      directory which contains these files. e.g.</p>
<pre class="screen">
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>mkdir /tmp/common</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>echo "This is a README" &gt; /tmp/common/README</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>echo "Another file" &gt; /tmp/common/COPYING</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>mkdir /tmp/common/bin</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>echo "#!/bin/sh" &gt; /tmp/common/bin/myscript</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>echo "echo Hello world" &gt;&gt; /tmp/common/bin/myscript</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>chmod 755 /tmp/common/bin/myscript</code></strong>
      </pre>
<p>Now create the images:</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>cdpack -x /tmp/common /usr/pkgsrc/packages/All /u2/images</code></strong></pre>
<p>Each image will contain <code class="filename">README</code>,
      <code class="filename">COPYING</code>, and <code class="filename">bin/myscript</code>
      in their root directories.</p>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="chapter" title="Chapter.†ńirectory layout of the installed files">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title">
<a name="files"></a>Chapter.†ńirectory layout of the installed files</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="toc">
<p><b>Table of Contents</b></p>
<dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#files.localbase">8.1. File system layout in <code class="literal">${LOCALBASE}</code></a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#files.varbase">8.2. File system layout in <code class="literal">${VARBASE}</code></a></span></dt>
</dl>
</div>
<p>The files that are installed by pkgsrc are organized in a way that
is similar to what you find in the <code class="filename">/usr</code> directory
of the base system. But some details are different. This is because
pkgsrc initially came from FreeBSD and had adopted its file system
hierarchy. Later it was largely influenced by NetBSD. But no matter
which operating system you are using pkgsrc with, you can expect the
same layout for pkgsrc.</p>
<p>There are mainly four root directories for pkgsrc, which are all
configurable in the <code class="filename">bootstrap/bootstrap</code> script.
When pkgsrc has been installed as root, the default locations
are:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
LOCALBASE=              /usr/pkg
PKG_SYSCONFBASE=        /usr/pkg/etc
VARBASE=                /var
PKG_DBDIR=              /var/db/pkg
</pre>
<p>In unprivileged mode (when pkgsrc has been installed as any other
user), the default locations are:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
LOCALBASE=              ${HOME}/pkg
PKG_SYSCONFBASE=        ${HOME}/pkg/etc
VARBASE=                ${HOME}/pkg/var
PKG_DBDIR=              ${HOME}/pkg/var/db/pkg
</pre>
<p>What these four directories are for, and what they look like is
explained below.</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">LOCALBASE</code> corresponds to the
<code class="filename">/usr</code> directory in the base system. It is the
<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">main</span>&#8221;</span> directory where the files are installed and contains
the well-known subdirectories like <code class="filename">bin</code>,
<code class="filename">include</code>, <code class="filename">lib</code>,
<code class="filename">share</code> and
<code class="filename">sbin</code>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">VARBASE</code> corresponds to
<code class="filename">/var</code> in the base system. Some programs (especially
games, network daemons) need write access to it during normal
operation.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">PKG_SYSCONFDIR</code> corresponds to
<code class="filename">/etc</code> in the base system. It contains configuration
files of the packages, as well as pkgsrc's <a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a>
itself.</p></li>
</ul></div>
<div class="sect1" title="8.1.†∆ile system layout in ${LOCALBASE}">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="files.localbase"></a>8.1.†∆ile system layout in <code class="literal">${LOCALBASE}</code>
</h2></div></div></div>
<p>The following directories exist in a typical pkgsrc installation
in <code class="filename">${LOCALBASE}</code>.</p>
<div class="variablelist"><dl>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">bin</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>Contains executable programs that are intended to be
directly used by the end user.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">emul</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>Contains files for the emulation layers of various other
operating systems, especially for
NetBSD.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">etc</code> (the usual location of
<code class="filename">${PKG_SYSCONFDIR}</code>)</span></dt>
<dd><p>Contains
the configuration files.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">include</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>Contains headers for the C and C++ programming
languages.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">info</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>Contains GNU info files of various
packages.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">lib</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>Contains shared and static
libraries.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">libdata</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>Contains data files that don't change after
installation. Other data files belong into
<code class="filename">${VARBASE}</code>.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">libexec</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>Contains programs that are not intended to be used by
end users, such as helper programs or network
daemons.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">libexec/cgi-bin</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>Contains programs that are intended to be executed as
CGI scripts by a web server.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">man</code> (the usual value of
<code class="filename">${PKGMANDIR}</code>)</span></dt>
<dd><p>Contains brief
documentation in form of manual pages.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">sbin</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>Contains programs that are intended to be used only by
the super-user.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">share</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>Contains platform-independent data files that don't
change after installation.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">share/doc</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>Contains documentation files provided by the
packages.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">share/examples</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>Contains example files provided by the packages. Among
others, the original configuration files are saved here and copied to
<code class="filename">${PKG_SYSCONFDIR}</code> during
installation.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">share/examples/rc.d</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>Contains the original files for rc.d
scripts.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">var</code> (the usual location of
<code class="filename">${VARBASE}</code>)</span></dt>
<dd><p>Contains files
that may be modified after
installation.</p></dd>
</dl></div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="8.2.†∆ile system layout in ${VARBASE}">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="files.varbase"></a>8.2.†∆ile system layout in <code class="literal">${VARBASE}</code>
</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="variablelist"><dl>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">db/pkg</code> (the usual location of
<code class="filename">${PKG_DBDIR}</code>)</span></dt>
<dd><p>Contains
information about the currently installed
packages.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">games</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>Contains highscore
files.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">log</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>Contains log files.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">run</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>Contains informational files about daemons that are
currently running.</p></dd>
</dl></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="chapter" title="Chapter.†∆requently Asked Questions">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title">
<a name="faq"></a>Chapter.†∆requently Asked Questions</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="toc">
<p><b>Table of Contents</b></p>
<dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#mailing-list-pointers">9.1. Are there any mailing lists for pkg-related discussion?</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#pkgviews-docs">9.2. Where's the pkgviews documentation?</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#faq-pkgtools">9.3. Utilities for package management (pkgtools)</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#non-root-pkgsrc">9.4. How to use pkgsrc as non-root</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#resume-transfers">9.5. How to resume transfers when fetching distfiles?</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#x.org-from-pkgsrc">9.6. How can I install/use modular X.org from pkgsrc?</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#fetch-behind-firewall">9.7. How to fetch files from behind a firewall</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#passive-ftp">9.8. How do I tell <span class="command"><strong>make fetch</strong></span> to do passive FTP?</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#fetching-all-distfiles">9.9. How to fetch all distfiles at once</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#tmac.andoc-missing">9.10. What does <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">Don't know how to make
/usr/share/tmac/tmac.andoc</span>&#8221;</span> mean?</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#bsd.own.mk-missing">9.11. What does <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">Could not find bsd.own.mk</span>&#8221;</span> mean?</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#using-sudo-with-pkgsrc">9.12. Using 'sudo' with pkgsrc</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#faq.conf">9.13. How do I change the location of configuration files?</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#audit-packages">9.14. Automated security checks</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#ufaq-cflags">9.15. Why do some packages ignore my <code class="varname">CFLAGS</code>?</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#ufaq-fail">9.16. A package does not build.  What shall I do?</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#faq.rcs-conflicts">9.17. What does <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">Makefile appears to contain unresolved cvs/rcs/??? merge conflicts</span>&#8221;</span> mean?</a></span></dt>
</dl>
</div>
<p>This section contains hints, tips &amp; tricks on special things in
pkgsrc that we didn't find a better place for in the previous chapters, and
it contains items for both pkgsrc users and developers.</p>
<div class="sect1" title="9.1.†Ńre there any mailing lists for pkg-related discussion?">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="mailing-list-pointers"></a>9.1.†Ńre there any mailing lists for pkg-related discussion?</h2></div></div></div>
<p>The following mailing lists may be of interest to pkgsrc users:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p><a class="ulink" href="http://www.NetBSD.org/mailinglists/index.html#pkgsrc-users" target="_top">pkgsrc-users</a>:
	  This is a general purpose list for most issues regarding
	  pkgsrc, regardless of platform, e.g. soliciting user help
	  for pkgsrc configuration, unexpected build failures, using
	  particular packages, upgrading pkgsrc installations,
	  questions regarding the pkgsrc release branches, etc.  General announcements or
	  proposals for changes that impact the pkgsrc user community,
	  e.g. major infrastructure changes, new features, package
	  removals, etc., may also be posted.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><a class="ulink" href="http://www.NetBSD.org/mailinglists/index.html#pkgsrc-bulk" target="_top">pkgsrc-bulk</a>:
	  A list where the results of pkgsrc bulk builds are sent and
	  discussed.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><a class="ulink" href="http://www.NetBSD.org/mailinglists/index.html#pkgsrc-changes" target="_top">pkgsrc-changes</a>:
	  This list is for those who are interested in getting a
	  commit message for every change committed to pkgsrc. It is
	  also available in digest form, meaning one daily message
	  containing all commit messages for changes to the package
	  source tree in that 24 hour period.</p></li>
</ul></div>
<p>To subscribe, do:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
<code class="prompt">%</code> echo subscribe <em class="replaceable"><code>listname</code></em> | mail majordomo@NetBSD.org
</pre>
<p>Archives for all these mailing lists are available from
<a class="ulink" href="http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/" target="_top">http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/</a>.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="9.2.†◊here's the pkgviews documentation?">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="pkgviews-docs"></a>9.2.†◊here's the pkgviews documentation?</h2></div></div></div>
<p>Pkgviews is tightly integrated with buildlink.  You can find a
pkgviews User's guide in
<code class="filename">pkgsrc/mk/buildlink3/PKGVIEWS_UG</code>.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="9.3.†’tilities for package management (pkgtools)">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="faq-pkgtools"></a>9.3.†’tilities for package management (pkgtools)</h2></div></div></div>
<p>The directory <code class="filename">pkgsrc/pkgtools</code> contains
a number of useful utilities for both users and developers of pkgsrc.  This
section attempts only to make the reader aware of the utilities and when
they might be useful, and not to duplicate the documentation that comes
with each package.</p>
<p>Utilities used by pkgsrc (automatically installed when needed):</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p><a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/x11-links/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/x11-links</code></a>:
      Symlinks for use by buildlink.</p></li></ul></div>
<p>OS tool augmentation (automatically installed when needed):</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p><a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/digest/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/digest</code></a>:
      Calculates various kinds of checksums (including SHA1).</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/libnbcompat/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/libnbcompat</code></a>:
      Compatibility library for pkgsrc tools.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/mtree/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/mtree</code></a>: Installed on
      non-BSD systems due to lack of native mtree.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/pkg_install/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/pkg_install</code></a>:
      Up-to-date replacement for
      <code class="filename">/usr/sbin/pkg_install</code>, or for use on operating
      systems where pkg_install is not present.</p></li>
</ul></div>
<p>Utilities used by pkgsrc (not automatically installed):</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p><a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/pkg_tarup/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/pkg_tarup</code></a>:
      Create a binary package from an
      already-installed package.  Used by <span class="command"><strong>make replace</strong></span> to
      save the old package.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/dfdisk/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/dfdisk</code></a>:
      Adds extra functionality to pkgsrc, allowing it to fetch distfiles
      from multiple locations. It currently supports the following
      methods: multiple CD-ROMs and network FTP/HTTP connections.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/xpkgwedge/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/xpkgwedge</code></a>: Put X11
      packages someplace else (enabled by default).</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/devel/cpuflags/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">devel/cpuflags</code></a>: Determine
      the best compiler flags to optimise code for your current
      CPU and compiler. </p></li>
</ul></div>
<p>Utilities for keeping track of installed packages, being up to date,
etc:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p><a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/pkg_chk/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/pkg_chk</code></a>: Reports on
      packages whose installed versions do not match the latest pkgsrc
      entries.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/pkgdep/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/pkgdep</code></a>: Makes
      dependency graphs of packages, to aid in choosing a strategy for
      updating.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/pkgdepgraph/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/pkgdepgraph</code></a>: Makes
      graphs from the output of <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/pkgdep/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/pkgdep</code></a> (uses graphviz).</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/pkglint/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/pkglint</code></a>: The
      pkglint(1) program checks a pkgsrc entry for errors.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/lintpkgsrc/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/lintpkgsrc</code></a>: The lintpkgsrc(1) program
      does various checks on the complete pkgsrc system.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/pkgsurvey/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/pkgsurvey</code></a>: Report what
      packages you have installed.</p></li>
</ul></div>
<p>Utilities for people maintaining or creating individual packages:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p><a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/pkgdiff/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/pkgdiff</code></a>: Automate
      making and maintaining patches for a package (includes pkgdiff,
      pkgvi, mkpatches, etc.).</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/rpm2pkg/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/rpm2pkg</code></a>,
      <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/url2pkg/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/url2pkg</code></a>: Aids in
      converting to pkgsrc.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/gensolpkg/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/gensolpkg</code></a>: Convert
      pkgsrc to a Solaris package.</p></li>
</ul></div>
<p>Utilities for people maintaining pkgsrc (or: more obscure pkg
utilities)</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p><a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/pkg_comp/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/pkg_comp</code></a>: Build
      packages in a chrooted area.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/libkver/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/libkver</code></a>: Spoof
      kernel version for chrooted cross builds.</p></li>
</ul></div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="9.4.†»ow to use pkgsrc as non-root">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="non-root-pkgsrc"></a>9.4.†»ow to use pkgsrc as non-root</h2></div></div></div>
<p>If you want to use pkgsrc as non-root user, you can set some
variables to make pkgsrc work under these conditions.  At the very least,
you need to set <code class="varname">UNPRIVILEGED</code> to <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">yes</span>&#8221;</span>; this
will turn on unprivileged mode and set multiple related variables to allow
installation of packages as non-root.</p>
<p>In case the defaults are not enough, you may want to tune some other
variables used.  For example, if the automatic user/group detection leads
to incorrect values (or not the ones you would like to use), you can change
them by setting <code class="varname">UNPRIVILEGED_USER</code> and
<code class="varname">UNPRIVILEGED_GROUP</code> respectively.</p>
<p>As regards bootstrapping, please note that the
<span class="command"><strong>bootstrap</strong></span> script will ease non-root configuration when
given the <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">--ignore-user-check</span>&#8221;</span> flag, as it will choose and
use multiple default directories under <code class="filename">~/pkg</code> as the
installation targets.  These directories can be overridden by the
<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">--prefix</span>&#8221;</span> flag provided by the script, as well as some others
that allow finer tuning of the tree layout.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="9.5.†»ow to resume transfers when fetching distfiles?">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="resume-transfers"></a>9.5.†»ow to resume transfers when fetching distfiles?</h2></div></div></div>
<p>By default, resuming transfers in pkgsrc is disabled, but you can
enable this feature by adding the option
<code class="varname">PKG_RESUME_TRANSFERS=YES</code> into
<a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a>.  If, during a fetch step, an incomplete
distfile is found, pkgsrc will try to resume it.</p>
<p>You can also
use a different program than the default <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?ftp+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">ftp</span>(1)</span></a> by changing the
<code class="varname">FETCH_USING</code> variable.  You can specify the program by
using of ftp, fetch, wget or curl.  Alternatively, fetching can be disabled
by using the value manual.  A value of custom disables the system defaults
and dependency tracking for the fetch program.  In that case you have to
provide <code class="varname">FETCH_CMD</code>, <code class="varname">FETCH_BEFORE_ARGS</code>,
<code class="varname">FETCH_RESUME_ARGS</code>, <code class="varname">FETCH_OUTPUT_ARGS</code>,
<code class="varname">FETCH_AFTER_ARGS</code>.</p>
<p>For example, if you want to use
<code class="filename">wget</code> to download, you'll have to use something
like:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
FETCH_USING=	wget
</pre>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="9.6.†»ow can I install/use modular X.org from pkgsrc?">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="x.org-from-pkgsrc"></a>9.6.†»ow can I install/use modular X.org from pkgsrc?</h2></div></div></div>
<p>If you want to use modular X.org from pkgsrc instead of your system's own X11
(<code class="filename">/usr/X11R6</code>, <code class="filename">/usr/openwin</code>, ...)
you will have to add the following line into
<a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a>:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
X11_TYPE=modular
</pre>
<div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;">
<h3 class="title">Note</h3>
<p>The DragonFly operating system defaults to using modular X.org from pkgsrc.
</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="9.7.†»ow to fetch files from behind a firewall">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="fetch-behind-firewall"></a>9.7.†»ow to fetch files from behind a firewall</h2></div></div></div>
<p>If you are sitting behind a firewall which does not allow direct
connections to Internet hosts (i.e. non-NAT), you may specify the
relevant proxy hosts.  This is done using an environment variable in the
form of a URL, e.g. in Amdahl, the machine
<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">orpheus.amdahl.com</span>&#8221;</span> is one of the firewalls, and it uses
port 80 as the proxy port number.  So the proxy environment variables
are:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
ftp_proxy=ftp://orpheus.amdahl.com:80/
http_proxy=http://orpheus.amdahl.com:80/
</pre>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="9.8.†»ow do I tell make fetch to do passive FTP?">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="passive-ftp"></a>9.8.†»ow do I tell <span class="command"><strong>make fetch</strong></span> to do passive FTP?</h2></div></div></div>
<p>This depends on which utility is used to retrieve distfiles.  From
<code class="filename">bsd.pkg.mk</code>, <code class="varname">FETCH_CMD</code> is assigned
the first available command from the following list:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="filename">${LOCALBASE}/bin/ftp</code></p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="filename">/usr/bin/ftp</code></p></li>
</ul></div>
<p>On a default NetBSD installation, this will be
<code class="filename">/usr/bin/ftp</code>, which automatically tries passive
connections first, and falls back to active connections if the server
refuses to do passive.  For the other tools, add the following to your
<a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a> file:
<code class="varname">PASSIVE_FETCH=1</code>.</p>
<p>Having that option present will prevent
<code class="filename">/usr/bin/ftp</code> from falling back to active
transfers.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="9.9.†»ow to fetch all distfiles at once">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="fetching-all-distfiles"></a>9.9.†»ow to fetch all distfiles at once</h2></div></div></div>
<p>You would like to download all the distfiles in a single batch
from work or university, where you can't run a <span class="command"><strong>make
fetch</strong></span>.  There is an archive of distfiles on <a class="ulink" href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/distfiles/" target="_top">ftp.NetBSD.org</a>,
but downloading the entire directory may not be appropriate.</p>
<p>The answer here is to do a <span class="command"><strong>make fetch-list</strong></span> in
<code class="filename">/usr/pkgsrc</code> or one of its subdirectories, carry the
resulting list to your machine at work/school and use it there.  If you
don't have a NetBSD-compatible <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?ftp+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">ftp</span>(1)</span></a> (like tnftp) at work, don't
forget to set <code class="varname">FETCH_CMD</code> to something that fetches a
URL:</p>
<p>At home:</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">%</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>cd /usr/pkgsrc</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">%</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>make fetch-list FETCH_CMD=wget DISTDIR=/tmp/distfiles &gt;/tmp/fetch.sh</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">%</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>scp /tmp/fetch.sh work:/tmp</code></strong></pre>
<p>At work:</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">%</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>sh /tmp/fetch.sh</code></strong></pre>
<p>then tar up <code class="filename">/tmp/distfiles</code> and take it
home.</p>
<p>If you have a machine running NetBSD, and you want to get
<span class="emphasis"><em>all</em></span> distfiles (even ones that aren't for your
machine architecture), you can do so by using the above-mentioned
<span class="command"><strong>make fetch-list</strong></span> approach, or fetch the distfiles
directly by running:</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">%</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>make mirror-distfiles</code></strong></pre>
<p>If you even decide to ignore
<code class="varname">NO_{SRC,BIN}_ON_{FTP,CDROM}</code>, then you can get everything
by running:</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">%</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>make fetch NO_SKIP=yes</code></strong></pre>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="9.10.†◊hat does &#8220;Don't know how to make /usr/share/tmac/tmac.andoc&#8221; mean?">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="tmac.andoc-missing"></a>9.10.†◊hat does <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">Don't know how to make
/usr/share/tmac/tmac.andoc</span>&#8221;</span> mean?</h2></div></div></div>
<p>When compiling the <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/pkg_install/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/pkg_install</code></a>
package, you get the error from make that it doesn't know how to make
<code class="filename">/usr/share/tmac/tmac.andoc</code>? This indicates that
you don't have installed the <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">text</span>&#8221;</span> set (nroff, ...) from
the NetBSD base distribution on your machine.  It is recommended to do
that to format man pages.</p>
<p>In the case of the <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/pkg_install/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/pkg_install</code></a> package, you
can get away with setting <code class="varname">NOMAN=YES</code> either in the
environment or in <a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a>.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="9.11.†◊hat does &#8220;Could not find bsd.own.mk&#8221; mean?">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="bsd.own.mk-missing"></a>9.11.†◊hat does <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">Could not find bsd.own.mk</span>&#8221;</span> mean?</h2></div></div></div>
<p>You didn't install the compiler set, <code class="filename">comp.tgz</code>,
when you installed your NetBSD machine.  Please get and install it, by
extracting it in <code class="filename">/</code>:</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>cd /</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>tar --unlink -zxvpf .../comp.tgz</code></strong></pre>
<p><code class="filename">comp.tgz</code> is part of every NetBSD release.  Get
the one that corresponds to your release (determine via <span class="command"><strong>uname
-r</strong></span>).</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="9.12.†’sing 'sudo' with pkgsrc">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="using-sudo-with-pkgsrc"></a>9.12.†’sing 'sudo' with pkgsrc</h2></div></div></div>
<p>When installing packages as non-root user and using the just-in-time
<a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?su+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">su</span>(1)</span></a> feature of pkgsrc, it can become annoying to type in the root
password for each required package installed.  To avoid this, the sudo
package can be used, which does password caching over a limited time.  To
use it, install sudo (either as binary package or from
<a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/security/sudo/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">security/sudo</code></a>) and then put the
following into your <a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a>, somewhere
<span class="emphasis"><em>after</em></span> the definition of the
<code class="varname">LOCALBASE</code> variable:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
.if exists(${LOCALBASE}/bin/sudo)
SU_CMD=        ${LOCALBASE}/bin/sudo /bin/sh -c
.endif
</pre>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="9.13.†»ow do I change the location of configuration files?">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="faq.conf"></a>9.13.†»ow do I change the location of configuration files?</h2></div></div></div>
<p>As the system administrator, you can choose where configuration files
are installed.  The default settings make all these files go into
<code class="filename">${PREFIX}/etc</code> or some of its subdirectories; this may
be suboptimal depending on your expectations (e.g., a read-only,
NFS-exported <code class="varname">PREFIX</code> with a need of per-machine
configuration of the provided packages).</p>
<p>In order to change the defaults, you can modify the
<code class="varname">PKG_SYSCONFBASE</code> variable (in
<a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a>) to point to your preferred configuration
directory; some common examples include <code class="filename">/etc</code> or
<code class="filename">/etc/pkg</code>.</p>
<p>Furthermore, you can change this value on a per-package basis by
setting the <code class="varname">PKG_SYSCONFDIR.${PKG_SYSCONFVAR}</code> variable.
<code class="varname">PKG_SYSCONFVAR</code>'s value usually matches the name of the
package you would like to modify, that is, the contents of
<code class="varname">PKGBASE</code>.</p>
<p>Note that after changing these settings, you must rebuild and
reinstall any affected packages.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="9.14.†Ńutomated security checks">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="audit-packages"></a>9.14.†Ńutomated security checks</h2></div></div></div>
<p>Please be aware that there can often be bugs in third-party software,
and some of these bugs can leave a machine vulnerable to exploitation by
attackers.  In an effort to lessen the exposure, the NetBSD packages team
maintains a database of known-exploits to packages which have at one time
been included in pkgsrc.  The database can be downloaded automatically, and
a security audit of all packages installed on a system can take place.  To
do this, refer to the following two tools (installed as part of the
<a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/pkg_install/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/pkg_install</code></a> package):</p>
<div class="orderedlist"><ol class="orderedlist" type="1">
<li class="listitem">
<p><span class="command"><strong>pkg_admin fetch-pkg-vulnerabilities</strong></span>, an easy way to
    download a list of the security vulnerabilities information.  This list
    is kept up to date by the pkgsrc security team, and is distributed
    from the NetBSD ftp server:</p>
<p><a class="ulink" href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pkgsrc/distfiles/pkg-vulnerabilities" target="_top">ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pkgsrc/distfiles/pkg-vulnerabilities</a></p>
</li>
<li class="listitem"><p><span class="command"><strong>pkg_admin audit</strong></span>, an easy way to audit the
    current machine, checking each known vulnerability.  If a
    vulnerable package is installed, it will be shown by output to stdout,
    including a description of the type of vulnerability, and a URL
    containing more information.</p></li>
</ol></div>
<p>Use of these tools is strongly recommended!  After
<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">pkg_install</span>&#8221;</span> is installed, please read
the package's message, which you can get by running <strong class="userinput"><code>pkg_info -D
pkg_install</code></strong>.</p>
<p>If this package is installed, pkgsrc builds will use it to
perform a security check before building any package.  See <a class="xref" href="#variables-affecting-build" title="5.2.†÷ariables affecting the build process">Section.2, &#8220;Variables affecting the build process&#8221;</a> for ways to control this
check.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="9.15.†◊hy do some packages ignore my CFLAGS?">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="ufaq-cflags"></a>9.15.†◊hy do some packages ignore my <code class="varname">CFLAGS</code>?</h2></div></div></div>
<p>When you add your own preferences to the
	<code class="varname">CFLAGS</code> variable in your
	<a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a>, these flags are passed in
	environment variables to the <code class="filename">./configure</code>
	scripts and to <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?make+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">make</span>(1)</span></a>. Some package authors ignore the
	<code class="varname">CFLAGS</code> from the environment variable by
	overriding them in the <code class="filename">Makefile</code>s of their
	package.</p>
<p>Currently there is no solution to this problem. If you
	really need the package to use your <code class="varname">CFLAGS</code>
	you should run <span class="command"><strong>make patch</strong></span> in the package
	directory and then inspect any <code class="filename">Makefile</code> and
	<code class="filename">Makefile.in</code> for whether they define
	<code class="varname">CFLAGS</code> explicitly. Usually you can remove
	these lines. But be aware that some <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">smart</span>&#8221;</span>
	programmers write so bad code that it only works for the
	specific combination of <code class="varname">CFLAGS</code> they have
	chosen.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="9.16.†Ń package does not build. What shall I do?">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="ufaq-fail"></a>9.16.†Ń package does not build.  What shall I do?</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="procedure"><ol class="procedure" type="1">
<li class="step" title="Step 1"><p>Make sure that your copy of pkgsrc is consistent. A
	case that occurs often is that people only update pkgsrc in
	parts, because of performance reasons. Since pkgsrc is one large
	system, not a collection of many small systems, there are
	sometimes changes that only work when the whole pkgsrc tree is
	updated.</p></li>
<li class="step" title="Step 2"><p>Make sure that you don't have any CVS conflicts.
	Search for <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">&lt;&lt;&lt;&lt;&lt;&lt;</span>&#8221;</span> or
	<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">&gt;&gt;&gt;&gt;&gt;&gt;</span>&#8221;</span> in all your pkgsrc
	files.</p></li>
<li class="step" title="Step 3"><p>Make sure that you don't have old copies of the packages
	extracted. Run <span class="command"><strong>make clean clean-depends</strong></span> to
	verify this.</p></li>
<li class="step" title="Step 4"><p>If the problem still exists, write a mail to the
	<code class="literal">pkgsrc-users</code> mailing list.</p></li>
</ol></div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="9.17.†◊hat does &#8220;Makefile appears to contain unresolved cvs/rcs/??? merge conflicts&#8221; mean?">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="faq.rcs-conflicts"></a>9.17.†◊hat does <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">Makefile appears to contain unresolved cvs/rcs/??? merge conflicts</span>&#8221;</span> mean?</h2></div></div></div>
<p>You have modified a file from pkgsrc, and someone else has
modified that same file afterwards in the CVS repository. Both changes
are in the same region of the file, so when you updated pkgsrc, the
<code class="literal">cvs</code> command marked the conflicting changes in the
file. Because of these markers, the file is no longer a valid
<code class="filename">Makefile</code>.</p>
<p>Have a look at that file, and if you don't need your local changes
anymore, you can remove that file and run <span class="command"><strong>cvs -q update
-dP</strong></span> in that directory to download the current version.</p>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="part" title="Part†…I.†‘he pkgsrc developer's guide">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h1 class="title">
<a name="developers-guide"></a>Part†…I.†‘he pkgsrc developer's guide</h1></div></div></div>
<div class="partintro" title="The pkgsrc developer's guide">
<div></div>
<p>This part of the book deals with creating and
	modifying packages. It starts with a <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">HOWTO</span>&#8221;</span>-like
	guide on creating a new package. The remaining chapters are more
	like a reference manual for pkgsrc.</p>
<div class="toc">
<p><b>Table of Contents</b></p>
<dl>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#creating">10. Creating a new pkgsrc package from scratch</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#creating.common">10.1. Common types of packages</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#creating.perl-module">10.1.1. Perl modules</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#creating.kde-app">10.1.2. KDE applications</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#creating.python-module">10.1.3. Python modules and programs</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#creating.examples">10.2. Examples</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#creating.nvu">10.2.1. How the www/nvu package came into pkgsrc</a></span></dt></dl></dd>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#components">11. Package components - files, directories and contents</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#components.Makefile">11.1. <code class="filename">Makefile</code></a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#components.distinfo">11.2. <code class="filename">distinfo</code></a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#components.patches">11.3. patches/*</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#components.patch.structure">11.3.1. Structure of a single patch file</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#components.patches.caveats">11.3.2. Creating patch files</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#components.patches.sources">11.3.3. Sources where the patch files come from</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#components.patches.guidelines">11.3.4. Patching guidelines</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#components.patches.feedback">11.3.5. Feedback to the author</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#other-mandatory-files">11.4. Other mandatory files</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#components.optional">11.5. Optional files</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#components.optional.bin">11.5.1. Files affecting the binary package</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#components.optional.build">11.5.2. Files affecting the build process</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#components.optional.none">11.5.3. Files affecting nothing at all</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#work-dir">11.6. <code class="filename">work*</code></a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#files-dir">11.7. <code class="filename">files/*</code></a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#makefile">12. Programming in <code class="filename">Makefile</code>s</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#makefile.style">12.1. Caveats</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#makefile.variables">12.2. <code class="filename">Makefile</code> variables</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#makefile.variables.names">12.2.1. Naming conventions</a></span></dt></dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#makefile.code">12.3. Code snippets</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#adding-to-list">12.3.1. Adding things to a list</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#converting-internal-to-external">12.3.2. Converting an internal list into an external list</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#passing-variable-to-shell">12.3.3. Passing variables to a shell command</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#quoting-guideline">12.3.4. Quoting guideline</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#bsd-make-bug-workaround">12.3.5. Workaround for a bug in BSD Make</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#plist">13. PLIST issues</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#rcs-id">13.1. RCS ID</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#automatic-plist-generation">13.2. Semi-automatic <code class="filename">PLIST</code> generation</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#print-PLIST">13.3. Tweaking output of <span class="command"><strong>make print-PLIST</strong></span></a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#plist.misc">13.4. Variable substitution in PLIST</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#manpage-compression">13.5. Man page compression</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#using-PLIST_SRC">13.6. Changing PLIST source with <code class="varname">PLIST_SRC</code></a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#platform-specific-plist">13.7. Platform-specific and differing PLISTs</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#faq.common-dirs">13.8. Sharing directories between packages</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#buildlink">14. Buildlink methodology</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#converting-to-buildlink3">14.1. Converting packages to use buildlink3</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#creating-buildlink3.mk">14.2. Writing <code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code> files</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#anatomy-of-bl3">14.2.1. Anatomy of a buildlink3.mk file</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#updating-buildlink-depends">14.2.2. Updating
      <code class="varname">BUILDLINK_API_DEPENDS.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>
      and
      <code class="varname">BUILDLINK_ABI_DEPENDS.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>
      in <code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code> files</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#writing-builtin.mk">14.3. Writing <code class="filename">builtin.mk</code> files</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#anatomy-of-builtin.mk">14.3.1. Anatomy of a <code class="filename">builtin.mk</code> file</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#native-or-pkgsrc-preference">14.3.2. Global preferences for native or pkgsrc software</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#pkginstall">15. The pkginstall framework</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#files-and-dirs-outside-prefix">15.1. Files and directories outside the installation prefix</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#dirs-outside-prefix">15.1.1. Directory manipulation</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#files-outside-prefix">15.1.2. File manipulation</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#conf-files">15.2. Configuration files</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#conf-files-sysconfdir">15.2.1. How <code class="varname">PKG_SYSCONFDIR</code> is set</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#conf-files-configure">15.2.2. Telling the software where configuration files are</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#conf-files-patching">15.2.3. Patching installations</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#conf-files-disable">15.2.4. Disabling handling of configuration files</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#rcd-scripts">15.3. System startup scripts</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#rcd-scripts-disable">15.3.1. Disabling handling of system startup scripts</a></span></dt></dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#users-and-groups">15.4. System users and groups</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#shells">15.5. System shells</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#shells-disable">15.5.1. Disabling shell registration</a></span></dt></dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#fonts">15.6. Fonts</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#fonts-disable">15.6.1. Disabling automatic update of the fonts databases</a></span></dt></dl></dd>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#options">16. Options handling</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#global-default-options">16.1. Global default options</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#converting-to-options">16.2. Converting packages to use <code class="filename">bsd.options.mk</code></a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#option-names">16.3. Option Names</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#option-build">16.4. Determining the options of dependencies</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#build">17. The build process</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.intro">17.1. Introduction</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.prefix">17.2. Program location</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.builddirs">17.3. Directories used during the build process</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.running">17.4. Running a phase</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.fetch">17.5. The <span class="emphasis"><em>fetch</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#build.fetch.what">17.5.1. What to fetch and where to get it from</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#build.fetch.how">17.5.2. How are the files fetched?</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.checksum">17.6. The <span class="emphasis"><em>checksum</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.extract">17.7. The <span class="emphasis"><em>extract</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.patch">17.8. The <span class="emphasis"><em>patch</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.tools">17.9. The <span class="emphasis"><em>tools</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.wrapper">17.10. The <span class="emphasis"><em>wrapper</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.configure">17.11. The <span class="emphasis"><em>configure</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.build">17.12. The <span class="emphasis"><em>build</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.test">17.13. The <span class="emphasis"><em>test</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.install">17.14. The <span class="emphasis"><em>install</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.package">17.15. The <span class="emphasis"><em>package</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.clean">17.16. Cleaning up</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.helpful-targets">17.17. Other helpful targets</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#tools">18. Tools needed for building or running</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#pkgsrc-tools">18.1. Tools for pkgsrc builds</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#package-tools">18.2. Tools needed by packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#platform-tools">18.3. Tools provided by platforms</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#tools.questions">18.4. Questions regarding the tools</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#fixes">19. Making your package work</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#general-operation">19.1. General operation</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#portability-of-packages">19.1.1. Portability of packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#pulling-vars-from-etc-mk.conf">19.1.2. How to pull in user-settable variables from <code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#user-interaction">19.1.3. User interaction</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#handling-licenses">19.1.4. Handling licenses</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#restricted-packages">19.1.5. Restricted packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#dependencies">19.1.6. Handling dependencies</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#conflicts">19.1.7. Handling conflicts with other packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#not-building-packages">19.1.8. Packages that cannot or should not be built</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#undeletable-packages">19.1.9. Packages which should not be deleted, once installed</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#security-handling">19.1.10. Handling packages with security problems</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#bumping-pkgrevision">19.1.11. How to handle incrementing versions when fixing an existing package</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#fixes.subst">19.1.12. Substituting variable text in the package files (the SUBST framework)</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#fixes.fetch">19.2. Fixing problems in the <span class="emphasis"><em>fetch</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#no-plain-download">19.2.1. Packages whose distfiles aren't available for plain downloading</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#modified-distfiles-same-name">19.2.2. How to handle modified distfiles with the 'old' name</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#fixes.configure">19.3. Fixing problems in the <span class="emphasis"><em>configure</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#fixes.libtool">19.3.1. Shared libraries - libtool</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#using-libtool">19.3.2. Using libtool on GNU packages that already support libtool</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#autoconf-automake">19.3.3. GNU Autoconf/Automake</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#programming-languages">19.4. Programming languages</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#basic-programming-languages">19.4.1. C, C++, and Fortran</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#java-programming-language">19.4.2. Java</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#perl-scripts">19.4.3. Packages containing perl scripts</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#other-programming-languages">19.4.4. Other programming languages</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#fixes.build">19.5. Fixing problems in the <span class="emphasis"><em>build</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#fixes.build.cpp">19.5.1. Compiling C and C++ code conditionally</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#compiler-bugs">19.5.2. How to handle compiler bugs</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#undefined-reference">19.5.3. Undefined reference to <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">...</span>&#8221;</span></a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#out-of-memory">19.5.4. Running out of memory</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#fixes.install">19.6. Fixing problems in the <span class="emphasis"><em>install</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#install-scripts">19.6.1. Creating needed directories</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#where-to-install-documentation">19.6.2. Where to install documentation</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#installing-score-files">19.6.3. Installing highscore files</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#destdir-support">19.6.4. Adding DESTDIR support to packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#hardcoded-paths">19.6.5. Packages with hardcoded paths to other interpreters</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#perl-modules">19.6.6. Packages installing perl modules</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#faq.info-files">19.6.7. Packages installing info files</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#manpages">19.6.8. Packages installing man pages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#gconf-data-files">19.6.9. Packages installing GConf data files</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#scrollkeeper-data-files">19.6.10. Packages installing scrollkeeper/rarian data files</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#x11-fonts">19.6.11. Packages installing X11 fonts</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#gtk2-modules">19.6.12. Packages installing GTK2 modules</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#sgml-xml-data">19.6.13. Packages installing SGML or XML data</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#mime-database">19.6.14. Packages installing extensions to the MIME database</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#intltool">19.6.15. Packages using intltool</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#startup-scripts">19.6.16. Packages installing startup scripts</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#tex-packages">19.6.17. Packages installing TeX modules</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#emulation-packages">19.6.18. Packages supporting running binaries in
    emulation</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#hicolor-theme">19.6.19. Packages installing hicolor theme icons</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#desktop-files">19.6.20. Packages installing desktop files</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#punting">19.7. Marking packages as having problems</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#debug">20. Debugging</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#submit">21. Submitting and Committing</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#submitting-binary-packages">21.1. Submitting binary packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#submitting-your-package">21.2. Submitting source packages (for non-NetBSD-developers)</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#general-notes-for-changes">21.3. General notes when adding, updating, or removing packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#committing-importing">21.4. Committing: Importing a package into CVS</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#updating-package">21.5. Updating a package to a newer version</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#renaming-package">21.6. Renaming a package in pkgsrc</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#moving-package">21.7. Moving a package in pkgsrc</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#devfaq">22. Frequently Asked Questions</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#gnome">23. GNOME packaging and porting</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#meta-packages">23.1. Meta packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#new-package">23.2. Packaging a GNOME application</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#full-update">23.3. Updating GNOME to a newer version</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#patching">23.4. Patching guidelines</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
</dl>
</div>
</div>
<div class="chapter" title="Chapter0.†√reating a new pkgsrc package from scratch">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title">
<a name="creating"></a>Chapter0.†√reating a new pkgsrc package from scratch</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="toc">
<p><b>Table of Contents</b></p>
<dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#creating.common">10.1. Common types of packages</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#creating.perl-module">10.1.1. Perl modules</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#creating.kde-app">10.1.2. KDE applications</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#creating.python-module">10.1.3. Python modules and programs</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#creating.examples">10.2. Examples</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#creating.nvu">10.2.1. How the www/nvu package came into pkgsrc</a></span></dt></dl></dd>
</dl>
</div>
<p>When you find a package that is not yet in pkgsrc, you
most likely have a URL from where you can download the source
code. Starting with this URL, creating a package involves only a
few steps.</p>
<div class="procedure"><ol class="procedure" type="1">
<li class="step" title="Step 1"><p>First, install the packages <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/url2pkg/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/url2pkg</code></a> and <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/pkglint/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/pkglint</code></a>.</p></li>
<li class="step" title="Step 2"><p>Then, choose one of the top-level directories as the
category in which you want to place your package. You can also create a
directory of your own (maybe called <code class="filename">local</code>). In that
category directory, create another directory for your package and change
into it.</p></li>
<li class="step" title="Step 3"><p>Run the program <span class="command"><strong>url2pkg</strong></span>, which will ask
you for a URL. Enter the URL of the distribution file (in most cases a
<code class="filename">.tar.gz</code> file) and watch how the basic ingredients
of your package are created automatically. The distribution file is
extracted automatically to fill in some details in the
<code class="filename">Makefile</code> that would otherwise have to be done
manually.</p></li>
<li class="step" title="Step 4">
<p>Examine the extracted files to determine the dependencies of
your package. Ideally, this is mentioned in some
<code class="filename">README</code> file, but things may differ. For each of
these dependencies, look where it exists in pkgsrc, and if there is a
file called <code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code> in that directory, add a
line to your package <code class="filename">Makefile</code> which includes that
file just before the last line. If the
<code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code> file does not exist, it must be
created first. The <code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code> file makes sure that the package's include files and libraries are provided.</p>
<p>If you just need binaries from a package, add a
<code class="varname">DEPENDS</code> line to the Makefile, which specifies the
version of the dependency and where it can be found in pkgsrc. This line
should be placed in the third paragraph. If the dependency is only
needed for building the package, but not when using it, use
<code class="varname">BUILD_DEPENDS</code> instead of <code class="varname">DEPENDS</code>.
Your package may then look like this:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
[...]

BUILD_DEPENDS+= lua&gt;=5.0:../../lang/lua
DEPENDS+=       screen-[0-9]*:../../misc/screen
DEPENDS+=       screen&gt;=4.0:../../misc/screen

[...]

.include "../../<em class="replaceable"><code>category</code></em>/<em class="replaceable"><code>package</code></em>/buildlink3.mk"
.include "../../devel/glib2/buildlink3.mk"
.include "../../mk/bsd.pkg.mk"
</pre>
</li>
<li class="step" title="Step 5"><p>Run <span class="command"><strong>pkglint</strong></span> to see what things still need
to be done to make your package a <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">good</span>&#8221;</span> one. If you don't
know what pkglint's warnings want to tell you, try <span class="command"><strong>pkglint
--explain</strong></span> or <span class="command"><strong>pkglint
-e</strong></span>, which outputs additional
explanations.</p></li>
<li class="step" title="Step 6"><p>In many cases the package is not yet ready to build. You can
find instructions for the most common cases in the next section, <a class="xref" href="#creating.common" title="10.1.†√ommon types of packages">Section0.1, &#8220;Common types of packages&#8221;</a>. After you have followed the instructions
over there, you can hopefully continue here.</p></li>
<li class="step" title="Step 7"><p>Run <span class="command"><strong>bmake clean</strong></span> to clean the working
directory from the extracted files. Besides these files, a lot of cache
files and other system information has been saved in the working
directory, which may become wrong after you edited the
<code class="filename">Makefile</code>.</p></li>
<li class="step" title="Step 8"><p>Now, run <span class="command"><strong>bmake</strong></span> to build the package. For
the various things that can go wrong in this phase, consult <a class="xref" href="#fixes" title="Chapter9.†Õaking your package work">Chapter9, <i>Making your package work</i></a>.</p></li>
<li class="step" title="Step 9"><p>When the package builds fine, the next step is to install
the package. Run <span class="command"><strong>bmake install</strong></span> and hope that
everything works.</p></li>
<li class="step" title="Step 10"><p>Up to now, the file <code class="filename">PLIST</code>, which
contains a list of the files that are installed by the package, is
nearly empty. Run <span class="command"><strong>bmake print-PLIST
&gt;PLIST</strong></span> to generate a probably correct list. Check
the file using your preferred text editor to see if the list of
files looks plausible.</p></li>
<li class="step" title="Step 11"><p>Run <span class="command"><strong>pkglint</strong></span> again to see if the generated
<code class="filename">PLIST</code> contains garbage or not.</p></li>
<li class="step" title="Step 12"><p>When you ran <span class="command"><strong>bmake install</strong></span>, the package
has been registered in the database of installed files, but with an
empty list of files. To fix this, run <span class="command"><strong>bmake deinstall</strong></span>
and <span class="command"><strong>bmake install</strong></span> again. Now the package is
registered with the list of files from
<code class="filename">PLIST</code>.</p></li>
<li class="step" title="Step 13"><p>Run <span class="command"><strong>bmake package</strong></span> to create a binary
package from the set of installed files.</p></li>
</ol></div>
<div class="sect1" title="10.1.†√ommon types of packages">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="creating.common"></a>10.1.†√ommon types of packages</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="sect2" title="10.1.1.†–erl modules">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="creating.perl-module"></a>10.1.1.†–erl modules</h3></div></div></div>
<p>Simple Perl modules are handled automatically by
<span class="command"><strong>url2pkg</strong></span>, including dependencies.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="10.1.2.†ňDE applications">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="creating.kde-app"></a>10.1.2.†ňDE applications</h3></div></div></div>
<p>KDE applications should always include
<code class="filename">meta-pkgs/kde3/kde3.mk</code>, which contains numerous
settings that are typical of KDE packages.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="10.1.3.†–ython modules and programs">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="creating.python-module"></a>10.1.3.†–ython modules and programs</h3></div></div></div>
<p>Python modules and programs packages are easily created using a
set of predefined variables.</p>
<p>Most Python packages use either <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">distutils</span>&#8221;</span> or
easy-setup (<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">eggs</span>&#8221;</span>).
If the software uses <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">distutils</span>&#8221;</span>, set the
<code class="varname">PYDISTUTILSPKG</code> variable to <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">yes</span>&#8221;</span> so
pkgsrc will make use of this framework.
<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">distutils</span>&#8221;</span> uses a script called <code class="filename">setup.py</code>,
if the <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">distutils</span>&#8221;</span> driver is not called
<code class="filename">setup.py</code>, set the <code class="varname">PYSETUP</code> variable
to the name of the script.</p>
<p>
If the default Python versions are not supported by the software, set the
<code class="varname">PYTHON_VERSIONS_ACCEPTED</code> variable to the Python versions
the software is known to work with, from the most recent to the older
one, e.g.
</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
PYTHON_VERSIONS_ACCEPTED=       25 24
</pre>
<p>
If the packaged software is a Python module, include
<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote"><code class="filename">../../lang/python/extension.mk</code></span>&#8221;</span>.
In this case, the package directory should be called
<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">py-software</span>&#8221;</span> and <code class="varname">PKGNAME</code> should be set to
<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">${PYPKGPREFIX}-${DISTNAME}</span>&#8221;</span>, e.g.
</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
DISTNAME=   foopymodule-1.2.10
PKGNAME=    ${PYPKGPREFIX}-${DISTNAME}
</pre>
<p>If it is an application, also include
<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote"><code class="filename">../../lang/python/application.mk</code></span>&#8221;</span>
before <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">extension.mk</span>&#8221;</span>.</p>
<p>If the packaged software, either it is an application or a module, is
egg-aware, you only need to include
<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote"><code class="filename">../../lang/python/egg.mk</code></span>&#8221;</span>.</p>
<p>In order to correctly set the path to the Python interpreter, use the
<code class="varname">REPLACE_PYTHON</code> variable and set it to the list of files
that must be corrected. For example :
</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
REPLACE_PYTHON=   ${WRKSRC}/*.py
</pre>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="10.2.†Ňxamples">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="creating.examples"></a>10.2.†Ňxamples</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="sect2" title="10.2.1.†»ow the www/nvu package came into pkgsrc">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="creating.nvu"></a>10.2.1.†»ow the www/nvu package came into pkgsrc</h3></div></div></div>
<div class="sect3" title="10.2.1.1.†‘he initial package">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title">
<a name="creating.nvu.init"></a>10.2.1.1.†‘he initial package</h4></div></div></div>
<p>Looking at the file <code class="filename">pkgsrc/doc/TODO</code>, I saw
that the <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">nvu</span>&#8221;</span> package has not yet been imported into
pkgsrc. As the description says it has to do with the web, the obvious
choice for the category is <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">www</span>&#8221;</span>.</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
<code class="prompt">$</code> mkdir www/nvu
<code class="prompt">$</code> cd www/nvu
</pre>
<p>The web site says that the sources are available as a tar file, so
I fed that URL to the <span class="command"><strong>url2pkg</strong></span> program:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
<code class="prompt">$</code> url2pkg http://cvs.nvu.com/download/nvu-1.0-sources.tar.bz2
</pre>
<p>My editor popped up, and I added a <code class="varname">PKGNAME</code> line
below the <code class="varname">DISTNAME</code> line, as the package name should
not have the word <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">sources</span>&#8221;</span> in it. I also filled in the
<code class="varname">MAINTAINER</code>, <code class="varname">HOMEPAGE</code> and
<code class="varname">COMMENT</code> fields. Then the package
<code class="filename">Makefile</code> looked like that:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
# $NetBSD$
#

DISTNAME=       nvu-1.0-sources
PKGNAME=        nvu-1.0
CATEGORIES=     www
MASTER_SITES=   http://cvs.nvu.com/download/
EXTRACT_SUFX=   .tar.bz2

MAINTAINER=     rillig@NetBSD.org
HOMEPAGE=       http://cvs.nvu.com/
COMMENT=        Web Authoring System

# url2pkg-marker (please do not remove this line.)
.include "../../mk/bsd.pkg.mk"
</pre>
<p>Then, I quit the editor and watched pkgsrc downloading a large
source archive:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
url2pkg&gt; Running "make makesum" ...
=&gt; Required installed package digest&gt;=20010302: digest-20060826 found
=&gt; Fetching nvu-1.0-sources.tar.bz2
Requesting http://cvs.nvu.com/download/nvu-1.0-sources.tar.bz2
100% |*************************************| 28992 KB  150.77 KB/s00:00 ETA
29687976 bytes retrieved in 03:12 (150.77 KB/s)
url2pkg&gt; Running "make extract" ...
=&gt; Required installed package digest&gt;=20010302: digest-20060826 found
=&gt; Checksum SHA1 OK for nvu-1.0-sources.tar.bz2
=&gt; Checksum RMD160 OK for nvu-1.0-sources.tar.bz2
work.bacc -&gt; /tmp/roland/pkgsrc/www/nvu/work.bacc
===&gt; Installing dependencies for nvu-1.0
===&gt; Overriding tools for nvu-1.0
===&gt; Extracting for nvu-1.0
url2pkg&gt; Adjusting the Makefile.

Remember to correct CATEGORIES, HOMEPAGE, COMMENT, and DESCR when you're done!

Good luck! (See pkgsrc/doc/pkgsrc.txt for some more help :-)
</pre>
</div>
<div class="sect3" title="10.2.1.2.†∆ixing all kinds of problems to make the package work">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title">
<a name="creating.nvu.problems"></a>10.2.1.2.†∆ixing all kinds of problems to make the package work</h4></div></div></div>
<p>Now that the package has been extracted, let's see what's inside
it. The package has a <code class="filename">README.txt</code>, but that only
says something about mozilla, so it's probably useless for seeing what
dependencies this package has. But since there is a GNU configure script
in the package, let's hope that it will complain about everything it
needs.</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
<code class="prompt">$</code> bmake
=&gt; Required installed package digest&gt;=20010302: digest-20060826 found
=&gt; Checksum SHA1 OK for nvu-1.0-sources.tar.bz2
=&gt; Checksum RMD160 OK for nvu-1.0-sources.tar.bz2
===&gt; Patching for nvu-1.0
===&gt; Creating toolchain wrappers for nvu-1.0
===&gt; Configuring for nvu-1.0
[...]
configure: error: Perl 5.004 or higher is required.
[...]
WARNING: Please add USE_TOOLS+=perl to the package Makefile.
[...]
</pre>
<p>That worked quite well. So I opened the package Makefile in my
editor, and since it already has a <code class="varname">USE_TOOLS</code> line, I
just appended <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">perl</span>&#8221;</span> to it. Since the dependencies of the
package have changed now, and since a perl wrapper is automatically
installed in the <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">tools</span>&#8221;</span> phase, I need to build the package
from scratch.</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
<code class="prompt">$</code> bmake clean
===&gt; Cleaning for nvu-1.0
<code class="prompt">$</code> bmake
[...]
*** /tmp/roland/pkgsrc/www/nvu/work.bacc/.tools/bin/make is not \
GNU Make.  You will not be able to build Mozilla without GNU Make.
[...]
</pre>
<p>So I added <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">gmake</span>&#8221;</span> to the
<code class="varname">USE_TOOLS</code> line and tried again (from scratch).</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
[...]
checking for GTK - version &gt;= 1.2.0... no
*** Could not run GTK test program, checking why...
[...]
</pre>
<p>Now to the other dependencies. The first question is: Where is the
GTK package hidden in pkgsrc?</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
<code class="prompt">$</code> echo ../../*/gtk*
[many packages ...]
<code class="prompt">$</code> echo ../../*/gtk
../../x11/gtk
<code class="prompt">$</code> echo ../../*/gtk2
../../x11/gtk2
<code class="prompt">$</code> echo ../../*/gtk2/bui*
../../x11/gtk2/buildlink3.mk
</pre>
<p>The first try was definitely too broad. The second one had exactly
one result, which is very good. But there is one pitfall with GNOME
packages. Before GNOME 2 had been released, there were already many
GNOME 1 packages in pkgsrc. To be able to continue to use these
packages, the GNOME 2 packages were imported as separate packages, and
their names usually have a <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">2</span>&#8221;</span> appended. So I checked
whether this was the case here, and indeed it was.</p>
<p>Since the GTK2 package has a <code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code>
file, adding the dependency is very easy. I just inserted an
<code class="literal">.include</code> line before the last line of the package
<code class="filename">Makefile</code>, so that it now looks like this:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
[...]
.include "../../x11/gtk2/buildlink3.mk"
.include "../../mk/bsd.pkg.mk
</pre>
<p>After another <span class="command"><strong>bmake clean &amp;&amp; bmake</strong></span>, the answer
was:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
[...]
checking for gtk-config... /home/roland/pkg/bin/gtk-config
checking for GTK - version &gt;= 1.2.0... no
*** Could not run GTK test program, checking why...
*** The test program failed to compile or link. See the file config.log for the
*** exact error that occured. This usually means GTK was incorrectly installed
*** or that you have moved GTK since it was installed. In the latter case, you
*** may want to edit the gtk-config script: /home/roland/pkg/bin/gtk-config
configure: error: Test for GTK failed.
[...]
</pre>
<p>In this particular case, the assumption that <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">every package
prefers GNOME 2</span>&#8221;</span> had been wrong. The first of the lines above
told me that this package really wanted to have the GNOME 1 version of
GTK. If the package had looked for GTK2, it would have looked for
<span class="command"><strong>pkg-config</strong></span> instead of <span class="command"><strong>gtk-config</strong></span>.
So I changed the <code class="literal">x11/gtk2</code> to
<code class="literal">x11/gtk</code> in the package <code class="filename">Makefile</code>,
and tried again.</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
[...]
cc -o xpidl.o -c -DOSTYPE=\"NetBSD3\" -DOSARCH=\"NetBSD\"   -I../../../dist/include/xpcom -I../../../dist/include -I/tmp/roland/pkgsrc/www/nvu/work.bacc/mozilla/dist/include/nspr -I/usr/X11R6/include   -fPIC -DPIC -I/home/roland/pkg/include -I/usr/include  -I/usr/X11R6/include -Wall -W -Wno-unused -Wpointer-arith -Wcast-align -Wno-long-long -pedantic -O2 -I/home/roland/pkg/include -I/usr/include -Dunix -pthread -pipe  -DDEBUG -D_DEBUG -DDEBUG_roland -DTRACING -g -I/home/roland/pkg/include/glib/glib-1.2 -I/home/roland/pkg/lib/glib/include -I/usr/pkg/include/orbit-1.0   -I/home/roland/pkg/include -I/usr/include  -I/usr/X11R6/include -include ../../../mozilla-config.h -DMOZILLA_CLIENT -Wp,-MD,.deps/xpidl.pp xpidl.c
In file included from xpidl.c:42:
xpidl.h:53:24: libIDL/IDL.h: No such file or directory
In file included from xpidl.c:42:
xpidl.h:132: error: parse error before "IDL_ns"
[...]
</pre>
<p>The package still does not find all of its dependencies. Now the
question is: Which package provides the
<code class="filename">libIDL/IDL.h</code> header file?</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
<code class="prompt">$</code> echo ../../*/*idl*
../../devel/py-idle ../../wip/idled ../../x11/acidlaunch
<code class="prompt">$</code> echo ../../*/*IDL*
../../net/libIDL
</pre>
<p>Let's take the one from the second try. So I included the
<code class="filename">../../net/libIDL/buildlink3.mk</code> file and tried
again. But the error didn't change. After digging through some of the
code, I concluded that the build process of the package was broken and
couldn't have ever worked, but since the Mozilla source tree is quite
large, I didn't want to fix it. So I added the following to the package
<code class="filename">Makefile</code> and tried again:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
CPPFLAGS+=              -I${BUILDLINK_PREFIX.libIDL}/include/libIDL-2.0
BUILDLINK_TRANSFORM+=   -l:IDL:IDL-2
</pre>
<p>The latter line is needed because the package expects the library
<code class="filename">libIDL.so</code>, but only
<code class="filename">libIDL-2.so</code> is available. So I told the compiler
wrapper to rewrite that on the fly.</p>
<p>The next problem was related to a recent change of the FreeType
interface. I looked up in <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/www/seamonkey/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">www/seamonkey</code></a>
which patch files were relevant for this issue and copied them to the
<code class="filename">patches</code> directory. Then I retried, fixed the
patches so that they applied cleanly and retried again. This time,
everything worked.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect3" title="10.2.1.3.†…nstalling the package">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title">
<a name="creating.nvu.inst"></a>10.2.1.3.†…nstalling the package</h4></div></div></div>
<pre class="programlisting">
<code class="prompt">$</code> bmake CHECK_FILES=no install
[...]
<code class="prompt">$</code> bmake print-PLIST &gt;PLIST
<code class="prompt">$</code> bmake deinstall
<code class="prompt">$</code> bmake install
</pre>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="chapter" title="Chapter1.†–ackage components - files, directories and contents">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title">
<a name="components"></a>Chapter1.†–ackage components - files, directories and contents</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="toc">
<p><b>Table of Contents</b></p>
<dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#components.Makefile">11.1. <code class="filename">Makefile</code></a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#components.distinfo">11.2. <code class="filename">distinfo</code></a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#components.patches">11.3. patches/*</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#components.patch.structure">11.3.1. Structure of a single patch file</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#components.patches.caveats">11.3.2. Creating patch files</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#components.patches.sources">11.3.3. Sources where the patch files come from</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#components.patches.guidelines">11.3.4. Patching guidelines</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#components.patches.feedback">11.3.5. Feedback to the author</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#other-mandatory-files">11.4. Other mandatory files</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#components.optional">11.5. Optional files</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#components.optional.bin">11.5.1. Files affecting the binary package</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#components.optional.build">11.5.2. Files affecting the build process</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#components.optional.none">11.5.3. Files affecting nothing at all</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#work-dir">11.6. <code class="filename">work*</code></a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#files-dir">11.7. <code class="filename">files/*</code></a></span></dt>
</dl>
</div>
<p>Whenever you're preparing a package, there are a number of
files involved which are described in the following
sections.</p>
<div class="sect1" title="11.1.†Õakefile">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="components.Makefile"></a>11.1.code class="filename">Makefile</code>
</h2></div></div></div>
<p>Building, installation and creation of a binary package are all
  controlled by the package's <code class="filename">Makefile</code>.
  The <code class="filename">Makefile</code> describes various things about
  a package, for example from where to get it, how to configure,
  build, and install it.</p>
<p>A package <code class="filename">Makefile</code> contains several
  sections that describe the package.</p>
<p>In the first section there are the following variables, which
  should appear exactly in the order given here.  The order and
  grouping of the variables is mostly historical and has no further
  meaning.</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">DISTNAME</code> is the basename of the
    distribution file to be downloaded from the package's
    website.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">PKGNAME</code> is the name of the
    package, as used by pkgsrc. You only need to provide it if
    <code class="varname">DISTNAME</code> (which is the default) is not a good
    name for the package in pkgsrc.  Usually it is the pkgsrc
    directory name together with the version number. It must match the
    regular expression
    <code class="varname">^[A-Za-z0-9][A-Za-z0-9-_.+]*$</code>, that is, it
    starts with a letter or digit, and contains only letters, digits,
    dashes, underscores, dots and plus signs.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">SVR4_PKGNAME</code> is the name of
    the package file to create if the <code class="varname">PKGNAME</code>
    isn't unique on a SVR4 system. The default is
    <code class="varname">PKGNAME</code>, which may be shortened when you use
    <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/gensolpkg/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/gensolpkg</code></a>. Only add
    <code class="varname">SVR4_PKGNAME</code> if <code class="varname">PKGNAME</code>
    does not produce an unique package name on a SVR4 system.
    The length of <code class="varname">SVR4_PKGNAME</code> is limited to 5
    characters.</p></li>
<li class="listitem">
<p><code class="varname">CATEGORIES</code> is a list of categories
    which the package fits in. You can choose any of the top-level
    directories of pkgsrc for it.</p>
<p>Currently the following values are available for
    <code class="varname">CATEGORIES</code>. If more than
    one is used, they need to be separated by spaces:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
archivers     cross         geography     meta-pkgs     security
audio         databases     graphics      misc          shells
benchmarks    devel         ham           multimedia    sysutils
biology       editors       inputmethod   net           textproc
cad           emulators     lang          news          time
chat          finance       mail          parallel      wm
comms         fonts         math          pkgtools      www
converters    games         mbone         print         x11
</pre>
</li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">MASTER_SITES</code>,
    <code class="varname">DYNAMIC_MASTER_SITES</code>,
    <code class="varname">DIST_SUBDIR</code>, <code class="varname">EXTRACT_SUFX</code>
    and <code class="varname">DISTFILES</code> are discussed in detail in
    <a class="xref" href="#build.fetch" title="17.5.†‘he fetch phase">Section7.5, &#8220;The <span class="emphasis"><em>fetch</em></span> phase&#8221;</a>.</p></li>
</ul></div>
<p>The second section contains information about separately
  downloaded patches, if any.
  </p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">PATCHFILES:</code>
    Name(s) of additional files that contain distribution patches.
    There is no default. pkgsrc will look for them at
    <code class="varname">PATCH_SITES</code>.
    They will automatically be uncompressed before patching if
    the names end with <code class="filename">.gz</code> or
    <code class="filename">.Z</code>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">PATCH_SITES</code>:
    Primary location(s) for distribution patch files (see
    <code class="varname">PATCHFILES</code> below) if not found locally.</p></li>
</ul></div>
<p>The third section contains the following variables.
  </p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">MAINTAINER</code> is the email
    address of the person who feels responsible for this package,
    and who is most likely to look at problems or questions regarding
    this package which have been reported with <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?send-pr+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">send-pr</span>(1)</span></a>.
    Other developers may contact the <code class="varname">MAINTAINER</code>
    before making changes to the package, but are not required to
    do so. When packaging a new program, set <code class="varname">MAINTAINER</code>
    to yourself. If you really can't maintain the package for future
    updates, set it to
    <code class="email">&lt;<a class="email" href="mailto:pkgsrc-users@NetBSD.org">pkgsrc-users@NetBSD.org</a>&gt;</code>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">OWNER</code> should be used instead
    of <code class="varname">MAINTAINER</code> when you do not want other
    developers to update or change the package without contacting
    you first. A package Makefile should contain one of
    <code class="varname">MAINTAINER</code> or <code class="varname">OWNER</code>, but
    not both.  </p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">HOMEPAGE</code> is a URL where users can
    find more information about the package.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">COMMENT</code> is a one-line
    description of the package (should not include the package
    name).</p></li>
</ul></div>
<p>Other variables that affect the build:
  </p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem">
<p><code class="varname">WRKSRC</code>: The directory where the
      interesting distribution files of the package are found. The
      default is <code class="filename">${WRKDIR}/${DISTNAME}</code>, which
      works for most packages.</p>
<p>If a package doesn't create a subdirectory for itself
      (most GNU software does, for instance), but extracts itself in
      the current directory, you should set
      <code class="varname">WRKSRC=${WRKDIR}</code>.</p>
<p>If a package doesn't create a subdirectory with the
      name of <code class="varname">DISTNAME</code> but some different name,
      set <code class="varname">WRKSRC</code> to point to the proper name in
      <code class="filename">${WRKDIR}</code>, for example
      <code class="varname">WRKSRC=${WRKDIR}/${DISTNAME}/unix</code>. See
      <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/lang/tcl/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">lang/tcl</code></a> and <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/x11/tk/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">x11/tk</code></a> for other examples.</p>
<p>The name of the working directory created by pkgsrc is
      taken from the <code class="varname">WRKDIR_BASENAME</code>
      variable. By default, its value is
      <code class="filename">work</code>. If you want to use the same
      pkgsrc tree for building different kinds of binary packages,
      you can change the variable according to your needs. Two
      other variables handle common cases of setting
      <code class="varname">WRKDIR_BASENAME</code> individually. If
      <code class="varname">OBJHOSTNAME</code> is defined in
      <a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a>, the first component of
      the host's name is attached to the directory name. If
      <code class="varname">OBJMACHINE</code> is defined, the platform name
      is attached, which might look like
      <code class="filename">work.i386</code> or
      <code class="filename">work.sparc</code>.</p>
</li></ul></div>
<p>Please pay attention to the following gotchas:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p>Add <code class="varname">MANCOMPRESSED</code> if man pages are
      installed in compressed form by the package.  For packages using
      BSD-style makefiles which honor MANZ, there is
      <code class="varname">MANCOMPRESSED_IF_MANZ</code>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Replace <code class="filename">/usr/local</code> with
      <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">${PREFIX}</span>&#8221;</span> in all files (see patches,
      below).</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>If the package installs any info files, see <a class="xref" href="#faq.info-files" title="19.6.7.†–ackages installing info files">Section9.6.7, &#8220;Packages installing info files&#8221;</a>.</p></li>
</ul></div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="11.2.†šistinfo">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="components.distinfo"></a>11.2.code class="filename">distinfo</code>
</h2></div></div></div>
<p>The <code class="filename">distinfo</code> file contains the message
  digest, or checksum, of each distfile needed for the package. This
  ensures that the distfiles retrieved from the Internet have not been
  corrupted during transfer or altered by a malign force to introduce
  a security hole. Due to recent rumor about weaknesses of digest
  algorithms, all distfiles are protected using both SHA1 and RMD160
  message digests, as well as the file size.</p>
<p>The <code class="filename">distinfo</code> file also contains the
  checksums for all the patches found in the
  <code class="filename">patches</code> directory (see <a class="xref" href="#components.patches" title="11.3.†ūatches/*">Section1.3, &#8220;patches/*&#8221;</a>).</p>
<p>To regenerate the <code class="filename">distinfo</code> file, use the
  <span class="command"><strong>make makedistinfo</strong></span> or <span class="command"><strong>make mdi</strong></span>
  command.</p>
<p>Some packages have different sets of distfiles depending on
  the platform, for example <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/lang/openjdk7/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">lang/openjdk7</code></a>. These are kept in the same
  <code class="filename">distinfo</code> file and care should be taken when
  upgrading such a package to ensure distfile information is not
  lost.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="11.3.†ūatches/*">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="components.patches"></a>11.3.†ūatches/*</h2></div></div></div>
<p>Many packages still don't work out-of-the box on the various
  platforms that are supported by pkgsrc. Therefore, a number of custom
  patch files are needed to make the package work. These patch files are
  found in the <code class="filename">patches/</code> directory.</p>
<p>In the <span class="emphasis"><em>patch</em></span> phase, these patches are
  applied to the files in <code class="varname">WRKSRC</code> directory after
  extracting them, in <a class="ulink" href="http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/utilities/xcu_chap02.html#tag_02_13_03" target="_top">alphabetic
  order</a>.</p>
<div class="sect2" title="11.3.1.†”tructure of a single patch file">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="components.patch.structure"></a>11.3.1.†”tructure of a single patch file</h3></div></div></div>
<p>The <code class="filename">patch-*</code> files should be in
  <span class="command"><strong>diff -bu</strong></span> format, and apply without a fuzz to avoid
  problems. (To force patches to apply with fuzz you can set
  <code class="varname">PATCH_FUZZ_FACTOR=-F2</code>). Furthermore, each patch
  should contain only changes for a single file, and no file should be
  patched by more than one patch file. This helps to keep future
  modifications simple.</p>
<p>Each patch file is structured as follows: In the first line,
  there is the RCS Id of the patch itself. The second line should be
  empty for aesthetic reasons. After that, there should be a comment for
  each change that the patch does. There are a number of standard
  cases:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p>Patches for commonly known vulnerabilities should
  mention the vulnerability ID (CAN, CVE).</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Patches that change source code should mention the
  platform and other environment (for example, the compiler) that the
  patch is needed for.</p></li>
</ul></div>
<p>In all, the patch should be commented so that any
  developer who knows the code of the application can make some use of
  the patch. Special care should be taken for the upstream developers,
  since we generally want that they accept our patches, so we have less
  work in the future.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="11.3.2.†√reating patch files">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="components.patches.caveats"></a>11.3.2.†√reating patch files</h3></div></div></div>
<p>One important thing to mention is to pay attention that no RCS
  IDs get stored in the patch files, as these will cause problems when
  later checked into the NetBSD CVS tree. Use the
  <span class="command"><strong>pkgdiff</strong></span> command from the <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/pkgdiff/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/pkgdiff</code></a> package to avoid these
  problems.</p>
<p>For even more automation, we recommend using
  <span class="command"><strong>mkpatches</strong></span> from the same package to make a
  whole set of patches. You just have to backup files before you
  edit them to <code class="filename">filename.orig</code>, e.g. with
  <span class="command"><strong>cp -p filename filename.orig</strong></span> or, easier, by
  using <span class="command"><strong>pkgvi</strong></span> again from the same package. If
  you upgrade a package this way, you can easily compare the new
  set of patches with the previously existing one with
  <span class="command"><strong>patchdiff</strong></span>. The files in <code class="filename">patches</code>
  are replaced by new files, so carefully check if you want to take all
  the changes.</p>
<p>When you have finished a package, remember to generate
  the checksums for the patch files by using the <span class="command"><strong>make
  makepatchsum</strong></span> command, see <a class="xref" href="#components.distinfo" title="11.2.†šistinfo">Section1.2, &#8220;<code class="filename">distinfo</code>&#8221;</a>.</p>
<p>When adding a patch that corrects a problem in the
  distfile (rather than e.g. enforcing pkgsrc's view of where
  man pages should go), send the patch as a bug report to the
  maintainer.  This benefits non-pkgsrc users of the package,
  and usually makes it possible to remove the patch in future
  version.</p>
<p>The file names of the patch files are usually of the form
  <code class="filename">patch-<em class="replaceable"><code>path_to_file__with__underscores.c</code></em></code>.
  Many packages still use the previous convention
  <code class="filename">patch-<em class="replaceable"><code>[a-z][a-z]</code></em></code>,
  but new patches should be of the form containing the filename.
  <span class="command"><strong>mkpatches</strong></span> included in <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/pkgdiff/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/pkgdiff</code></a> takes care of the name
  automatically.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="11.3.3.†”ources where the patch files come from">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="components.patches.sources"></a>11.3.3.†”ources where the patch files come from</h3></div></div></div>
<p>If you want to share patches between multiple packages
  in pkgsrc, e.g. because they use the same distfiles, set
  <code class="varname">PATCHDIR</code> to the path where the patch files
  can be found, e.g.:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
PATCHDIR= ${.CURDIR}/../xemacs/patches
</pre>
<p>Patch files that are distributed by the author or other
    maintainers can be listed in
    <code class="varname">PATCHFILES</code>.</p>
<p>If it is desired to store any patches that should not be
    committed into pkgsrc, they can be kept outside the pkgsrc
    tree in the <code class="filename">$LOCALPATCHES</code> directory. The
    directory tree there is expected to have the same
    <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">category/package</span>&#8221;</span> structure as pkgsrc, and
    patches are expected to be stored inside these dirs (also
    known as <code class="filename">$LOCALPATCHES/$PKGPATH</code>). For
    example, if you want to keep a private patch for
    <code class="filename">pkgsrc/graphics/png</code>, keep it in
    <code class="filename">$LOCALPATCHES/graphics/png/mypatch</code>. All
    files in the named directory are expected to be patch files,
    and <span class="emphasis"><em>they are applied after pkgsrc patches are
    applied</em></span>.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="11.3.4.†–atching guidelines">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="components.patches.guidelines"></a>11.3.4.†–atching guidelines</h3></div></div></div>
<p>When fixing a portability issue in the code do not use
      preprocessor magic to check for the current operating system nor
      platform.  Doing so hurts portability to other platforms because
      the OS-specific details are not abstracted appropriately.</p>
<p>The general rule to follow is: instead of checking for the
      operating system the application is being built on, check for the
      specific <span class="emphasis"><em>features</em></span> you need.  For example,
      instead of assuming that kqueue is available under NetBSD and
      using the <code class="varname">__NetBSD__</code> macro to conditionalize
      kqueue support, add a check that detects kqueue itself &mdash;
      yes, this generally involves patching the
      <span class="command"><strong>configure</strong></span> script.  There is absolutely nothing
      that prevents some OSes from adopting interfaces from other OSes
      (e.g. Linux implementing kqueue), something that the above checks
      cannot take into account.</p>
<p>Of course, checking for features generally involves more
      work on the developer's side, but the resulting changes are
      cleaner and there are chances they will work on many other
      platforms.  Not to mention that there are higher chances of being
      later integrated into the mainstream sources.  Remember:
      <span class="emphasis"><em>It doesn't work unless it is right!</em></span></p>
<p>Some typical examples:</p>
<div class="table">
<a name="patch-examples"></a><p class="title"><b>Table1.1.†–atching examples</b></p>
<div class="table-contents"><table summary="Patching examples" border="1">
<colgroup>
<col>
<col>
<col>
</colgroup>
<thead><tr>
<th>Where</th>
<th>Incorrect</th>
<th>Correct</th>
</tr></thead>
<tbody>
<tr>
<td>configure script</td>
<td>
<pre class="programlisting">
case ${target_os} in
netbsd*) have_kvm=yes ;;
*)       have_kvm=no  ;;
esac
</pre>
	      </td>
<td>
<pre class="programlisting">
AC_CHECK_LIB(kvm, kvm_open, have_kvm=yes, have_kvm=no)
</pre>
	      </td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>C source file</td>
<td>
<pre class="programlisting">
#if defined(__NetBSD__)
#  include &lt;sys/event.h&gt;
#endif
</pre>
	      </td>
<td>
<pre class="programlisting">
#if defined(HAVE_SYS_EVENT_H)
#  include &lt;sys/event.h&gt;
#endif
</pre>
	      </td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>C source file</td>
<td>
<pre class="programlisting">
int
monitor_file(...)
{
#if defined(__NetBSD__)
        int fd = kqueue();
        ...
#else
        ...
#endif
}
</pre>
	      </td>
<td>
<pre class="programlisting">
int
monitor_file(...)
{
#if defined(HAVE_KQUEUE)
        int fd = kqueue();
        ...
#else
	...
#endif
}
</pre>
	      </td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table></div>
</div>
<br class="table-break"><p>For more information, please read the <span class="emphasis"><em>Making
      packager-friendly software</em></span> article (<a class="ulink" href="http://www.onlamp.com/pub/a/onlamp/2005/03/31/packaging.html" target="_top">part
      1</a>, <a class="ulink" href="http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/onlamp/2005/04/28/packaging2.html" target="_top">part
      2</a>).  It summarizes multiple details on how to make
      software easier to package; all the suggestions in it were
      collected from our experience in pkgsrc work, so they are possibly
      helpful when creating patches too.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="11.3.5.†∆eedback to the author">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="components.patches.feedback"></a>11.3.5.†∆eedback to the author</h3></div></div></div>
<p>Always, always, <span class="strong"><strong>always</strong></span>
      feed back any <span class="emphasis"><em>portability fixes</em></span> or
      improvements you do to a package to the mainstream developers.
      This is the only way to get their attention on portability issues
      and to ensure that future versions can be built out-of-the box on
      NetBSD.  Furthermore, any user that gets newer distfiles will get
      the fixes straight from the packaged code.</p>
<p>This generally involves cleaning up the patches
      (because sometimes the patches that are
      added to pkgsrc are quick hacks), filling bug reports in the
      appropriate trackers for the projects and working with the
      mainstream authors to accept your changes.  It is
      <span class="emphasis"><em>extremely important</em></span> that you do it so that
      the packages in pkgsrc are kept simple and thus further changes
      can be done without much hassle.</p>
<p>When you have done this, please add a URL to the upstream
      bug report to the patch comment.</p>
<p>Support the idea of free software!</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="11.4.†Ōther mandatory files">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="other-mandatory-files"></a>11.4.†Ōther mandatory files</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="variablelist"><dl>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">DESCR</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>A multi-line description of the piece of software.  This should include
	  any credits where they are due.  Please bear in mind that others do not
	  share your sense of humour (or spelling idiosyncrasies), and that others
	  will read everything that you write here.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">PLIST</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>This file governs the files that are installed on your
	  system: all the binaries, manual pages, etc. There are other
	  directives which may be entered in this file, to control the
	  creation and deletion of directories, and the location of
	  inserted files.  See <a class="xref" href="#plist" title="Chapter3.†–LIST issues">Chapter3, <i>PLIST issues</i></a> for more
	  information.</p></dd>
</dl></div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="11.5.†Ōptional files">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="components.optional"></a>11.5.†Ōptional files</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="sect2" title="11.5.1.†∆iles affecting the binary package">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="components.optional.bin"></a>11.5.1.†∆iles affecting the binary package</h3></div></div></div>
<div class="variablelist"><dl>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">INSTALL</code></span></dt>
<dd>
<p>This shell script is invoked twice by <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?pkg_add+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">pkg_add</span>(1)</span></a>.
	    First time after package extraction and before files are
	    moved in place, the second time after the files to install
	    are moved in place. This can be used to do any custom
	    procedures not possible with @exec commands in
	    <code class="filename">PLIST</code>. See <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?pkg_add+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">pkg_add</span>(1)</span></a> and
	    <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?pkg_create+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">pkg_create</span>(1)</span></a> for more information.  See also <a class="xref" href="#files-and-dirs-outside-prefix" title="15.1.†∆iles and directories outside the installation prefix">Section5.1, &#8220;Files and directories outside the installation prefix&#8221;</a>.
	    Please note that you can modify variables in it easily by using
	    <code class="varname">FILES_SUBST</code> in the package's
	    <code class="filename">Makefile</code>:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
FILES_SUBST+=  SOMEVAR="somevalue"
</pre>
<p>replaces "@SOMEVAR@" with <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">somevalue</span>&#8221;</span> in the
	    <code class="filename">INSTALL</code>.  By default, substitution is
	    performed for <code class="varname">PREFIX</code>,
	    <code class="varname">LOCALBASE</code>, <code class="varname">X11BASE</code>,
	    <code class="varname">VARBASE</code>, and a few others, type
	    <span class="command"><strong>make help topic=FILES_SUBST</strong></span> for a
	    complete list.</p>
</dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">DEINSTALL</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>This script is executed before and after any files are removed.  It is
	    this script's responsibility to clean up any additional messy details
	    around the package's installation, since all pkg_delete knows is how to
	    delete the files created in the original distribution.
	    See <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?pkg_delete+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">pkg_delete</span>(1)</span></a>
	    and <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?pkg_create+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">pkg_create</span>(1)</span></a> for more information.
	    The same methods to replace variables can be used as for
	    the <code class="filename">INSTALL</code> file.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">MESSAGE</code></span></dt>
<dd>
<p>This file is displayed after installation of the package.
	    Useful for things like legal notices on almost-free
	    software and hints for updating config files after
	    installing modules for apache, PHP etc.
	    Please note that you can modify variables in it easily by using
	    <code class="varname">MESSAGE_SUBST</code> in the package's
	    <code class="filename">Makefile</code>:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
MESSAGE_SUBST+=  SOMEVAR="somevalue"
</pre>
<p>replaces "${SOMEVAR}" with <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">somevalue</span>&#8221;</span> in
	    <code class="filename">MESSAGE</code>.  By default, substitution is
	    performed for <code class="varname">PKGNAME</code>,
	    <code class="varname">PKGBASE</code>, <code class="varname">PREFIX</code>,
	    <code class="varname">LOCALBASE</code>, <code class="varname">X11PREFIX</code>,
	    <code class="varname">X11BASE</code>,
	    <code class="varname">PKG_SYSCONFDIR</code>,
	    <code class="varname">ROOT_GROUP</code>, and
	    <code class="varname">ROOT_USER</code>.</p>
<p>You can display a different or additional files by
	    setting the <code class="varname">MESSAGE_SRC</code> variable.  Its
	    default is <code class="filename">MESSAGE</code>, if the file
	    exists.</p>
</dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">ALTERNATIVES</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>FIXME: There is no documentation on the
	alternatives framework.</p></dd>
</dl></div>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="11.5.2.†∆iles affecting the build process">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="components.optional.build"></a>11.5.2.†∆iles affecting the build process</h3></div></div></div>
<div class="variablelist"><dl>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">Makefile.common</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>This file contains arbitrary things that could
	also go into a <code class="filename">Makefile</code>, but its purpose is
	to be used by more than one package. This file should only be
	used when the packages that will use the file are known in
	advance. For other purposes it is often better to write a
	<code class="filename">*.mk</code> file and give it a good name that
	describes what it does.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>This file contains the dependency information
	for the buildlink3 framework (see <a class="xref" href="#buildlink" title="Chapter4.†¬uildlink methodology">Chapter4, <i>Buildlink methodology</i></a>).</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">hacks.mk</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>This file contains workarounds for compiler bugs
	and similar things. It is included automatically by the pkgsrc
	infrastructure, so you don't need an extra
	<code class="literal">.include</code> line for
	it.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">options.mk</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>This file contains the code for the
	package-specific options (see <a class="xref" href="#options" title="Chapter6.†Ōptions handling">Chapter6, <i>Options handling</i></a>) that can be
	selected by the user. If a package has only one or two options,
	it is equally acceptable to put the code directly into the
	<code class="filename">Makefile</code>.</p></dd>
</dl></div>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="11.5.3.†∆iles affecting nothing at all">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="components.optional.none"></a>11.5.3.†∆iles affecting nothing at all</h3></div></div></div>
<div class="variablelist"><dl>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">README*</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>These files do not take place in the creation of
	a package and thus are purely informative to the package
	developer.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">TODO</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>This file contains things that need to be done
	to make the package even
	better.</p></dd>
</dl></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="11.6.†ųork*">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="work-dir"></a>11.6.code class="filename">work*</code>
</h2></div></div></div>
<p>When you type <span class="command"><strong>make</strong></span>, the distribution files are
    unpacked into the directory denoted by
    <code class="varname">WRKDIR</code>. It can be removed by running
    <span class="command"><strong>make clean</strong></span>. Besides the sources, this
    directory is also used to keep various timestamp files.
    The directory gets <span class="emphasis"><em>removed completely</em></span> on clean.
    The default is <code class="filename">${.CURDIR}/work</code>
    or <code class="filename">${.CURDIR}/work.${MACHINE_ARCH}</code>
    if <code class="varname">OBJMACHINE</code> is set.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="11.7.†śiles/*">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="files-dir"></a>11.7.code class="filename">files/*</code>
</h2></div></div></div>
<p>If you have any files that you wish to be placed in the package prior
    to configuration or building, you could place these files here and use
    a <span class="command"><strong>${CP}</strong></span> command in the
    <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">pre-configure</span>&#8221;</span> target to achieve
    this. Alternatively, you could simply diff the file against
    <code class="filename">/dev/null</code> and use the patch mechanism to manage
    the creation of this file.</p>
<p>If you want to share files in this way with other
    packages, set the <code class="varname">FILESDIR</code> variable to point
    to the other package's <code class="filename">files</code> directory,
    e.g.:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
FILESDIR=${.CURDIR}/../xemacs/files
</pre>
</div>
</div>
<div class="chapter" title="Chapter2.†–rogramming in Makefiles">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title">
<a name="makefile"></a>Chapter2.†–rogramming in <code class="filename">Makefile</code>s</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="toc">
<p><b>Table of Contents</b></p>
<dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#makefile.style">12.1. Caveats</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#makefile.variables">12.2. <code class="filename">Makefile</code> variables</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#makefile.variables.names">12.2.1. Naming conventions</a></span></dt></dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#makefile.code">12.3. Code snippets</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#adding-to-list">12.3.1. Adding things to a list</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#converting-internal-to-external">12.3.2. Converting an internal list into an external list</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#passing-variable-to-shell">12.3.3. Passing variables to a shell command</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#quoting-guideline">12.3.4. Quoting guideline</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#bsd-make-bug-workaround">12.3.5. Workaround for a bug in BSD Make</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
</dl>
</div>
<p>Pkgsrc consists of many <code class="filename">Makefile</code> fragments,
  each of which forms a well-defined part of the pkgsrc system. Using
  the <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?make+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">make</span>(1)</span></a> system as a programming language for a big system
  like pkgsrc requires some discipline to keep the code correct and
  understandable.</p>
<p>The basic ingredients for <code class="filename">Makefile</code>
  programming are variables (which are actually macros) and shell
  commands. Among these shell commands may even be more complex ones
  like <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?awk+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">awk</span>(1)</span></a> programs. To make sure that every shell command runs
  as intended it is necessary to quote all variables correctly when they
  are used.</p>
<p>This chapter describes some patterns, that appear quite often in
  <code class="filename">Makefile</code>s, including the pitfalls that come along
  with them.</p>
<div class="sect1" title="12.1.†√aveats">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="makefile.style"></a>12.1.†√aveats</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem">
<p>When you are creating a file as a
    target of a rule, always write the data to a temporary file first
    and finally rename that file. Otherwise there might occur an error
    in the middle of generating the file, and when the user runs
    <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?make+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">make</span>(1)</span></a> for the second time, the file exists and will not be
    regenerated properly. Example:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
wrong:
        @echo "line 1" &gt; ${.TARGET}
        @echo "line 2" &gt;&gt; ${.TARGET}
        @false

correct:
        @echo "line 1" &gt; ${.TARGET}.tmp
        @echo "line 2" &gt;&gt; ${.TARGET}.tmp
        @false
        @mv ${.TARGET}.tmp ${.TARGET}
</pre>
<p>When you run <span class="command"><strong>make wrong</strong></span> twice, the file
    <code class="filename">wrong</code> will exist, although there was an error
    message in the first run. On the other hand, running <span class="command"><strong>make
    correct</strong></span> gives an error message twice, as expected.</p>
<p>You might remember that <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?make+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">make</span>(1)</span></a> sometimes removes
    <code class="literal">${.TARGET}</code> in case of error, but this only
    happens when it is interrupted, for example by pressing
    <code class="literal">^C</code>. This does <span class="emphasis"><em>not</em></span> happen
    when one of the commands fails (like <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?false+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">false</span>(1)</span></a> above).</p>
</li></ul></div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="12.2.†Õakefile variables">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="makefile.variables"></a>12.2.code class="filename">Makefile</code> variables</h2></div></div></div>
<p><code class="filename">Makefile</code> variables contain strings that
    can be processed using the five operators ``='', ``+='', ``?='',
    ``:='', and ``!='', which are described in the <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?make+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">make</span>(1)</span></a> man
    page.</p>
<p>When a variable's value is parsed from a
    <code class="filename">Makefile</code>, the hash character ``#'' and the
    backslash character ``\'' are handled specially. If a backslash is
    followed by a newline, any whitespace immediately in front of the
    backslash, the backslash, the newline, and any whitespace
    immediately behind the newline are replaced with a single space. A
    backslash character and an immediately following hash character are
    replaced with a single hash character. Otherwise, the backslash is
    passed as is. In a variable assignment, any hash character that is
    not preceded by a backslash starts a comment that continues upto the
    end of the logical line.</p>
<p><span class="emphasis"><em>Note:</em></span> Because of this parsing algorithm
    the only way to create a variable consisting of a single backslash
    is using the ``!='' operator, for example: <code class="varname">BACKSLASH!=echo "\\"</code>.</p>
<p>So far for defining variables. The other thing you can do with
    variables is evaluating them. A variable is evaluated when it is
    part of the right side of the ``:='' or the ``!='' operator, or
    directly before executing a shell command which the variable is part
    of. In all other cases, <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?make+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">make</span>(1)</span></a> performs lazy evaluation, that
    is, variables are not evaluated until there's no other way. The
    ``modifiers'' mentioned in the man page also evaluate the
    variable.</p>
<p>Some of the modifiers split the string into words and then
    operate on the words, others operate on the string as a whole. When
    a string is split into words, it is split as you would expect
    it from <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?sh+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">sh</span>(1)</span></a>.</p>
<p>No rule without exception&mdash;the <span class="command"><strong>.for</strong></span>
    loop does not follow the shell quoting rules but splits at sequences
    of whitespace.</p>
<p>There are several types of variables that should be handled
    differently. Strings and two types of lists.</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p><span class="emphasis"><em>Strings</em></span> can contain arbitrary
      characters. Nevertheless, you should restrict yourself to only
      using printable characters. Examples are
      <code class="varname">PREFIX</code> and
      <code class="varname">COMMENT</code>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><span class="emphasis"><em>Internal lists</em></span> are lists that
      are never exported to any shell command. Their elements are
      separated by whitespace. Therefore, the elements themselves cannot
      have embedded whitespace. Any other characters are allowed.
      Internal lists can be used in <span class="command"><strong>.for</strong></span> loops.
      Examples are <code class="varname">DEPENDS</code> and
      <code class="varname">BUILD_DEPENDS</code>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><span class="emphasis"><em>External lists</em></span> are lists that
      may be exported to a shell command. Their elements can contain any
      characters, including whitespace. That's why they cannot be used
      in <span class="command"><strong>.for</strong></span> loops. Examples are
      <code class="varname">DISTFILES</code> and
      <code class="varname">MASTER_SITES</code>.</p></li>
</ul></div>
<div class="sect2" title="12.2.1.†őaming conventions">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="makefile.variables.names"></a>12.2.1.†őaming conventions</h3></div></div></div>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p>All variable names starting with an underscore
	are reserved for use by the pkgsrc infrastructure. They shall
	not be used by package
	<code class="filename">Makefile</code>s.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>In <span class="command"><strong>.for</strong></span> loops you should use
	lowercase variable names for the iteration
	variables.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>All list variables should have a ``plural''
	name, e.g. <code class="varname">PKG_OPTIONS</code> or
	<code class="varname">DISTFILES</code>.</p></li>
</ul></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="12.3.†√ode snippets">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="makefile.code"></a>12.3.†√ode snippets</h2></div></div></div>
<p>This section presents you with some code snippets you should
    use in your own code. If you don't find anything appropriate here,
    you should test your code and add it here.</p>
<div class="sect2" title="12.3.1.†Ńdding things to a list">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="adding-to-list"></a>12.3.1.†Ńdding things to a list</h3></div></div></div>
<pre class="programlisting">
STRING=                 foo * bar `date`
INT_LIST=               # empty
ANOTHER_INT_LIST=       apache-[0-9]*:../../www/apache
EXT_LIST=               # empty
ANOTHER_EXT_LIST=       a=b c=d

INT_LIST+=              ${STRING}               # 1
INT_LIST+=              ${ANOTHER_INT_LIST}     # 2
EXT_LIST+=              ${STRING:Q}             # 3
EXT_LIST+=              ${ANOTHER_EXT_LIST}     # 4
</pre>
<p>When you add a string to an external list (example 3), it
      must be quoted. In all other cases, you must not add a quoting
      level. You must not merge internal and external lists, unless you
      are sure that all entries are correctly interpreted in both
      lists.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="12.3.2.†√onverting an internal list into an external list">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="converting-internal-to-external"></a>12.3.2.†√onverting an internal list into an external list</h3></div></div></div>
<pre class="programlisting">
EXT_LIST=       # empty
.for i in ${INT_LIST}
EXT_LIST+=      ${i:Q}""
.endfor
</pre>
<p>This code converts the internal list
      <code class="varname">INT_LIST</code> into the external list
      <code class="varname">EXT_LIST</code>. As the elements of an internal list
      are unquoted they must be quoted here. The reason for appending
      <code class="varname">""</code> is explained below.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="12.3.3.†–assing variables to a shell command">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="passing-variable-to-shell"></a>12.3.3.†–assing variables to a shell command</h3></div></div></div>
<p>Sometimes you may want to print an arbitrary string. There
	are many ways to get it wrong and only few that can handle every
	nastiness.</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
STRING=         foo bar &lt;    &gt; * `date` $$HOME ' "
EXT_LIST=       string=${STRING:Q} x=second\ item

all:
        echo ${STRING}                  # 1
        echo "${STRING}"                # 2
        echo "${STRING:Q}"              # 3
        echo ${STRING:Q}                # 4
        echo x${STRING:Q} | sed 1s,.,,  # 5
        printf "%s\\n" ${STRING:Q}""    # 6
        env ${EXT_LIST} /bin/sh -c 'echo "$$string"; echo "$$x"'
</pre>
<p>Example 1 leads to a syntax error in the shell, as the
      characters are just copied.</p>
<p>Example 2 leads to a syntax error too, and if you leave out
      the last " character from <code class="varname">${STRING}</code>,
      <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?date+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">date</span>(1)</span></a> will be executed. The <code class="varname">$HOME</code> shell
      variable would be evaluated, too.</p>
<p>Example 3 outputs each space character preceded by a
      backslash (or not), depending on the implementation of the
      <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?echo+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">echo</span>(1)</span></a> command.</p>
<p>Example 4 handles correctly every string that does not start
      with a dash. In that case, the result depends on the
      implementation of the <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?echo+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">echo</span>(1)</span></a> command. As long as you can
      guarantee that your input does not start with a dash, this form is
      appropriate.</p>
<p>Example 5 handles even the case of a leading dash
      correctly.</p>
<p>Example 6 also works with every string and is the
      light-weight solution, since it does not involve a pipe, which has
      its own problems.</p>
<p>The <code class="varname">EXT_LIST</code> does not need to be quoted
      because the quoting has already been done when adding elements to
      the list.</p>
<p>As internal lists shall not be passed to the shell, there is
      no example for it.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="12.3.4.†—uoting guideline">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="quoting-guideline"></a>12.3.4.†—uoting guideline</h3></div></div></div>
<p>There are many possible sources of wrongly quoted variables.
      This section lists some of the commonly known ones.</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem">
<p>Whenever you use the value of a list, think
	about what happens to leading or trailing whitespace. If the
	list is a well-formed shell expression, you can apply the
	<code class="varname">:M*</code> modifier to strip leading and trailing
	whitespace from each word. The <code class="varname">:M</code> operator
	first splits its argument according to the rules of the shell,
	and then creates a new list consisting of all words that match
	the shell glob expression <code class="varname">*</code>, that is: all.
	One class of situations where this is needed is when adding a
	variable like <code class="varname">CPPFLAGS</code> to
	<code class="varname">CONFIGURE_ARGS</code>. If the configure script
	invokes other configure scripts, it strips the leading and
	trailing whitespace from the variable and then passes it to the
	other configure scripts. But these configure scripts expect the
	(child) <code class="varname">CPPFLAGS</code> variable to be the same as
	the parent <code class="varname">CPPFLAGS</code>. That's why we better
	pass the <code class="varname">CPPFLAGS</code> value properly trimmed. And
	here is how we do it:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
CPPFLAGS=               # empty
CPPFLAGS+=              -Wundef -DPREFIX=\"${PREFIX:Q}\"
CPPFLAGS+=              ${MY_CPPFLAGS}

CONFIGURE_ARGS+=        CPPFLAGS=${CPPFLAGS:M*:Q}

all:
        echo x${CPPFLAGS:Q}x            # leading and trailing whitespace
        echo x${CONFIGURE_ARGS}x        # properly trimmed
</pre>
</li>
<li class="listitem"><p>The example above contains one bug: The
	<code class="varname">${PREFIX}</code> is a properly quoted shell
	expression, but there is the C compiler after it, which also
	expects a properly quoted string (this time in C syntax). The
	version above is therefore only correct if
	<code class="varname">${PREFIX}</code> does not have embedded backslashes
	or double quotes. If you want to allow these, you have to add
	another layer of quoting to each variable that is used as a C
	string literal. You cannot use the <code class="varname">:Q</code>
	operator for it, as this operator only works for the
	shell.</p></li>
<li class="listitem">
<p>Whenever a variable can be empty, the
	<code class="varname">:Q</code> operator can have surprising results. Here
	are two completely different cases which can be solved with the
	same trick.</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
EMPTY=                  # empty
empty_test:
        for i in a ${EMPTY:Q} c; do \
            echo "$$i"; \
        done

for_test:
.for i in a:\ a:\test.txt
        echo ${i:Q}
        echo "foo"
.endfor
</pre>
<p>The first example will only print two of the three lines
	we might have expected. This is because
	<code class="varname">${EMPTY:Q}</code> expands to the empty string, which
	the shell cannot see. The workaround is to write
	<code class="varname">${EMPTY:Q}""</code>. This pattern can be often found
	as <code class="varname">${TEST} -z ${VAR:Q}</code> or as <code class="varname">${TEST}
	-f ${FNAME:Q}</code> (both of these are wrong).</p>
<p>The second example will only print three lines instead of
	four. The first line looks like <code class="varname">a:\ echo foo</code>.
	This is because the backslash of the value
	<code class="varname">a:\</code> is interpreted as a line-continuation by
	<a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?make+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">make</span>(1)</span></a>, which makes the second line the arguments of the
	<a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?echo+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">echo</span>(1)</span></a> command from the first line. To avoid this, write
	<code class="varname">${i:Q}""</code>.</p>
</li>
</ul></div>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="12.3.5.†◊orkaround for a bug in BSD Make">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="bsd-make-bug-workaround"></a>12.3.5.†◊orkaround for a bug in BSD Make</h3></div></div></div>
<p>The pkgsrc bmake program does not handle the following
      assignment correctly. In case <code class="varname">_othervar_</code>
      contains a ``-'' character, one of the closing braces is included
      in <code class="varname">${VAR}</code> after this code executes.</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
VAR:=   ${VAR:N${_othervar_:C/-//}}
</pre>
<p>For a more complex code snippet and a workaround, see the
      package <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/regress/make-quoting/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">regress/make-quoting</code></a>, testcase
      <code class="varname">bug1</code>.</p>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="chapter" title="Chapter3.†–LIST issues">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title">
<a name="plist"></a>Chapter3.†–LIST issues</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="toc">
<p><b>Table of Contents</b></p>
<dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#rcs-id">13.1. RCS ID</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#automatic-plist-generation">13.2. Semi-automatic <code class="filename">PLIST</code> generation</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#print-PLIST">13.3. Tweaking output of <span class="command"><strong>make print-PLIST</strong></span></a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#plist.misc">13.4. Variable substitution in PLIST</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#manpage-compression">13.5. Man page compression</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#using-PLIST_SRC">13.6. Changing PLIST source with <code class="varname">PLIST_SRC</code></a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#platform-specific-plist">13.7. Platform-specific and differing PLISTs</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#faq.common-dirs">13.8. Sharing directories between packages</a></span></dt>
</dl>
</div>
<p>The <code class="filename">PLIST</code> file contains a package's
  <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">packing list</span>&#8221;</span>, i.e. a list of files that belong to
  the package (relative to the <code class="filename">${PREFIX}</code>
  directory it's been installed in) plus some additional statements
  - see the <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?pkg_create+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">pkg_create</span>(1)</span></a> man page for a full list.
  This chapter addresses some issues that need attention when
  dealing with the <code class="filename">PLIST</code> file (or files, see
  below!).</p>
<div class="sect1" title="13.1.†“CS ID">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="rcs-id"></a>13.1.†“CS ID</h2></div></div></div>
<p>Be sure to add a RCS ID line as the first thing in any
    <code class="filename">PLIST</code> file you write:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
@comment $NetBSD$
    </pre>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="13.2.†”emi-automatic PLIST generation">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="automatic-plist-generation"></a>13.2.†”emi-automatic <code class="filename">PLIST</code> generation</h2></div></div></div>
<p>You can use the <span class="command"><strong>make print-PLIST</strong></span> command
    to output a PLIST that matches any new files since the package
    was extracted.  See <a class="xref" href="#build.helpful-targets" title="17.17.†Ōther helpful targets">Section7.17, &#8220;Other helpful targets&#8221;</a> for
    more information on this target.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="13.3.†‘weaking output of make print-PLIST">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="print-PLIST"></a>13.3.†‘weaking output of <span class="command"><strong>make print-PLIST</strong></span>
</h2></div></div></div>
<p>If you have used any of the *-dirs packages, as explained in
    <a class="xref" href="#faq.common-dirs" title="13.8.†”haring directories between packages">Section3.8, &#8220;Sharing directories between packages&#8221;</a>, you may have noticed that
    <span class="command"><strong>make print-PLIST</strong></span> outputs a set of
    <code class="varname">@comment</code>s instead of real
    <code class="varname">@dirrm</code> lines.  You can also do this for
    specific directories and files, so that the results of that
    command are very close to reality. This helps <span class="emphasis"><em>a
    lot</em></span> during the update of packages.</p>
<p>The <code class="varname">PRINT_PLIST_AWK</code> variable takes a set
    of AWK patterns and actions that are used to filter the output of
    print-PLIST.  You can <span class="emphasis"><em>append</em></span> any chunk of AWK
    scripting you like to it, but be careful with quoting.</p>
<p>For example, to get all files inside the
    <code class="filename">libdata/foo</code> directory removed from the
    resulting PLIST:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
PRINT_PLIST_AWK+=       /^libdata\/foo/ { next; }
    </pre>
<p>And to get all the <code class="varname">@dirrm</code> lines referring
    to a specific (shared) directory converted to
    <code class="varname">@comment</code>s:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
PRINT_PLIST_AWK+=       /^@dirrm share\/specific/ { print "@comment " $$0; next; }
    </pre>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="13.4.†÷ariable substitution in PLIST">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="plist.misc"></a>13.4.†÷ariable substitution in PLIST</h2></div></div></div>
<p>A number of variables are substituted automatically in
    PLISTs when a package is installed on a system. This includes the
    following variables:</p>
<div class="variablelist"><dl>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">${MACHINE_ARCH}</code>, <code class="varname">${MACHINE_GNU_ARCH}</code></span></dt>
<dd>
<p>Some packages like emacs and perl embed information
	  about which architecture they were built on into the
	  pathnames where they install their files. To handle this
	  case, PLIST will be preprocessed before actually used, and
	  the symbol
	  <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote"><code class="varname">${MACHINE_ARCH}</code></span>&#8221;</span> will be
	  replaced by what <span class="command"><strong>uname -p</strong></span> gives. The
	  same is done if the string
	  <code class="varname">${MACHINE_GNU_ARCH}</code> is embedded in
	  PLIST somewhere - use this on packages that have GNU
	  autoconf-created configure scripts.</p>
<div class="note" title="Legacy note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;">
<h3 class="title">Legacy note</h3>
<p>There used to be a symbol
	    <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote"><code class="varname">$ARCH</code></span>&#8221;</span> that
	    was replaced by the output of <span class="command"><strong>uname
	    -m</strong></span>, but that's no longer supported and has
	    been removed.</p>
</div>
</dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">${OPSYS}</code>, <code class="varname">${LOWER_OPSYS}</code>, <code class="varname">${OS_VERSION}</code></span></dt>
<dd>
<p>Some packages want to embed the OS name and version
	  into some paths.  To do this, use these variables in the
	  <code class="filename">PLIST</code>:
	  </p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">${OPSYS}</code> - output of <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote"><span class="command"><strong>uname -s</strong></span></span>&#8221;</span></p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">${LOWER_OPSYS}</code> - lowercase common name (eg. <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">solaris</span>&#8221;</span>)</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">${OS_VERSION}</code> - <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote"><span class="command"><strong>uname -r</strong></span></span>&#8221;</span></p></li>
</ul></div>
</dd>
</dl></div>
<p>For a complete list of values which are replaced by
    default, please look in <code class="filename">bsd.pkg.mk</code> (and
    search for <code class="varname">PLIST_SUBST</code>).</p>
<p>If you want to change other variables not listed above, you
    can add variables and their expansions to this variable in the
    following way, similar to <code class="varname">MESSAGE_SUBST</code> (see <a class="xref" href="#components.optional" title="11.5.†Ōptional files">Section1.5, &#8220;Optional files&#8221;</a>):</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
PLIST_SUBST+=   SOMEVAR="somevalue"
    </pre>
<p>This replaces all occurrences of <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">${SOMEVAR}</span>&#8221;</span>
    in the <code class="filename">PLIST</code> with
    <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">somevalue</span>&#8221;</span>.</p>
<p>The <code class="varname">PLIST_VARS</code> variable can be used to simplify
    the common case of conditionally including some
    <code class="filename">PLIST</code> entries. It can be done by adding
    <code class="literal"><code class="varname">PLIST_VARS</code>+=foo</code> and
    setting the corresponding <code class="varname">PLIST.foo</code> variable
    to <code class="literal">yes</code> if the entry should be included.
    This will substitute <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote"><code class="varname">${PLIST.foo}</code></span>&#8221;</span>
    in the <code class="filename">PLIST</code> with either
    <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote"><code class="literal">""</code></span>&#8221;</span> or
    <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote"><code class="literal">"@comment "</code></span>&#8221;</span>.
    For example, in <code class="filename">Makefile</code>:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
PLIST_VARS+=	foo
.if <em class="replaceable"><code>condition</code></em>
PLIST.foo=	yes
.else
    </pre>
<p>And then in <code class="filename">PLIST</code>:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
@comment $NetBSD$
bin/bar
man/man1/bar.1
${PLIST.foo}bin/foo
${PLIST.foo}man/man1/foo.1
${PLIST.foo}share/bar/foo.data
${PLIST.foo}@dirrm share/bar
    </pre>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="13.5.†Õan page compression">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="manpage-compression"></a>13.5.†Õan page compression</h2></div></div></div>
<p>Man pages should be installed in compressed form if
    <code class="varname">MANZ</code> is set (in <code class="filename">bsd.own.mk</code>),
    and uncompressed otherwise. To handle this in the
    <code class="filename">PLIST</code> file, the suffix <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">.gz</span>&#8221;</span> is
    appended/removed automatically for man pages according to
    <code class="varname">MANZ</code> and <code class="varname">MANCOMPRESSED</code> being set
    or not, see above for details. This modification of the
    <code class="filename">PLIST</code> file is done on a copy of it, not
    <code class="filename">PLIST</code> itself.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="13.6.†√hanging PLIST source with PLIST_SRC">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="using-PLIST_SRC"></a>13.6.†√hanging PLIST source with <code class="varname">PLIST_SRC</code>
</h2></div></div></div>
<p>To use one or more files as source for the <code class="filename">PLIST</code> used
    in generating the binary package, set the variable
    <code class="varname">PLIST_SRC</code> to the names of that file(s).
    The files are later concatenated using <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?cat+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">cat</span>(1)</span></a>, and the order of things is
    important. The default for <code class="varname">PLIST_SRC</code> is
    <code class="filename">${PKGDIR}/PLIST</code>.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="13.7.†–latform-specific and differing PLISTs">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="platform-specific-plist"></a>13.7.†–latform-specific and differing PLISTs</h2></div></div></div>
<p>Some packages decide to install a different set of files based on
    the operating system being used. These differences can be
    automatically handled by using the following files:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="filename">PLIST.common</code></p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="filename">PLIST.${OPSYS}</code></p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="filename">PLIST.${MACHINE_ARCH}</code></p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="filename">PLIST.${OPSYS}-${MACHINE_ARCH}</code></p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="filename">PLIST.common_end</code></p></li>
</ul></div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="13.8.†”haring directories between packages">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="faq.common-dirs"></a>13.8.†”haring directories between packages</h2></div></div></div>
<p>A <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">shared directory</span>&#8221;</span> is a directory where
    multiple (and unrelated) packages install files.  These
    directories were problematic because you had to add special
    tricks in the PLIST to conditionally remove them, or have some
    centralized package handle them.</p>
<p>In pkgsrc, it is now easy: Each package should create
    directories and install files as needed; <span class="command"><strong>pkg_delete</strong></span>
    will remove any directories left empty after uninstalling a
    package.</p>
<p>If a package needs an empty directory to work, create
    the directory during installation as usual, and also add an
    entry to the PLIST:
    </p>
<pre class="programlisting">
@pkgdir path/to/empty/directory
    </pre>
<p>
    </p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="chapter" title="Chapter4.†¬uildlink methodology">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title">
<a name="buildlink"></a>Chapter4.†¬uildlink methodology</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="toc">
<p><b>Table of Contents</b></p>
<dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#converting-to-buildlink3">14.1. Converting packages to use buildlink3</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#creating-buildlink3.mk">14.2. Writing <code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code> files</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#anatomy-of-bl3">14.2.1. Anatomy of a buildlink3.mk file</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#updating-buildlink-depends">14.2.2. Updating
      <code class="varname">BUILDLINK_API_DEPENDS.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>
      and
      <code class="varname">BUILDLINK_ABI_DEPENDS.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>
      in <code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code> files</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#writing-builtin.mk">14.3. Writing <code class="filename">builtin.mk</code> files</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#anatomy-of-builtin.mk">14.3.1. Anatomy of a <code class="filename">builtin.mk</code> file</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#native-or-pkgsrc-preference">14.3.2. Global preferences for native or pkgsrc software</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
</dl>
</div>
<p>Buildlink is a framework in pkgsrc that controls what headers and libraries
  are seen by a package's configure and build processes.  This is implemented
  in a two step process:</p>
<div class="orderedlist"><ol class="orderedlist" type="1">
<li class="listitem"><p>Symlink headers and libraries for dependencies into
      <code class="varname">BUILDLINK_DIR</code>, which by default is a subdirectory
      of <code class="varname">WRKDIR</code>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Create wrapper scripts that are used in place of the normal compiler
      tools that translate <code class="option">-I${LOCALBASE}/include</code> and
      <code class="option">-L${LOCALBASE}/lib</code> into references to
      <code class="varname">BUILDLINK_DIR</code>. The wrapper scripts also make
      native compiler on some operating systems look like GCC, so that
      packages that expect GCC won't require modifications to build with
      those native compilers.</p></li>
</ol></div>
<p>This normalizes the environment in which a package is built so that the
  package may be built consistently despite what other software may be
  installed. Please note that the normal system header and library paths,
  e.g. <code class="filename">/usr/include</code>,
  <code class="filename">/usr/lib</code>, etc., are always searched -- buildlink3 is
  designed to insulate the package build from non-system-supplied
  software.</p>
<div class="sect1" title="14.1.†√onverting packages to use buildlink3">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="converting-to-buildlink3"></a>14.1.†√onverting packages to use buildlink3</h2></div></div></div>
<p>The process of converting packages to use the buildlink3
    framework (<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">bl3ifying</span>&#8221;</span>) is fairly straightforward.
    The things to keep in mind are:</p>
<div class="orderedlist"><ol class="orderedlist" type="1">
<li class="listitem"><p>Ensure that the build always calls the wrapper scripts
	instead of the actual toolchain.  Some packages are tricky,
	and the only way to know for sure is the check
	<code class="filename">${WRKDIR}/.work.log</code> to see if the
	wrappers are being invoked.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Don't override <code class="varname">PREFIX</code> from within
	the package Makefile, e.g. Java VMs, standalone shells,
	etc., because the code to symlink files into
	<code class="filename">${BUILDLINK_DIR}</code> looks for files
	relative to <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">pkg_info -qp <em class="replaceable"><code>pkgname</code></em></span>&#8221;</span>.
	</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Remember that <span class="emphasis"><em>only</em></span> the
	<code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code> files that you list in a
	package's Makefile are added as dependencies for that package.
	</p></li>
</ol></div>
<p>If a dependency on a particular package is required for its libraries and
    headers, then we replace:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
DEPENDS+=       foo&gt;=1.1.0:../../category/foo
</pre>
<p>with</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
.include "../../category/foo/buildlink3.mk"
</pre>
<p>The buildlink3.mk files usually define the required dependencies.
    If you need a newer version of the dependency when using buildlink3.mk
    files, then you can define it in your Makefile; for example:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
BUILDLINK_API_DEPENDS.foo+=   foo&gt;=1.1.0
.include "../../category/foo/buildlink3.mk"
</pre>
<p>There are several <code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code>
    files in <code class="filename">pkgsrc/mk</code>
    that handle special package issues:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="filename">bdb.buildlink3.mk</code> chooses either
	the native or a pkgsrc Berkeley DB implementation based on
	the values of <code class="varname">BDB_ACCEPTED</code> and
	<code class="varname">BDB_DEFAULT</code>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="filename">curses.buildlink3.mk</code>: If the system
	comes with neither Curses nor NCurses, this will take care
	to install the <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/devel/ncurses/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">devel/ncurses</code></a> package.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="filename">krb5.buildlink3.mk</code> uses the value
	of <code class="varname">KRB5_ACCEPTED</code> to choose between
	adding a dependency on Heimdal or MIT-krb5 for packages that
	require a Kerberos 5 implementation.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="filename">motif.buildlink3.mk</code> checks for a
	system-provided Motif installation or adds a dependency on
	<a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/x11/lesstif/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">x11/lesstif</code></a> or <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/x11/openmotif/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">x11/openmotif</code></a>.  The user can set
	<code class="varname">MOTIF_TYPE</code> to <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">dt</span>&#8221;</span>,
	<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">lesstif</span>&#8221;</span>, or <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">openmotif</span>&#8221;</span> to choose
	which Motif version will be used.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="filename">oss.buildlink3.mk</code> defines several
	variables that may be used by packages that use the
	Open Sound System (OSS) API.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="filename">pgsql.buildlink3.mk</code> will accept
	either Postgres 8.0, 8.1, or 8.2, whichever is found installed. See
	the file for more information.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="filename">pthread.buildlink3.mk</code> uses the value of
	<code class="varname">PTHREAD_OPTS</code> and checks for native pthreads or adds
	a dependency on <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/devel/pth/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">devel/pth</code></a> as needed.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="filename">xaw.buildlink3.mk</code> uses the value of
	<code class="varname">XAW_TYPE</code> to choose a particular Athena widgets
	library.</p></li>
</ul></div>
<p>The comments in those <code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code>
    files provide a more complete
    description of how to use them properly.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="14.2.†◊riting buildlink3.mk files">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="creating-buildlink3.mk"></a>14.2.†◊riting <code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code> files</h2></div></div></div>
<a name="buildlink3.mk"></a><p>A package's <code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code> file is
    included by Makefiles to indicate the need to compile and link
    against header files and libraries provided by the package.  A
    <code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code> file should always provide
    enough information to add the correct type of dependency
    relationship and include any other
    <code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code> files that it needs to find
    headers and libraries that it needs in turn.</p>
<p>To generate an initial <code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code>
    file for further editing, Rene Hexel's <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/createbuildlink/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/createbuildlink</code></a>
    package is highly recommended.  For most packages, the following
    command will generate a good starting point for
    <code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code> files:</p>
<pre class="screen">
<code class="prompt">%</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>cd pkgsrc/<em class="replaceable"><code>category</code></em>/<em class="replaceable"><code>pkgdir</code></em>
<code class="prompt">%</code> createbuildlink &gt;buildlink3.mk</code></strong>
    </pre>
<div class="sect2" title="14.2.1.†Ńnatomy of a buildlink3.mk file">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="anatomy-of-bl3"></a>14.2.1.†Ńnatomy of a buildlink3.mk file</h3></div></div></div>
<p>The following real-life example
      <code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code> is taken
      from <code class="filename">pkgsrc/graphics/tiff</code>:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
# $NetBSD: buildlink3.mk,v 1.16 2009/03/20 19:24:45 joerg Exp $

BUILDLINK_TREE+=	tiff

.if !defined(TIFF_BUILDLINK3_MK)
TIFF_BUILDLINK3_MK:=

BUILDLINK_API_DEPENDS.tiff+=	tiff&gt;=3.6.1
BUILDLINK_ABI_DEPENDS.tiff+=	tiff&gt;=3.7.2nb1
BUILDLINK_PKGSRCDIR.tiff?=	../../graphics/tiff

.include "../../devel/zlib/buildlink3.mk"
.include "../../graphics/jpeg/buildlink3.mk"
.endif # TIFF_BUILDLINK3_MK

BUILDLINK_TREE+=	-tiff
</pre>
<p>The header and footer manipulate
      <code class="varname">BUILDLINK_TREE</code>, which is common across all
      <code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code> files and is used to track
      the dependency tree.</p>
<p>The main section is protected from multiple inclusion
      and controls how the dependency on <em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em> is
      added.  Several important variables are set in the section:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">BUILDLINK_API_DEPENDS.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>
	  is the actual dependency recorded in the installed
	  package; this should always be set using
	  <span class="command"><strong>+=</strong></span> to ensure that
	  we're appending to any pre-existing list of values.  This
	  variable should be set to the first version of the
	  package that had an backwards-incompatible API change.
	  </p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">BUILDLINK_PKGSRCDIR.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>
	  is the location of the <em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em>
	  pkgsrc directory.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">BUILDLINK_DEPMETHOD.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>
	  (not shown above) controls whether we use
	  <code class="varname">BUILD_DEPENDS</code> or
	  <code class="varname">DEPENDS</code> to add the dependency on
	  <em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em>.  The build dependency is
	  selected by setting
	  <code class="varname">BUILDLINK_DEPMETHOD.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>
	  to <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">build</span>&#8221;</span>.  By default, the full dependency is
	  used.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">BUILDLINK_INCDIRS.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>
	    and
	    <code class="varname">BUILDLINK_LIBDIRS.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>
	    (not shown above) are lists of subdirectories of
	    <code class="filename">${BUILDLINK_PREFIX.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em>}</code>
	    to add to the header and library search paths.  These
	    default to <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">include</span>&#8221;</span> and <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">lib</span>&#8221;</span>
	  respectively.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">BUILDLINK_CPPFLAGS.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>
	    (not shown above) is the list of preprocessor flags to add
	    to <code class="varname">CPPFLAGS</code>, which are passed on to the
	    configure and build phases.  The <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">-I</span>&#8221;</span> option
	    should be avoided and instead be handled using
	    <code class="varname">BUILDLINK_INCDIRS.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code> as
	  above.</p></li>
</ul></div>
<p>The following variables are all optionally defined within
      this second section (protected against multiple inclusion) and
      control which package files are symlinked into
      <code class="filename">${BUILDLINK_DIR}</code> and how their names are
      transformed during the symlinking:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">BUILDLINK_FILES.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>
	    (not shown above) is a shell glob pattern relative to
	    <code class="filename">${BUILDLINK_PREFIX.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em>}</code>
	    to be symlinked into
	    <code class="filename">${BUILDLINK_DIR}</code>,
	  e.g. <code class="filename">include/*.h</code>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">BUILDLINK_FILES_CMD.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>
	    (not shown above) is a shell pipeline that
	    outputs to stdout a list of files relative to
	    <code class="filename">${BUILDLINK_PREFIX.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em>}</code>.
	    The resulting files are to be symlinked
	    into <code class="filename">${BUILDLINK_DIR}</code>.  By default,
	    this takes the <code class="filename">+CONTENTS</code> of a
	    <em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em> and filters it through
	    <code class="varname">${BUILDLINK_CONTENTS_FILTER.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em>}</code>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">BUILDLINK_CONTENTS_FILTER.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>
	    (not shown above) is a filter command that filters
	    <code class="filename">+CONTENTS</code> input into a list of files
	    relative to
	    <code class="filename">${BUILDLINK_PREFIX.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em>}</code>
	    on stdout.  By default for overwrite packages,
	    <code class="varname">BUILDLINK_CONTENTS_FILTER.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>
	    outputs the contents of the <code class="filename">include</code>
	    and <code class="filename">lib</code> directories in the package
	    <code class="filename">+CONTENTS</code>, and for pkgviews packages,
	    it outputs any libtool archives in
	    <code class="filename">lib</code> directories.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">BUILDLINK_FNAME_TRANSFORM.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>
	    (not shown above) is a list of sed arguments used to
	    transform the name of the source filename into a
	    destination filename, e.g. <span class="command"><strong>-e
	    "s|/curses.h|/ncurses.h|g"</strong></span>.</p></li>
</ul></div>
<p>This section can additionally include any
      <code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code> needed for
      <em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em>'s library dependencies.
      Including these <code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code> files
      means that the headers and libraries for these
      dependencies are also symlinked into
      <code class="filename">${BUILDLINK_DIR}</code>
      whenever the <em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em>
      <code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code>
      file is included. Dependencies are only added for directly
      include <code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code> files.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="14.2.2.†’pdating BUILDLINK_API_DEPENDS.pkg and BUILDLINK_ABI_DEPENDS.pkg in buildlink3.mk files">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="updating-buildlink-depends"></a>14.2.2.†’pdating
      <code class="varname">BUILDLINK_API_DEPENDS.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>
      and
      <code class="varname">BUILDLINK_ABI_DEPENDS.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>
      in <code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code> files</h3></div></div></div>
<p>These two variables differ in that one describes source
      compatibility (API) and the other binary compatibility (ABI).
      The difference is that a change in the API breaks compilation of
      programs while changes in the ABI stop compiled programs from
      running.</p>
<p>Changes to the
      <code class="varname">BUILDLINK_API_DEPENDS.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>
      variable in a <code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code> file happen
      very rarely. One possible reason is that all packages depending
      on this already need a newer version. In case it is bumped see
      the description below.</p>
<p>The most common example of an ABI change is that the major
      version of a shared library is increased. In this case,
      <code class="varname">BUILDLINK_ABI_DEPENDS.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>
      should be adjusted to require at least the new package version.
      Then the packages that depend on this package need their
      <code class="varname">PKGREVISION</code>s increased and, if they have
      <code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code> files, their
      <code class="varname">BUILDLINK_ABI_DEPENDS.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>
      adjusted, too. This is needed so pkgsrc will require the correct
      package dependency and not settle for an older one when building
      the source.</p>
<p>See <a class="xref" href="#dependencies" title="19.1.6.†»andling dependencies">Section9.1.6, &#8220;Handling dependencies&#8221;</a> for
      more information about dependencies on other packages,
      including the <code class="varname">BUILDLINK_ABI_DEPENDS</code> and
      <code class="varname">ABI_DEPENDS</code> definitions.</p>
<p>Please take careful consideration before adjusting
      <code class="varname">BUILDLINK_API_DEPENDS.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>
      or
      <code class="varname">BUILDLINK_ABI_DEPENDS.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>
      as we don't want to cause unneeded package deletions and
      rebuilds.  In many cases, new versions of packages work just
      fine with older dependencies.</p>
<p>Also it is not needed to set
      <code class="varname">BUILDLINK_ABI_DEPENDS.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>
      when it is identical to
      <code class="varname">BUILDLINK_API_DEPENDS.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>.	</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="14.3.†◊riting builtin.mk files">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="writing-builtin.mk"></a>14.3.†◊riting <code class="filename">builtin.mk</code> files</h2></div></div></div>
<p>Some packages in pkgsrc install headers and libraries that
      coincide with headers and libraries present in the base system.
      Aside from a <code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code> file, these
      packages should also include a <code class="filename">builtin.mk</code>
      file that includes the necessary checks to decide whether using
      the built-in software or the pkgsrc software is
    appropriate.</p>
<p>The only requirements of a builtin.mk file for
    <em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em> are:</p>
<div class="orderedlist"><ol class="orderedlist" type="1">
<li class="listitem"><p>It should set
	<code class="varname">USE_BUILTIN.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>
	to either <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">yes</span>&#8221;</span> or <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">no</span>&#8221;</span>
	after it is included.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>It should <span class="emphasis"><em>not</em></span> override any
	<code class="varname">USE_BUILTIN.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>
	which is already set before the
	<code class="filename">builtin.mk</code> file is included.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>It should be written to allow multiple inclusion.  This
	is <span class="emphasis"><em>very</em></span> important and takes careful
	attention to <code class="filename">Makefile</code> coding.</p></li>
</ol></div>
<div class="sect2" title="14.3.1.†Ńnatomy of a builtin.mk file">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="anatomy-of-builtin.mk"></a>14.3.1.†Ńnatomy of a <code class="filename">builtin.mk</code> file</h3></div></div></div>
<p>The following is the recommended template for builtin.mk
      files:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
.if !defined(IS_BUILTIN.foo)
#
# IS_BUILTIN.foo is set to "yes" or "no" depending on whether "foo"
# genuinely exists in the system or not.
#
IS_BUILTIN.foo?=        no

# BUILTIN_PKG.foo should be set here if "foo" is built-in and its package
# version can be determined.
#
.  if !empty(IS_BUILTIN.foo:M[yY][eE][sS])
BUILTIN_PKG.foo?=       foo-1.0
.  endif
.endif  # IS_BUILTIN.foo

.if !defined(USE_BUILTIN.foo)
USE_BUILTIN.foo?=       ${IS_BUILTIN.foo}
.  if defined(BUILTIN_PKG.foo)
.    for _depend_ in ${BUILDLINK_API_DEPENDS.foo}
.      if !empty(USE_BUILTIN.foo:M[yY][eE][sS])
USE_BUILTIN.foo!=                                                       \
        ${PKG_ADMIN} pmatch '${_depend_}' ${BUILTIN_PKG.foo}            \
        &amp;&amp; ${ECHO} "yes" || ${ECHO} "no"
.      endif
.    endfor
.  endif
.endif  # USE_BUILTIN.foo

CHECK_BUILTIN.foo?=     no
.if !empty(CHECK_BUILTIN.foo:M[nN][oO])
#
# Here we place code that depends on whether USE_BUILTIN.foo is set to
# "yes" or "no".
#
.endif  # CHECK_BUILTIN.foo
</pre>
<p>The first section sets
      <code class="varname">IS_BUILTIN.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>
      depending on if <em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em> really exists
      in the base system.  This should not be a base system software
      with similar functionality to <em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em>;
      it should only be <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">yes</span>&#8221;</span> if the actual package is
      included as part of the base system.  This variable is only
      used internally within the <code class="filename">builtin.mk</code>
      file.</p>
<p>The second section sets
      <code class="varname">BUILTIN_PKG.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>
      to the version of <em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em> in the base
      system if it exists (if
      <code class="varname">IS_BUILTIN.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>
      is <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">yes</span>&#8221;</span>).  This variable is only used internally
      within the <code class="filename">builtin.mk</code> file.</p>
<p>The third section sets
      <code class="varname">USE_BUILTIN.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>
      and is <span class="emphasis"><em>required</em></span> in all
      <code class="filename">builtin.mk</code> files.  The code in this
      section must make the determination whether the built-in
      software is adequate to satisfy the dependencies listed in
      <code class="varname">BUILDLINK_API_DEPENDS.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>.
      This is typically done by comparing
      <code class="varname">BUILTIN_PKG.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>
      against each of the dependencies in
      <code class="varname">BUILDLINK_API_DEPENDS.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>.
      <code class="varname">USE_BUILTIN.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>
      <span class="emphasis"><em>must</em></span> be set to the correct value by the
      end of the <code class="filename">builtin.mk</code> file.  Note that
      <code class="varname">USE_BUILTIN.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>
      may be <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">yes</span>&#8221;</span> even if
      <code class="varname">IS_BUILTIN.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>
      is <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">no</span>&#8221;</span> because we may make the determination
      that the built-in version of the software is similar enough to
      be used as a replacement.</p>
<p>The last section is guarded by
      <code class="varname">CHECK_BUILTIN.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>,
      and includes code that uses the value of
      <code class="varname">USE_BUILTIN.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>
      set in the previous section.  This typically includes, e.g.,
      adding additional dependency restrictions and listing additional
      files to symlink into <code class="filename">${BUILDLINK_DIR}</code> (via
      <code class="varname">BUILDLINK_FILES.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkg</code></em></code>).</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="14.3.2.†«lobal preferences for native or pkgsrc software">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="native-or-pkgsrc-preference"></a>14.3.2.†«lobal preferences for native or pkgsrc software</h3></div></div></div>
<p>When building packages, it's possible to choose whether to set
	a global preference for using either the built-in (native)
	version or the pkgsrc version of software to satisfy a
	dependency.  This is controlled by setting
	<code class="varname">PREFER_PKGSRC</code> and
	<code class="varname">PREFER_NATIVE</code>.  These variables take values
	of either <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">yes</span>&#8221;</span>, <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">no</span>&#8221;</span>, or a list of
	packages.  <code class="varname">PREFER_PKGSRC</code> tells pkgsrc to
	use the pkgsrc versions of software, while
	<code class="varname">PREFER_NATIVE</code> tells pkgsrc to use the
	built-in versions.  Preferences are determined by the most
	specific instance of the package in either
	<code class="varname">PREFER_PKGSRC</code> or
	<code class="varname">PREFER_NATIVE</code>.  If a package is specified
	in neither or in both variables, then
	<code class="varname">PREFER_PKGSRC</code> has precedence over
	<code class="varname">PREFER_NATIVE</code>.  For example, to require
	using pkgsrc versions of software for all but the most basic
      bits on a NetBSD system, you can set:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
PREFER_PKGSRC=  yes
PREFER_NATIVE=  getopt skey tcp_wrappers
</pre>
<p>A package <span class="emphasis"><em>must</em></span> have a
      <code class="filename">builtin.mk</code>
      file to be listed in <code class="varname">PREFER_NATIVE</code>,
      otherwise it is simply ignored in that list.</p>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="chapter" title="Chapter5.†‘he pkginstall framework">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title">
<a name="pkginstall"></a>Chapter5.†‘he pkginstall framework</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="toc">
<p><b>Table of Contents</b></p>
<dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#files-and-dirs-outside-prefix">15.1. Files and directories outside the installation prefix</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#dirs-outside-prefix">15.1.1. Directory manipulation</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#files-outside-prefix">15.1.2. File manipulation</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#conf-files">15.2. Configuration files</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#conf-files-sysconfdir">15.2.1. How <code class="varname">PKG_SYSCONFDIR</code> is set</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#conf-files-configure">15.2.2. Telling the software where configuration files are</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#conf-files-patching">15.2.3. Patching installations</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#conf-files-disable">15.2.4. Disabling handling of configuration files</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#rcd-scripts">15.3. System startup scripts</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#rcd-scripts-disable">15.3.1. Disabling handling of system startup scripts</a></span></dt></dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#users-and-groups">15.4. System users and groups</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#shells">15.5. System shells</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#shells-disable">15.5.1. Disabling shell registration</a></span></dt></dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#fonts">15.6. Fonts</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl><dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#fonts-disable">15.6.1. Disabling automatic update of the fonts databases</a></span></dt></dl></dd>
</dl>
</div>
<p>This chapter describes the framework known as
<code class="literal">pkginstall</code>, whose key features are:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p>Generic installation and manipulation of directories and files
    outside the pkgsrc-handled tree, <code class="varname">LOCALBASE</code>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Automatic handling of configuration files during installation,
    provided that packages are correctly designed.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Generation and installation of system startup scripts.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Registration of system users and groups.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Registration of system shells.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Automatic updating of fonts databases.</p></li>
</ul></div>
<p>The following sections inspect each of the above points in detail.</p>
<p>You may be thinking that many of the things described here could be
easily done with simple code in the package's post-installation target
(<code class="literal">post-install</code>).  <span class="emphasis"><em>This is incorrect</em></span>,
as the code in them is only executed when building from source.  Machines
using binary packages could not benefit from it at all (as the code itself
could be unavailable).  Therefore, the only way to achieve any of the items
described above is by means of the installation scripts, which are
automatically generated by pkginstall.</p>
<div class="sect1" title="15.1.†∆iles and directories outside the installation prefix">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="files-and-dirs-outside-prefix"></a>15.1.†∆iles and directories outside the installation prefix</h2></div></div></div>
<p>As you already know, the <code class="filename">PLIST</code> file holds a list
of files and directories that belong to a package.  The names used in it
are relative to the installation prefix (<code class="filename">${PREFIX}</code>),
which means that it cannot register files outside this directory (absolute
path names are not allowed).  Despite this restriction, some packages need
to install files outside this location; e.g., under
<code class="filename">${VARBASE}</code> or
<code class="filename">${PKG_SYSCONFDIR}</code>.  The only way to achieve this
is to create such files during installation time by using
installation scripts.</p>
<p>The generic installation scripts are shell scripts that can
contain arbitrary code.  The list of scripts to execute is taken from
the <code class="varname">INSTALL_FILE</code> variable, which defaults to
<code class="filename">INSTALL</code>.  A similar variable exists for package
removal (<code class="varname">DEINSTALL_FILE</code>, whose default is
<code class="filename">DEINSTALL</code>).  These scripts can run arbitrary
commands, so they have the potential to create and manage files
anywhere in the file system.</p>
<p>Using these general installation files is not recommended, but
may be needed in some special cases.  One reason for avoiding them is
that the user has to trust the packager that there is no unwanted or
simply erroneous code included in the installation script. Also,
previously there were many similar scripts for the same functionality,
and fixing a common error involved finding and changing all of
them.</p>
<p>The pkginstall framework offers another, standardized way.  It
provides generic scripts to abstract the manipulation of such files
and directories based on variables set in the package's
<code class="filename">Makefile</code>.  The rest of this section describes
these variables.</p>
<div class="sect2" title="15.1.1.†ńirectory manipulation">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="dirs-outside-prefix"></a>15.1.1.†ńirectory manipulation</h3></div></div></div>
<p>The following variables can be set to request the creation of
directories anywhere in the file system:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">MAKE_DIRS</code> and <code class="varname">OWN_DIRS</code>
    contain a list of directories that should be created and should attempt
    to be destroyed by the installation scripts.  The difference between
    the two is that the latter prompts the administrator to remove any
    directories that may be left after deinstallation (because they were
    not empty), while the former does not.</p></li>
<li class="listitem">
<p><code class="varname">MAKE_DIRS_PERMS</code> and
    <code class="varname">OWN_DIRS_PERMS</code> contain a list of tuples describing
    which directories should be created and should attempt to be destroyed
    by the installation scripts.  Each tuple holds the following values,
    separated by spaces: the directory name, its owner, its group and its
    numerical mode.  For example:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
MAKE_DIRS_PERMS+=         ${VARBASE}/foo/private ${ROOT_USER} ${ROOT_GROUP} 0700
</pre>
<p>The difference between the two is exactly the same as their
    non-<code class="varname">PERMS</code> counterparts.</p>
</li>
</ul></div>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="15.1.2.†∆ile manipulation">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="files-outside-prefix"></a>15.1.2.†∆ile manipulation</h3></div></div></div>
<p>Creating non-empty files outside the installation prefix is tricky
because the <code class="filename">PLIST</code> forces all files to be inside it.
To overcome this problem, the only solution is to extract the file in the
known place (i.e., inside the installation prefix) and copy it to the
appropriate location during installation (done by the installation scripts
generated by pkginstall).  We will call the former the <span class="emphasis"><em>master
file</em></span> in the following paragraphs, which describe the variables
that can be used to automatically and consistently handle files outside the
installation prefix:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem">
<p><code class="varname">CONF_FILES</code> and
    <code class="varname">SUPPORT_FILES</code> are pairs of master and target files.
    During installation time, the master file is copied to the target one
    if and only if the latter does not exist.  Upon deinstallation, the
    target file is removed provided that it was not modified by the
    installation.</p>
<p>The difference between the two is that the latter prompts the
    administrator to remove any files that may be left after
    deinstallation (because they were not empty), while the former does
    not.</p>
</li>
<li class="listitem">
<p><code class="varname">CONF_FILES_PERMS</code> and
    <code class="varname">SUPPORT_FILES_PERMS</code> contain tuples describing master
    files as well as their target locations.  For each of them, it also
    specifies their owner, their group and their numeric permissions, in
    this order.  For example:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
SUPPORT_FILES_PERMS+= ${PREFIX}/share/somefile ${VARBASE}/somefile ${ROOT_USER} ${ROOT_GROUP} 0700
</pre>
<p>The difference between the two is exactly the same as their
    non-<code class="varname">PERMS</code> counterparts.</p>
</li>
</ul></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="15.2.†√onfiguration files">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="conf-files"></a>15.2.†√onfiguration files</h2></div></div></div>
<p>Configuration files are special in the sense that they are installed
in their own specific directory, <code class="varname">PKG_SYSCONFDIR</code>, and
need special treatment during installation (most of which is automated by
pkginstall).  The main concept you must bear in mind is that files marked
as configuration files are automatically copied to the right place (somewhere
inside <code class="varname">PKG_SYSCONFDIR</code>) during installation <span class="emphasis"><em>if
and only if</em></span> they didn't exist before.  Similarly, they will not
be removed if they have local modifications.  This ensures that
administrators never lose any custom changes they may have made.</p>
<div class="sect2" title="15.2.1.†»ow PKG_SYSCONFDIR is set">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="conf-files-sysconfdir"></a>15.2.1.†»ow <code class="varname">PKG_SYSCONFDIR</code> is set</h3></div></div></div>
<p>As said before, the <code class="varname">PKG_SYSCONFDIR</code> variable
specifies where configuration files shall be installed.  Its contents are
set based upon the following variables:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">PKG_SYSCONFBASE</code>: The configuration's root
    directory.  Defaults to <code class="filename">${PREFIX}/etc</code> although it may
    be overridden by the user to point to his preferred location (e.g.,
    <code class="filename">/etc</code>, <code class="filename">/etc/pkg</code>, etc.).
    Packages must not use it directly.</p></li>
<li class="listitem">
<p><code class="varname">PKG_SYSCONFSUBDIR</code>: A subdirectory of
    <code class="varname">PKG_SYSCONFBASE</code> under which the configuration files
    for the package being built shall be installed.  The definition of this
    variable only makes sense in the package's
    <code class="filename">Makefile</code> (i.e., it is not user-customizable).</p>
<p>As an example, consider the Apache package,
    <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/www/apache2/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">www/apache2</code></a>, which places its
    configuration files under the
    <code class="filename">httpd/</code> subdirectory of
    <code class="varname">PKG_SYSCONFBASE</code>.  This should be set in the package
    Makefile.</p>
</li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">PKG_SYSCONFVAR</code>: Specifies the name of the
    variable that holds this package's configuration directory (if
    different from <code class="varname">PKG_SYSCONFBASE</code>).  It defaults to
    <code class="varname">PKGBASE</code>'s value, and is always prefixed with
    <code class="literal">PKG_SYSCONFDIR</code>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">PKG_SYSCONFDIR.${PKG_SYSCONFVAR}</code>: Holds the
    directory where the configuration files for the package identified by
    <code class="varname">PKG_SYSCONFVAR</code>'s shall be placed.</p></li>
</ul></div>
<p>Based on the above variables, pkginstall determines the value of
<code class="varname">PKG_SYSCONFDIR</code>, which is the <span class="emphasis"><em>only</em></span>
variable that can be used within a package to refer to its configuration
directory.  The algorithm used to set its value is basically the
following:</p>
<div class="orderedlist"><ol class="orderedlist" type="1">
<li class="listitem"><p>If <code class="varname">PKG_SYSCONFDIR.${PKG_SYSCONFVAR}</code> is set,
    its value is used.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>If the previous variable is not defined but
    <code class="varname">PKG_SYSCONFSUBDIR</code> is set in the package's
    <code class="filename">Makefile</code>, the resulting value is
    <code class="filename">${PKG_SYSCONFBASE}/${PKG_SYSCONFSUBDIR}</code>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Otherwise, it is set to
    <code class="filename">${PKG_SYSCONFBASE}</code>.</p></li>
</ol></div>
<p>It is worth mentioning that <code class="filename">${PKG_SYSCONFDIR}</code> is
automatically added to <code class="filename">OWN_DIRS</code>.  See <a class="xref" href="#dirs-outside-prefix" title="15.1.1.†ńirectory manipulation">Section5.1.1, &#8220;Directory manipulation&#8221;</a> what this means.  This does not apply to
subdirectories of <code class="filename">${PKG_SYSCONFDIR}</code>, they still have to
be created with OWN_DIRS or MAKE_DIRS.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="15.2.2.†‘elling the software where configuration files are">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="conf-files-configure"></a>15.2.2.†‘elling the software where configuration files are</h3></div></div></div>
<p>Given that pkgsrc (and users!) expect configuration files to be in a
known place, you need to teach each package where it shall install its
files.  In some cases you will have to patch the package Makefiles to
achieve it.  If you are lucky, though, it may be as easy as passing an
extra flag to the configuration script; this is the case of GNU Autoconf-
generated files:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
CONFIGURE_ARGS+= --sysconfdir=${PKG_SYSCONFDIR}
</pre>
<p>Note that this specifies where the package has to <span class="emphasis"><em>look
for</em></span> its configuration files, not where they will be originally
installed (although the difference is never explicit,
unfortunately).</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="15.2.3.†–atching installations">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="conf-files-patching"></a>15.2.3.†–atching installations</h3></div></div></div>
<p>As said before, pkginstall automatically handles configuration files.
This means that <span class="strong"><strong>the packages themselves must not
touch the contents of <code class="filename">${PKG_SYSCONFDIR}</code>
directly</strong></span>.  Bad news is that many software installation scripts
will, out of the box, mess with the contents of that directory.  So what is
the correct procedure to fix this issue?</p>
<p>You must teach the package (usually by manually patching it) to
install any configuration files under the examples hierarchy,
<code class="filename">share/examples/${PKGBASE}/</code>.  This way, the
<code class="filename">PLIST</code> registers them and the administrator always
has the original copies available.</p>
<p>Once the required configuration files are in place (i.e., under the
examples hierarchy), the pkginstall framework can use them as master copies
during the package installation to update what is in
<code class="filename">${PKG_SYSCONFDIR}</code>.  To achieve this, the variables
<code class="varname">CONF_FILES</code> and <code class="varname">CONF_FILES_PERMS</code> are
used.  Check out <a class="xref" href="#files-outside-prefix" title="15.1.2.†∆ile manipulation">Section5.1.2, &#8220;File manipulation&#8221;</a> for information
about their syntax and their purpose.  Here is an example, taken from the
<a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/mail/mutt/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">mail/mutt</code></a> package:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
EGDIR=        ${PREFIX}/share/doc/mutt/samples
CONF_FILES=   ${EGDIR}/Muttrc ${PKG_SYSCONFDIR}/Muttrc
</pre>
<p>Note that the <code class="varname">EGDIR</code> variable is specific to that
package and has no meaning outside it.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="15.2.4.†ńisabling handling of configuration files">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="conf-files-disable"></a>15.2.4.†ńisabling handling of configuration files</h3></div></div></div>
<p>The automatic copying of config files can be toggled by setting the
environment variable <code class="varname">PKG_CONFIG</code> prior to package
installation.</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="15.3.†”ystem startup scripts">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="rcd-scripts"></a>15.3.†”ystem startup scripts</h2></div></div></div>
<p>System startup scripts are special files because they must be
installed in a place known by the underlying OS, usually outside the
installation prefix.  Therefore, the same rules described in <a class="xref" href="#files-and-dirs-outside-prefix" title="15.1.†∆iles and directories outside the installation prefix">Section5.1, &#8220;Files and directories outside the installation prefix&#8221;</a> apply, and the same solutions
can be used.  However, pkginstall provides a special mechanism to handle
these files.</p>
<p>In order to provide system startup scripts, the package has
to:</p>
<div class="orderedlist"><ol class="orderedlist" type="1">
<li class="listitem"><p>Store the script inside <code class="filename">${FILESDIR}</code>, with
    the <code class="literal">.sh</code> suffix appended.  Considering the
    <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/print/cups/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">print/cups</code></a> package as an example, it has a
    <code class="filename">cupsd.sh</code> in its files directory.</p></li>
<li class="listitem">
<p>Tell pkginstall to handle it, appending the name of the script,
    without its extension, to the <code class="varname">RCD_SCRIPTS</code> variable.
    Continuing the previous example:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
RCD_SCRIPTS+=   cupsd
</pre>
</li>
</ol></div>
<p>Once this is done, pkginstall will do the following steps for each
script in an automated fashion:</p>
<div class="orderedlist"><ol class="orderedlist" type="1">
<li class="listitem"><p>Process the file found in the files directory applying all the
    substitutions described in the <code class="filename">FILES_SUBST</code>
    variable.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Copy the script from the files directory to the examples
    hierarchy, <code class="filename">${PREFIX}/share/examples/rc.d/</code>.  Note
    that this master file must be explicitly registered in the
    <code class="filename">PLIST</code>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Add code to the installation scripts to copy the startup script
    from the examples hierarchy into the system-wide startup scripts
    directory.</p></li>
</ol></div>
<div class="sect2" title="15.3.1.†ńisabling handling of system startup scripts">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="rcd-scripts-disable"></a>15.3.1.†ńisabling handling of system startup scripts</h3></div></div></div>
<p>The automatic copying of config files can be toggled by setting the
environment variable <code class="varname">PKG_RCD_SCRIPTS</code> prior to package
installation.  Note that the scripts will be always copied inside the
examples hierarchy, <code class="filename">${PREFIX}/share/examples/rc.d/</code>, no
matter what the value of this variable is.</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="15.4.†”ystem users and groups">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="users-and-groups"></a>15.4.†”ystem users and groups</h2></div></div></div>
<p>If a package needs to create special users and/or groups during
installation, it can do so by using the pkginstall framework.</p>
<p>Users can be created by adding entries to the
<code class="varname">PKG_USERS</code> variable.  Each entry has the following
syntax:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
user:group
</pre>
<p>Further specification of user details may be done by setting
per-user variables.
<code class="varname">PKG_UID.<em class="replaceable"><code>user</code></em></code> is the
numeric UID for the user.
<code class="varname">PKG_GECOS.<em class="replaceable"><code>user</code></em></code> is the
user's description or comment.
<code class="varname">PKG_HOME.<em class="replaceable"><code>user</code></em></code> is the
user's home directory, and defaults to
<code class="filename">/nonexistent</code> if not specified.
<code class="varname">PKG_SHELL.<em class="replaceable"><code>user</code></em></code> is the
user's shell, and defaults to <code class="filename">/sbin/nologin</code> if
not specified.</p>
<p>Similarly, groups can be created by adding entries to the
<code class="varname">PKG_GROUPS</code> variable, whose syntax is:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
group
</pre>
<p>The numeric GID of the group may be set by defining
<code class="varname">PKG_GID.<em class="replaceable"><code>group</code></em></code>.</p>
<p>If a package needs to create the users and groups at an earlier
stage, then it can set <code class="varname">USERGROUP_PHASE</code> to
either <code class="literal">configure</code> or <code class="literal">build</code> to
indicate the phase before which the users and groups are created.  In
this case, the numeric UIDs and GIDs of the created users and groups
are automatically hardcoded into the final installation scripts.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="15.5.†”ystem shells">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="shells"></a>15.5.†”ystem shells</h2></div></div></div>
<p>Packages that install system shells should register them in the shell
database, <code class="filename">/etc/shells</code>, to make things easier to the
administrator.  This must be done from the installation scripts to keep
binary packages working on any system.  pkginstall provides an easy way to
accomplish this task.</p>
<p>When a package provides a shell interpreter, it has to set the
<code class="varname">PKG_SHELL</code> variable to its absolute file name.  This will
add some hooks to the installation scripts to handle it.  Consider the
following example, taken from <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/shells/zsh/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">shells/zsh</code></a>:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
PKG_SHELL=      ${PREFIX}/bin/zsh
</pre>
<div class="sect2" title="15.5.1.†ńisabling shell registration">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="shells-disable"></a>15.5.1.†ńisabling shell registration</h3></div></div></div>
<p>The automatic registration of shell interpreters can be disabled by
the administrator by setting the <code class="filename">PKG_REGISTER_SHELLS</code>
environment variable to <code class="literal">NO</code>.</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="15.6.†∆onts">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="fonts"></a>15.6.†∆onts</h2></div></div></div>
<p>Packages that install X11 fonts should update the database files
that index the fonts within each fonts directory.  This can easily be
accomplished within the pkginstall framework.</p>
<p>When a package installs X11 fonts, it must list the directories in
which fonts are installed in the
<code class="varname">FONTS_DIRS.<em class="replaceable"><code>type</code></em></code> variables,
where <em class="replaceable"><code>type</code></em> can be one of <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">ttf</span>&#8221;</span>,
<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">type1</span>&#8221;</span> or <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">x11</span>&#8221;</span>.  This will add hooks to the
installation scripts to run the appropriate commands to update the fonts
database files within each of those directories.  For convenience, if the
directory path is relative, it is taken to be relative to the package's
installation prefix.  Consider the following example, taken from <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/fonts/dbz-ttf/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">fonts/dbz-ttf</code></a>:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
FONTS_DIRS.ttf= ${PREFIX}/lib/X11/fonts/TTF
</pre>
<div class="sect2" title="15.6.1.†ńisabling automatic update of the fonts databases">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="fonts-disable"></a>15.6.1.†ńisabling automatic update of the fonts databases</h3></div></div></div>
<p>The automatic update of fonts databases can be disabled by
the administrator by setting the <code class="filename">PKG_UPDATE_FONTS_DB</code>
environment variable to <code class="literal">NO</code>.</p>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="chapter" title="Chapter6.†Ōptions handling">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title">
<a name="options"></a>Chapter6.†Ōptions handling</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="toc">
<p><b>Table of Contents</b></p>
<dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#global-default-options">16.1. Global default options</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#converting-to-options">16.2. Converting packages to use <code class="filename">bsd.options.mk</code></a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#option-names">16.3. Option Names</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#option-build">16.4. Determining the options of dependencies</a></span></dt>
</dl>
</div>
<p>Many packages have the ability to be built to support different
sets of features.  <code class="filename">bsd.options.mk</code> is a framework
in pkgsrc that provides generic handling of those options that
determine different ways in which the packages can be built.  It's
possible for the user to specify exactly which sets of options will be
built into a package or to allow a set of global default options
apply.</p>
<p>There are two broad classes of behaviors that one might want to
control via options.  One is whether some particular feature is
enabled in a program that will be built anyway, often by including or
not including a dependency on some other package.  The other is
whether or not an additional program will be built as part of the
package.  Generally, it is better to make a split package for such
additional programs instead of using options, because it enables
binary packages to be built which can then be added separately.  For
example, the foo package might have minimal dependencies (those
packages without which foo doesn't make sense), and then the foo-gfoo
package might include the GTK frontend program gfoo.  This is better
than including a gtk option to foo that adds gfoo, because either that
option is default, in which case binary users can't get foo without
gfoo, or not default, in which case they can't get gfoo.  With split
packages, they can install foo without having GTK, and later decide to
install gfoo (pulling in GTK at that time).  This is an advantage to
source users too, avoiding the need for rebuilds.</p>
<p>Plugins with widely varying dependencies should usually be split
instead of options.</p>
<p>It is often more work to maintain split packages, especially if
the upstream package does not support this.  The decision of split
vs. option should be made based on the likelihood that users will want
or object to the various pieces, the size of the dependencies that are
included, and the amount of work.</p>
<p>A further consideration is licensing.  Non-free parts, or parts
that depend on non-free dependencies (especially plugins) should
almost always be split if feasible.</p>
<div class="sect1" title="16.1.†«lobal default options">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="global-default-options"></a>16.1.†«lobal default options</h2></div></div></div>
<p>Global default options are listed in
<code class="varname">PKG_DEFAULT_OPTIONS</code>, which is a list of the options
that should be built into every package if that option is supported.
This variable should be set in <a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a>.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="16.2.†√onverting packages to use bsd.options.mk">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="converting-to-options"></a>16.2.†√onverting packages to use <code class="filename">bsd.options.mk</code>
</h2></div></div></div>
<p>The following example shows how
<code class="filename">bsd.options.mk</code> should be used
by the hypothetical ``wibble'' package, either in the package
<code class="filename">Makefile</code>, or in a file,
e.g. <code class="filename">options.mk</code>, that is included by the
main package <code class="filename">Makefile</code>.</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
PKG_OPTIONS_VAR=                PKG_OPTIONS.wibble
PKG_SUPPORTED_OPTIONS=          wibble-foo ldap
PKG_OPTIONS_OPTIONAL_GROUPS=    database
PKG_OPTIONS_GROUP.database=     mysql pgsql
PKG_SUGGESTED_OPTIONS=          wibble-foo
PKG_OPTIONS_LEGACY_VARS+=       WIBBLE_USE_OPENLDAP:ldap
PKG_OPTIONS_LEGACY_OPTS+=       foo:wibble-foo

.include "../../mk/bsd.prefs.mk"

# this package was previously named wibble2
.if defined(PKG_OPTIONS.wibble2)
PKG_LEGACY_OPTIONS+=            ${PKG_OPTIONS.wibble2}
PKG_OPTIONS_DEPRECATED_WARNINGS+= \
        "Deprecated variable PKG_OPTIONS.wibble2 used, use ${PKG_OPTIONS_VAR} instead."
.endif

.include "../../mk/bsd.options.mk"

# Package-specific option-handling

###
### FOO support
###
.if !empty(PKG_OPTIONS:Mwibble-foo)
CONFIGURE_ARGS+=    --enable-foo
.endif

###
### LDAP support
###
.if !empty(PKG_OPTIONS:Mldap)
.  include "../../databases/openldap-client/buildlink3.mk"
CONFIGURE_ARGS+=    --enable-ldap=${BUILDLINK_PREFIX.openldap-client}
.endif

###
### database support
###
.if !empty(PKG_OPTIONS:Mmysql)
.  include "../../mk/mysql.buildlink3.mk"
.endif
.if !empty(PKG_OPTIONS:Mpgsql)
.  include "../../mk/pgsql.buildlink3.mk"
.endif
</pre>
<p>The first section contains the information about which build
options are supported by the package, and any default options settings
if needed.</p>
<div class="orderedlist"><ol class="orderedlist" type="1">
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">PKG_OPTIONS_VAR</code> is the name of the
<a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?make+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">make</span>(1)</span></a> variable that the user can set to override the default
options.  It should be set to
PKG_OPTIONS.<em class="replaceable"><code>pkgbase</code></em>. Do not set it to
PKG_OPTIONS.${PKGBASE}, since <code class="varname">PKGBASE</code> is not defined
at the point where the options are processed.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">PKG_SUPPORTED_OPTIONS</code> is a list of
build options supported by the package.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">PKG_OPTIONS_OPTIONAL_GROUPS</code> is a
list of names of groups of mutually exclusive options.  The options in
each group are listed in
<code class="varname">PKG_OPTIONS_GROUP.<em class="replaceable"><code>groupname</code></em></code>.
The most specific setting of any option from the group takes
precedence over all other options in the group.  Options from the
groups will be automatically added to
<code class="varname">PKG_SUPPORTED_OPTIONS</code>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">PKG_OPTIONS_REQUIRED_GROUPS</code> is like
<code class="varname">PKG_OPTIONS_OPTIONAL_GROUPS</code>, but building the
packages will fail if no option from the group is
selected.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">PKG_OPTIONS_NONEMPTY_SETS</code> is a list
of names of sets of options.  At least one option from each set must
be selected.  The options in each set are listed in
<code class="varname">PKG_OPTIONS_SET.<em class="replaceable"><code>setname</code></em></code>.
Options from the sets will be automatically added to
<code class="varname">PKG_SUPPORTED_OPTIONS</code>.  Building the package will
fail if no option from the set is selected.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">PKG_SUGGESTED_OPTIONS</code> is a list of
build options which are enabled by default.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">PKG_OPTIONS_LEGACY_VARS</code> is a list
of
<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote"><em class="replaceable"><code>USE_VARIABLE</code></em>:<em class="replaceable"><code>option</code></em></span>&#8221;</span>
pairs that map legacy <a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a> variables to
their option counterparts.  Pairs should be added with
<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">+=</span>&#8221;</span> to keep the listing of global legacy variables.  A
warning will be issued if the user uses a legacy
variable.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">PKG_OPTIONS_LEGACY_OPTS</code> is a list
of
<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote"><em class="replaceable"><code>old-option</code></em>:<em class="replaceable"><code>new-option</code></em></span>&#8221;</span>
pairs that map options that have been renamed to their new
counterparts.  Pairs should be added with <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">+=</span>&#8221;</span> to keep
the listing of global legacy options.  A warning will be issued if
the user uses a legacy option.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">PKG_LEGACY_OPTIONS</code> is a list of
options implied by deprecated variables used.  This can be used for
cases that neither <code class="varname">PKG_OPTIONS_LEGACY_VARS</code> nor
<code class="varname">PKG_OPTIONS_LEGACY_OPTS</code> can handle, e. g. when
<code class="varname">PKG_OPTIONS_VAR</code> is renamed.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">PKG_OPTIONS_DEPRECATED_WARNINGS</code> is
a list of warnings about deprecated variables or options used, and
what to use instead.</p></li>
</ol></div>
<p>A package should never modify
<code class="varname">PKG_DEFAULT_OPTIONS</code> or the variable named in
<code class="varname">PKG_OPTIONS_VAR</code>.  These are strictly user-settable.
To suggest a default set of options, use
<code class="varname">PKG_SUGGESTED_OPTIONS</code>.</p>
<p><code class="varname">PKG_OPTIONS_VAR</code> must be defined before
including <code class="filename">bsd.options.mk</code>.  If none of
<code class="varname">PKG_SUPPORTED_OPTIONS</code>,
<code class="varname">PKG_OPTIONS_OPTIONAL_GROUPS</code>, and
<code class="varname">PKG_OPTIONS_REQUIRED_GROUPS</code> are defined (as can
happen with platform-specific options if none of them is supported on
the current platform), <code class="varname">PKG_OPTIONS</code> is set to the
empty list and the package is otherwise treated as not using the
options framework.</p>
<p>After the inclusion of <code class="filename">bsd.options.mk</code>, the
variable <code class="varname">PKG_OPTIONS</code> contains the list of selected
build options, properly filtered to remove unsupported and duplicate
options.</p>
<p>The remaining sections contain the logic that is specific to
each option.  The correct way to check for an option is to check
whether it is listed in <code class="varname">PKG_OPTIONS</code>:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
.if !empty(PKG_OPTIONS:M<em class="replaceable"><code>option</code></em>)
</pre>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="16.3.†Ōption Names">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="option-names"></a>16.3.†Ōption Names</h2></div></div></div>
<p>Options that enable similar features in different packages (like
optional support for a library) should use a common name in all
packages that support it (like the name of the library).  If another
package already has an option with the same meaning, use the same
name.</p>
<p>Options that enable features specific to one package, where it's
unlikely that another (unrelated) package has the same (or a similar)
optional feature, should use a name prefixed with
<code class="varname"><em class="replaceable"><code>pkgname</code></em>-</code>.</p>
<p>If a group of related packages share an optional feature
specific to that group, prefix it with the name of the
<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">main</span>&#8221;</span> package
(e. g. <code class="varname">djbware-errno-hack</code>).</p>
<p>For new options, add a line to
<code class="filename">mk/defaults/options.description</code>.  Lines have two
fields, separated by tab.  The first field is the option name, the
second its description.  The description should be a whole sentence
(starting with an uppercase letter and ending with a period) that
describes what enabling the option does.  E. g. <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">Enable ispell
support.</span>&#8221;</span> The file is sorted by option names.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="16.4.†ńetermining the options of dependencies">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="option-build"></a>16.4.†ńetermining the options of dependencies</h2></div></div></div>
<p>When writing <a class="link" href="#buildlink3.mk"><code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code></a> files, it is often necessary to list
different dependencies based on the options with which the package was
built. For querying these options, the file
<code class="filename">pkgsrc/mk/pkg-build-options.mk</code> should be used. A
typical example looks like this:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
pkgbase := libpurple
.include "../../mk/pkg-build-options.mk"

.if !empty(PKG_BUILD_OPTIONS.libpurple:Mdbus)
...
.endif
</pre>
<p>Including <code class="filename">pkg-build-options.mk</code> here will set
the variable <code class="varname">PKG_BUILD_OPTIONS.libpurple</code> to the build
options of the libpurple package, which can then be queried like
<code class="varname">PKG_OPTIONS</code> in the <code class="filename">options.mk</code>
file. See the file <code class="filename">pkg-build-options.mk</code> for more
details.</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="chapter" title="Chapter7.†‘he build process">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title">
<a name="build"></a>Chapter7.†‘he build process</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="toc">
<p><b>Table of Contents</b></p>
<dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.intro">17.1. Introduction</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.prefix">17.2. Program location</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.builddirs">17.3. Directories used during the build process</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.running">17.4. Running a phase</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.fetch">17.5. The <span class="emphasis"><em>fetch</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#build.fetch.what">17.5.1. What to fetch and where to get it from</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#build.fetch.how">17.5.2. How are the files fetched?</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.checksum">17.6. The <span class="emphasis"><em>checksum</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.extract">17.7. The <span class="emphasis"><em>extract</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.patch">17.8. The <span class="emphasis"><em>patch</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.tools">17.9. The <span class="emphasis"><em>tools</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.wrapper">17.10. The <span class="emphasis"><em>wrapper</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.configure">17.11. The <span class="emphasis"><em>configure</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.build">17.12. The <span class="emphasis"><em>build</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.test">17.13. The <span class="emphasis"><em>test</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.install">17.14. The <span class="emphasis"><em>install</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.package">17.15. The <span class="emphasis"><em>package</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.clean">17.16. Cleaning up</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#build.helpful-targets">17.17. Other helpful targets</a></span></dt>
</dl>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="17.1.†…ntroduction">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="build.intro"></a>17.1.†…ntroduction</h2></div></div></div>
<p>This chapter gives a detailed description on how a package is
    built. Building a package is separated into different
    <span class="emphasis"><em>phases</em></span> (for example <code class="varname">fetch</code>,
    <code class="varname">build</code>, <code class="varname">install</code>), all of which are
    described in the following sections. Each phase is split into
    so-called <span class="emphasis"><em>stages</em></span>, which take the name of the
    containing phase, prefixed by one of <code class="varname">pre-</code>,
    <code class="varname">do-</code> or <code class="varname">post-</code>. (Examples are
    <code class="varname">pre-configure</code>, <code class="varname">post-build</code>.) Most
    of the actual work is done in the <code class="varname">do-*</code> stages.</p>
<p>Never override the regular targets (like
    <code class="varname">fetch</code>), if you have to, override the
    <code class="varname">do-*</code> ones instead.</p>
<p>The basic steps for building a program are always the same.  First
    the program's source (<span class="emphasis"><em>distfile</em></span>) must be brought to
    the local system and then extracted. After any pkgsrc-specific patches
    to compile properly are applied, the software can be configured, then
    built (usually by compiling), and finally the generated binaries, etc.
    can be put into place on the system.</p>
<p>To get more details about what is happening at each step,
    you can set the <code class="varname">PKG_VERBOSE</code> variable, or the
    <code class="varname">PATCH_DEBUG</code> variable if you are just interested
    in more details about the <span class="emphasis"><em>patch</em></span> step.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="17.2.†–rogram location">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="build.prefix"></a>17.2.†–rogram location</h2></div></div></div>
<p>Before outlining the process performed by the NetBSD package system in
    the next section, here's a brief discussion on where programs are
    installed, and which variables influence this.</p>
<p>The automatic variable <code class="varname">PREFIX</code> indicates
    where all files of the final program shall be installed. It is
    usually set to <code class="varname">LOCALBASE</code>
    (<code class="filename">/usr/pkg</code>), or <code class="varname">CROSSBASE</code>
    for pkgs in the <code class="filename">cross</code> category.  The value of
    <code class="varname">PREFIX</code> needs to be put
    into the various places in the program's source where paths to
    these files are encoded.  See <a class="xref" href="#components.patches" title="11.3.†ūatches/*">Section1.3, &#8220;patches/*&#8221;</a> and <a class="xref" href="#fixes.libtool" title="19.3.1.†”hared libraries - libtool">Section9.3.1, &#8220;Shared libraries - libtool&#8221;</a> for more details.</p>
<p>When choosing which of these variables to use,
    follow the following rules:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">PREFIX</code> always points to the location
	where the current pkg will be installed.  When referring to a
	pkg's own installation path, use
	<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">${PREFIX}</span>&#8221;</span>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">LOCALBASE</code> is where all non-X11 pkgs
	are installed.  If you need to construct a -I or -L argument
	to the compiler to find includes and libraries installed by
	another non-X11 pkg, use <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">${LOCALBASE}</span>&#8221;</span>. The name
	<code class="varname">LOCALBASE</code> stems from FreeBSD, which
	installed all packages in <code class="filename">/usr/local</code>. As
	pkgsrc leaves <code class="filename">/usr/local</code> for the system
	administrator, this variable is a misnomer.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">X11BASE</code> is where the actual X11
	distribution (from xsrc, etc.) is installed. When looking for
	<span class="emphasis"><em>standard</em></span> X11 includes (not those
	installed by a package), use <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">${X11BASE}</span>&#8221;</span>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem">
<p>X11-based packages are special in that they may be
	installed in either <code class="varname">X11BASE</code> or
	<code class="varname">LOCALBASE</code>.</p>
<p>Usually, X11 packages should be installed under
	<code class="varname">LOCALBASE</code> whenever possible.  Note that you
	will need to include
	<code class="filename">../../mk/x11.buildlink3.mk</code> in them to
	request the presence of X11 and to get the right compilation
	flags.</p>
<p>Even though, there are some packages that cannot be installed
	under <code class="varname">LOCALBASE</code>: those that come with app-defaults
	files. These packages are special and they must be placed under
	<code class="varname">X11BASE</code>. To accomplish this, set either
	<code class="varname">USE_X11BASE</code> or <code class="varname">USE_IMAKE</code> in
	your package.</p>
<p>Some notes: If you need
	to find includes or libraries installed by a pkg that has
	<code class="varname">USE_IMAKE</code> or <code class="varname">USE_X11BASE</code> in
	its pkg <code class="filename">Makefile</code>, you need to look in
	<span class="emphasis"><em>both</em></span> <code class="filename">${X11BASE}</code> and
	<code class="filename">${LOCALBASE}</code>. To force installation of
	all X11 packages in <code class="varname">LOCALBASE</code>, the
	<a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/xpkgwedge/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/xpkgwedge</code></a> package
	is enabled by default.</p>
</li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">X11PREFIX</code> should be used to refer to
	the installed location of an X11
	package. <code class="varname">X11PREFIX</code> will be set to
	<code class="varname">X11BASE</code> if xpkgwedge is not installed, and
	to <code class="varname">LOCALBASE</code> if xpkgwedge is
	installed.</p></li>
<li class="listitem">
<p>If xpkgwedge is installed, it is possible to have some
	packages installed in <code class="varname">X11BASE</code> and some in
	<code class="varname">LOCALBASE</code>.  To determine the prefix of an
	installed package, the <code class="varname">EVAL_PREFIX</code>
	definition can be used. It takes pairs in the format
	<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">DIRNAME=&lt;package&gt;</span>&#8221;</span>, and the <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?make+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">make</span>(1)</span></a>
	variable <code class="varname">DIRNAME</code> will be set to the prefix
	of the installed package &lt;package&gt;, or
	<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">${X11PREFIX}</span>&#8221;</span> if the package is not
	installed.</p>
<p>This is best illustrated by example.</p>
<p>The following lines are taken from
	<code class="filename">pkgsrc/wm/scwm/Makefile</code>:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
EVAL_PREFIX+=           GTKDIR=gtk+
CONFIGURE_ARGS+=        --with-guile-prefix=${LOCALBASE:Q}
CONFIGURE_ARGS+=        --with-gtk-prefix=${GTKDIR:Q}
CONFIGURE_ARGS+=        --enable-multibyte
</pre>
<p>Specific defaults can be defined for the packages
	evaluated using <code class="varname">EVAL_PREFIX</code>, by using a
	definition of the form:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
GTKDIR_DEFAULT= ${LOCALBASE}
</pre>
<p>where <code class="varname">GTKDIR</code> corresponds
	to the first definition in
	the <code class="varname">EVAL_PREFIX</code> pair.</p>
</li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Within <code class="filename">${PREFIX}</code>, packages should
	install files according to <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?hier+7+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">hier</span>(7)</span></a>, with the exception that
	manual pages go into <code class="filename">${PREFIX}/man</code>, not
	<code class="filename">${PREFIX}/share/man</code>.</p></li>
</ul></div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="17.3.†ńirectories used during the build process">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="build.builddirs"></a>17.3.†ńirectories used during the build process</h2></div></div></div>
<p>When building a package, various directories are used to store
    source files, temporary files, pkgsrc-internal files, and so on. These
    directories are explained here.</p>
<p>Some of the directory variables contain relative pathnames. There
    are two common base directories for these relative directories:
    <code class="varname">PKGSRCDIR/PKGPATH</code> is used for directories that are
    pkgsrc-specific. <code class="varname">WRKSRC</code> is used for directories
    inside the package itself.</p>
<div class="variablelist"><dl>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">PKGSRCDIR</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>This is an absolute pathname that points to the pkgsrc
      root directory. Generally, you don't need
      it.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">PKGDIR</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>This is an absolute pathname that points to the
      current package.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">PKGPATH</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>This is a pathname relative to
      <code class="varname">PKGSRCDIR</code> that points to the current
      package.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">WRKDIR</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>This is an absolute pathname pointing to the directory
      where all work takes place. The distfiles are extracted to this
      directory. It also contains temporary directories and log files used by
      the various pkgsrc frameworks, like <span class="emphasis"><em>buildlink</em></span> or
      the <span class="emphasis"><em>wrappers</em></span>.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">WRKSRC</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>This is an absolute pathname pointing to the directory
      where the distfiles are extracted. It is usually a direct subdirectory
      of <code class="varname">WRKDIR</code>, and often it's the only directory entry
      that isn't hidden. This variable may be changed by a package
      <code class="filename">Makefile</code>.</p></dd>
</dl></div>
<p>The <code class="varname">CREATE_WRKDIR_SYMLINK</code> definition takes either
    the value <span class="emphasis"><em>yes</em></span> or <span class="emphasis"><em>no</em></span> and defaults
    to <span class="emphasis"><em>no</em></span>. It indicates whether a symbolic link to the
    <code class="varname">WRKDIR</code> is to be created in the pkgsrc entry's directory.
    If users would like to have their pkgsrc trees behave in a
    read-only manner, then the value of
    <code class="varname">CREATE_WRKDIR_SYMLINK</code> should be set to
    <span class="emphasis"><em>no</em></span>.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="17.4.†“unning a phase">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="build.running"></a>17.4.†“unning a phase</h2></div></div></div>
<p>You can run a particular phase by typing <span class="command"><strong>make
    phase</strong></span>, where <span class="emphasis"><em>phase</em></span> is the name of the
    phase. This will automatically run all phases that are required for this
    phase. The default phase is <code class="varname">build</code>, that is, when you
    run <span class="command"><strong>make</strong></span> without parameters in a package directory,
    the package will be built, but not installed.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="17.5.†‘he fetch phase">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="build.fetch"></a>17.5.†‘he <span class="emphasis"><em>fetch</em></span> phase</h2></div></div></div>
<p>The first step in building a package is to fetch the
    distribution files (distfiles) from the sites that are providing
    them. This is the task of the <span class="emphasis"><em>fetch</em></span>
    phase.</p>
<div class="sect2" title="17.5.1.†◊hat to fetch and where to get it from">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="build.fetch.what"></a>17.5.1.†◊hat to fetch and where to get it from</h3></div></div></div>
<p>In simple cases, <code class="varname">MASTER_SITES</code>
      defines all URLs from where the distfile, whose name is
      derived from the <code class="varname">DISTNAME</code> variable, is
      fetched. The more complicated cases are described
      below.</p>
<p>The variable <code class="varname">DISTFILES</code> specifies
      the list of distfiles that have to be fetched. Its value
      defaults to <code class="literal">${DISTNAME}${EXTRACT_SUFX}</code>,
      so that most packages don't need to define it at all.
      <code class="varname">EXTRACT_SUFX</code> is
      <code class="literal">.tar.gz</code> by default, but can be changed
      freely. Note that if your package requires additional
      distfiles to the default one, you cannot just append the
      additional filenames using the <code class="literal">+=</code>
      operator, but you have write for example:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
DISTFILES=      ${DISTNAME}${EXTRACT_SUFX} additional-files.tar.gz
</pre>
<p>Each distfile is fetched from a list of sites, usually
      <code class="varname">MASTER_SITES</code>. If the package has multiple
      <code class="varname">DISTFILES</code> or multiple
      <code class="varname">PATCHFILES</code> from different sites, you can
      set
      <code class="varname">SITES.<em class="replaceable"><code>distfile</code></em></code>
      to the list of URLs where the file
      <code class="filename"><em class="replaceable"><code>distfile</code></em></code>
      (including the suffix) can be found.</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
DISTFILES=      ${DISTNAME}${EXTRACT_SUFX}
DISTFILES+=     foo-file.tar.gz
SITES.foo-file.tar.gz= \
http://www.somewhere.com/somehow/ \
http://www.somewhereelse.com/mirror/somehow/
</pre>
<p>When actually fetching the distfiles, each item from
      <code class="varname">MASTER_SITES</code> or
      <code class="varname">SITES.*</code> gets the name of each distfile
      appended to it, without an intermediate slash. Therefore,
      all site values have to end with a slash or other separator
      character. This allows for example to set
      <code class="varname">MASTER_SITES</code> to a URL of a CGI script
      that gets the name of the distfile as a parameter. In this
      case, the definition would look like:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
MASTER_SITES=   http://www.example.com/download.cgi?file=
</pre>
<p> The exception to this rule are URLs starting with a dash.
      In that case the URL is taken as is, fetched and the result stored
      under the name of the distfile.</p>
<p>There are some predefined values for
      <code class="varname">MASTER_SITES</code>, which can be used in
      packages.  The names of the variables should speak for
      themselves.</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
${MASTER_SITE_APACHE}
${MASTER_SITE_BACKUP}
${MASTER_SITE_CYGWIN}
${MASTER_SITE_DEBIAN}
${MASTER_SITE_FREEBSD}
${MASTER_SITE_FREEBSD_LOCAL}
${MASTER_SITE_GENTOO}
${MASTER_SITE_GNOME}
${MASTER_SITE_GNU}
${MASTER_SITE_GNUSTEP}
${MASTER_SITE_IFARCHIVE}
${MASTER_SITE_KDE}
${MASTER_SITE_MOZILLA}
${MASTER_SITE_MYSQL}
${MASTER_SITE_OPENOFFICE}
${MASTER_SITE_PERL_CPAN}
${MASTER_SITE_PGSQL}
${MASTER_SITE_R_CRAN}
${MASTER_SITE_SOURCEFORGE}
${MASTER_SITE_SOURCEFORGE_JP}
${MASTER_SITE_SUNSITE}
${MASTER_SITE_SUSE}
${MASTER_SITE_TEX_CTAN}
${MASTER_SITE_XCONTRIB}
${MASTER_SITE_XEMACS}
</pre>
<p>Some explanations for the less self-explaining ones:
      <code class="varname">MASTER_SITE_BACKUP</code> contains backup sites
      for packages that are maintained in <a class="ulink" href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/distfiles/%24%7BDIST_SUBDIR%7D" target="_top">ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/distfiles/${DIST_SUBDIR}</a>.  <code class="varname">MASTER_SITE_LOCAL</code> contains local
      package source distributions that are maintained in <a class="ulink" href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/distfiles/LOCAL_PORTS/" target="_top">ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/distfiles/LOCAL_PORTS/</a>.</p>
<p>If you choose one of these predefined sites, you may
      want to specify a subdirectory of that site. Since these
      macros may expand to more than one actual site, you
      <span class="emphasis"><em>must</em></span> use the following construct to
      specify a subdirectory:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
MASTER_SITES=   ${MASTER_SITE_GNU:=subdirectory/name/}
MASTER_SITES=   ${MASTER_SITE_SOURCEFORGE:=project_name/}
</pre>
<p>Note the trailing slash after the subdirectory
      name.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="17.5.2.†»ow are the files fetched?">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="build.fetch.how"></a>17.5.2.†»ow are the files fetched?</h3></div></div></div>
<p>The <span class="emphasis"><em>fetch</em></span> phase makes sure that
      all the distfiles exist in a local directory
      (<code class="varname">DISTDIR</code>, which can be set by the pkgsrc
      user). If the files do not exist, they are fetched using
      commands of the form</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
${FETCH_CMD} ${FETCH_BEFORE_ARGS} ${site}${file} ${FETCH_AFTER_ARGS}
</pre>
<p>where <code class="literal">${site}</code> varies through
      several possibilities in turn: first,
      <code class="varname">MASTER_SITE_OVERRIDE</code> is tried, then the
      sites specified in either <code class="varname">SITES.file</code> if
      defined, else <code class="varname">MASTER_SITES</code> or
      <code class="varname">PATCH_SITES</code>, as applies, then finally the
      value of <code class="varname">MASTER_SITE_BACKUP</code>. The order of
      all except the first and the last can be optionally sorted
      by the user, via setting either
      <code class="varname">MASTER_SORT_RANDOM</code>, and
      <code class="varname">MASTER_SORT_AWK</code> or
      <code class="varname">MASTER_SORT_REGEX</code>.</p>
<p> The specific command and arguments used depend on the
      <code class="varname">FETCH_USING</code> parameter. The example above is
      for <code class="literal">FETCH_USING=custom</code>.</p>
<p>The distfiles mirror run by the NetBSD Foundation uses the
      <span class="emphasis"><em>mirror-distfiles</em></span> target to mirror the
      distfiles, if they are freely distributable.  Packages setting
      <code class="varname">NO_SRC_ON_FTP</code> (usually to
      <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">${RESTRICTED}</span>&#8221;</span>) will not have their distfiles
      mirrored.</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="17.6.†‘he checksum phase">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="build.checksum"></a>17.6.†‘he <span class="emphasis"><em>checksum</em></span> phase</h2></div></div></div>
<p>After the distfile(s) are fetched, their checksum is
    generated and compared with the checksums stored in the
    distinfo file. If the checksums don't match, the build is
    aborted. This is to ensure the same distfile is used for
    building, and that the distfile wasn't changed, e.g. by some
    malign force, deliberately changed distfiles on the master
    distribution site or network lossage.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="17.7.†‘he extract phase">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="build.extract"></a>17.7.†‘he <span class="emphasis"><em>extract</em></span> phase</h2></div></div></div>
<p>When the distfiles are present on the local system, they
    need to be extracted, as they usually come in the form of some
    compressed archive format.</p>
<p>By default, all <code class="varname">DISTFILES</code> are
    extracted. If you only need some of them, you can set the
    <code class="varname">EXTRACT_ONLY</code> variable to the list of those
    files.</p>
<p>Extracting the files is usually done by a little
    program, <code class="filename">mk/extract/extract</code>, which
    already knows how to extract various archive formats, so most
    likely you will not need to change anything here. But if you
    need, the following variables may help you:</p>
<div class="variablelist"><dl>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">EXTRACT_OPTS_{BIN,LHA,PAX,RAR,TAR,ZIP,ZOO}</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>Use these variables to override the default
      options for an extract command, which are defined in
      <code class="filename">mk/extract/extract</code>.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">EXTRACT_USING</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>This variable can be set to
      <code class="literal">bsdtar</code>, <code class="literal">gtar</code>, <code class="literal">nbtar</code>
      (which is the default value), <code class="literal">pax</code>, or an
      absolute pathname pointing to the command with which tar
      archives should be extracted.  It is preferred to choose bsdtar over gtar
      if NetBSD's pax-as-tar is not good enough.</p></dd>
</dl></div>
<p>If the <code class="filename">extract</code> program doesn't
    serve your needs, you can also override the
    <code class="varname">EXTRACT_CMD</code> variable, which holds the
    command used for extracting the files. This command is
    executed in the <code class="filename">${WRKSRC}</code>
    directory. During execution of this command, the shell
    variable <code class="varname">extract_file</code> holds the absolute
    pathname of the file that is going to be extracted.</p>
<p>And if that still does not suffice, you can override the
    <code class="varname">do-extract</code> target in the package
    Makefile.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="17.8.†‘he patch phase">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="build.patch"></a>17.8.†‘he <span class="emphasis"><em>patch</em></span> phase</h2></div></div></div>
<p>After extraction, all the patches named by the
    <code class="varname">PATCHFILES</code>, those present in the patches
    subdirectory of the package as well as in
    $LOCALPATCHES/$PKGPATH (e.g.
    <code class="filename">/usr/local/patches/graphics/png</code>) are
    applied.  Patchfiles ending in <code class="filename">.Z</code> or
    <code class="filename">.gz</code> are uncompressed before they are
    applied, files ending in <code class="filename">.orig</code> or
    <code class="filename">.rej</code> are ignored. Any special options to
    <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?patch+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">patch</span>(1)</span></a> can be handed in
    <code class="varname">PATCH_DIST_ARGS</code>.  See <a class="xref" href="#components.patches" title="11.3.†ūatches/*">Section1.3, &#8220;patches/*&#8221;</a> for more details.</p>
<p>By default <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?patch+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">patch</span>(1)</span></a> is given special args to make
    it fail if the patches apply with some lines of fuzz. Please
    fix (regen) the patches so that they apply cleanly. The
    rationale behind this is that patches that don't apply cleanly
    may end up being applied in the wrong place, and cause severe
    harm there.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="17.9.†‘he tools phase">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="build.tools"></a>17.9.†‘he <span class="emphasis"><em>tools</em></span> phase</h2></div></div></div>
<p>This is covered in <a class="xref" href="#tools" title="Chapter8.†‘ools needed for building or running">Chapter8, <i>Tools needed for building or running</i></a>.
    </p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="17.10.†‘he wrapper phase">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="build.wrapper"></a>17.10.†‘he <span class="emphasis"><em>wrapper</em></span> phase</h2></div></div></div>
<p>This phase creates wrapper programs for the compilers and
    linkers. The following variables can be used to tweak the
    wrappers.</p>
<div class="variablelist"><dl>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">ECHO_WRAPPER_MSG</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>The command used to print progress
      messages. Does nothing by default. Set to
      <code class="literal">${ECHO}</code> to see the progress
      messages.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">WRAPPER_DEBUG</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>This variable can be set to
      <code class="literal">yes</code> (default) or <code class="literal">no</code>,
      depending on whether you want additional information in the
      wrapper log file.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">WRAPPER_UPDATE_CACHE</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>This variable can be set to
      <code class="literal">yes</code> or <code class="literal">no</code>, depending
      on whether the wrapper should use its cache, which will
      improve the speed. The default value is
      <code class="literal">yes</code>, but is forced to
      <code class="literal">no</code> if the platform does not support
      it.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">WRAPPER_REORDER_CMDS</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>A list of reordering commands. A reordering
      command has the form
      <code class="literal">reorder:l:<em class="replaceable"><code>lib1</code></em>:<em class="replaceable"><code>lib2</code></em></code>.
      It ensures that that
      <code class="literal">-l<em class="replaceable"><code>lib1</code></em></code> occurs
      before <code class="literal">-l<em class="replaceable"><code>lib2</code></em></code>.
      </p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">WRAPPER_TRANSFORM_CMDS</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>A list of transformation commands. [TODO:
      investigate further]</p></dd>
</dl></div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="17.11.†‘he configure phase">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="build.configure"></a>17.11.†‘he <span class="emphasis"><em>configure</em></span> phase</h2></div></div></div>
<p>Most pieces of software need information on the header
    files, system calls, and library routines which are available
    on the platform they run on. The process of determining this
    information is known as configuration, and is usually
    automated. In most cases, a script is supplied with the
    distfiles, and its invocation results in generation of header
    files, Makefiles, etc.</p>
<p>If the package contains a configure script, this can be
    invoked by setting <code class="varname">HAS_CONFIGURE</code> to
    <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">yes</span>&#8221;</span>. If the configure script is a GNU autoconf
    script, you should set <code class="varname">GNU_CONFIGURE</code> to
    <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">yes</span>&#8221;</span> instead. What happens in the
    <span class="emphasis"><em>configure</em></span> phase is roughly:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
.for d in ${CONFIGURE_DIRS}
        cd ${WRKSRC} \
        &amp;&amp; cd ${d} \
        &amp;&amp; env ${CONFIGURE_ENV} ${CONFIGURE_SCRIPT} ${CONFIGURE_ARGS}
.endfor
</pre>
<p><code class="varname">CONFIGURE_DIRS</code> (default:
    <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">.</span>&#8221;</span>) is a list of pathnames relative to
    <code class="varname">WRKSRC</code>. In each of these directories, the
    configure script is run with the environment
    <code class="varname">CONFIGURE_ENV</code> and arguments
    <code class="varname">CONFIGURE_ARGS</code>. The variables
    <code class="varname">CONFIGURE_ENV</code>,
    <code class="varname">CONFIGURE_SCRIPT</code> (default:
    <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">./configure</span>&#8221;</span>) and
    <code class="varname">CONFIGURE_ARGS</code> may all be changed by the
    package.</p>
<p>If the program uses an <code class="filename">Imakefile</code>
    for configuration, the appropriate steps can be invoked by
    setting <code class="varname">USE_IMAKE</code> to
    <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">yes</span>&#8221;</span>. (If you only want the package installed in
    <code class="varname">${X11PREFIX}</code> but xmkmf not being run, set
    <code class="varname">USE_X11BASE</code> instead.)  You can add variables to
    xmkmf's environment by adding them to the
    <code class="varname">SCRIPTS_ENV</code> variable.</p>
<p>If the program uses <code class="filename">cmake</code>
    for configuration, the appropriate steps can be invoked by
    setting <code class="varname">USE_CMAKE</code> to <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">yes</span>&#8221;</span>.
    You can add variables to cmake's environment by adding them to the
    <code class="varname">CONFIGURE_ENV</code> variable and arguments to cmake
    by adding them to the <code class="varname">CMAKE_ARGS</code> variable.
    The top directory argument is given by the
    <code class="varname">CMAKE_ARG_PATH</code> variable, that defaults to
    <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">.</span>&#8221;</span> (relative to <code class="varname">CONFIGURE_DIRS</code>)</p>
<p>If there is no configure step at all, set
    <code class="varname">NO_CONFIGURE</code> to <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">yes</span>&#8221;</span>.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="17.12.†‘he build phase">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="build.build"></a>17.12.†‘he <span class="emphasis"><em>build</em></span> phase</h2></div></div></div>
<p>For building a package, a rough equivalent of the
    following code is executed.</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
.for d in ${BUILD_DIRS}
        cd ${WRKSRC} \
        &amp;&amp; cd ${d} \
        &amp;&amp; env ${MAKE_ENV} \
            ${MAKE_PROGRAM} ${BUILD_MAKE_FLAGS} \
                -f ${MAKE_FILE} \
                ${BUILD_TARGET}
.endfor
</pre>
<p><code class="varname">BUILD_DIRS</code> (default:
    <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">.</span>&#8221;</span>) is a list of pathnames relative to
    <code class="varname">WRKSRC</code>. In each of these directories,
    <code class="varname">MAKE_PROGRAM</code> is run with the environment
    <code class="varname">MAKE_ENV</code> and arguments
    <code class="varname">BUILD_MAKE_FLAGS</code>. The variables
    <code class="varname">MAKE_ENV</code>,
    <code class="varname">BUILD_MAKE_FLAGS</code>,
    <code class="varname">MAKE_FILE</code> and
    <code class="varname">BUILD_TARGET</code> may all be changed by the
    package.</p>
<p>The default value of <code class="varname">MAKE_PROGRAM</code> is
    <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">gmake</span>&#8221;</span> if <code class="varname">USE_TOOLS</code> contains
    <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">gmake</span>&#8221;</span>, <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">make</span>&#8221;</span> otherwise. The
    default value of <code class="varname">MAKE_FILE</code> is
    <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">Makefile</span>&#8221;</span>, and <code class="varname">BUILD_TARGET</code>
    defaults to <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">all</span>&#8221;</span>.</p>
<p>If there is no build step at all, set
    <code class="varname">NO_BUILD</code> to <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">yes</span>&#8221;</span>.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="17.13.†‘he test phase">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="build.test"></a>17.13.†‘he <span class="emphasis"><em>test</em></span> phase</h2></div></div></div>
<p>[TODO]</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="17.14.†‘he install phase">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="build.install"></a>17.14.†‘he <span class="emphasis"><em>install</em></span> phase</h2></div></div></div>
<p>Once the build stage has completed, the final step is to
    install the software in public directories, so users can
    access the programs and files.</p>
<p>In the <span class="emphasis"><em>install</em></span> phase, a rough
    equivalent of the following code is executed. Additionally,
    before and after this code, much magic is performed to do
    consistency checks, registering the package, and so on.</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
.for d in ${INSTALL_DIRS}
        cd ${WRKSRC} \
        &amp;&amp; cd ${d} \
        &amp;&amp; env ${MAKE_ENV} \
            ${MAKE_PROGRAM} ${INSTALL_MAKE_FLAGS} \
                -f ${MAKE_FILE} \
                ${INSTALL_TARGET}
.endfor
</pre>
<p>The variable's meanings are analogous to the ones in the
    <span class="emphasis"><em>build</em></span> phase.
    <code class="varname">INSTALL_DIRS</code> defaults to
    <code class="varname">BUILD_DIRS</code>. <code class="varname">INSTALL_TARGET</code>
    is <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">install</span>&#8221;</span> by default, plus
    <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">install.man</span>&#8221;</span> if <code class="varname">USE_IMAKE</code> is
    defined and <code class="varname">NO_INSTALL_MANPAGES</code> is not
    defined.</p>
<p>In the <span class="emphasis"><em>install</em></span> phase, the following
    variables are useful. They are all variations of the
    <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?install+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">install</span>(1)</span></a> command that have the owner, group and
    permissions preset. <code class="varname">INSTALL</code> is the plain
    install command. The specialized variants, together with their
    intended use, are:</p>
<div class="variablelist"><dl>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">INSTALL_PROGRAM_DIR</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>directories that contain
      binaries</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">INSTALL_SCRIPT_DIR</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>directories that contain
      scripts</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">INSTALL_LIB_DIR</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>directories that contain shared and static
      libraries</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">INSTALL_DATA_DIR</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>directories that contain data
      files</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">INSTALL_MAN_DIR</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>directories that contain man
      pages</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">INSTALL_PROGRAM</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>binaries that can be stripped from debugging
      symbols</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">INSTALL_SCRIPT</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>binaries that cannot be
      stripped</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">INSTALL_GAME</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>game
      binaries</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">INSTALL_LIB</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>shared and static
      libraries</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">INSTALL_DATA</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>data files</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">INSTALL_GAME_DATA</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>data files for
      games</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">INSTALL_MAN</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>man pages</p></dd>
</dl></div>
<p>Some other variables are:</p>
<div class="variablelist"><dl>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">INSTALLATION_DIRS</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>A list of directories relative to
      <code class="varname">PREFIX</code> that are created by pkgsrc at the
      beginning of the <span class="emphasis"><em>install</em></span> phase.
      The package is supposed to create all needed directories itself
      before installing files to it and list all other directories here.
      </p></dd>
</dl></div>
<p>In the rare cases that a package shouldn't install anything,
    set <code class="varname">NO_INSTALL</code> to <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">yes</span>&#8221;</span>. This is
    mostly relevant for packages in the <code class="filename">regress</code>
    category.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="17.15.†‘he package phase">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="build.package"></a>17.15.†‘he <span class="emphasis"><em>package</em></span> phase</h2></div></div></div>
<p>Once the install stage has completed, a binary package of
    the installed files can be built.  These binary packages can be
    used for quick installation without previous compilation, e.g. by
    the <span class="command"><strong>make bin-install</strong></span> or by using
    <span class="command"><strong>pkg_add</strong></span>.</p>
<p>By default, the binary packages are created in
    <code class="filename">${PACKAGES}/All</code> and symlinks are created in
    <code class="filename">${PACKAGES}/<em class="replaceable"><code>category</code></em></code>,
    one for each category in the <code class="varname">CATEGORIES</code>
    variable.  <code class="varname">PACKAGES</code> defaults to
    <code class="filename">pkgsrc/packages</code>.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="17.16.†√leaning up">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="build.clean"></a>17.16.†√leaning up</h2></div></div></div>
<p>Once you're finished with a package, you can clean the work
    directory by running <span class="command"><strong>make clean</strong></span>.  If you want
    to clean the work directories of all dependencies too, use
    <span class="command"><strong>make clean-depends</strong></span>.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="17.17.†Ōther helpful targets">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="build.helpful-targets"></a>17.17.†Ōther helpful targets</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="variablelist"><dl>
<dt><span class="term">pre/post-*</span></dt>
<dd><p>For any of the main targets described in the
	  previous section, two auxiliary targets exist with
	  <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">pre-</span>&#8221;</span> and <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">post-</span>&#8221;</span> used as a
	  prefix for the main target's name.  These targets are
	  invoked before and after the main target is called,
	  allowing extra configuration or installation steps be
	  performed from a package's Makefile, for example, which
	  a program's configure script or install target
	  omitted.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term">do-*</span></dt>
<dd><p>Should one of the main targets do the wrong thing,
	  and should there be no variable to fix this, you can
	  redefine it with the do-* target.  (Note that redefining
	  the target itself instead of the do-* target is a bad
	  idea, as the pre-* and post-* targets won't be called
	  anymore, etc.) You will not usually need to do
	  this.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term">reinstall</span></dt>
<dd>
<p>If you did a <span class="command"><strong>make install</strong></span> and
	  you noticed some file was not installed properly, you
	  can repeat the installation with this target, which will
	  ignore the <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">already installed</span>&#8221;</span> flag.</p>
<p>This is the default value of
	  <code class="varname">DEPENDS_TARGET</code> except in the case of
	  <span class="command"><strong>make update</strong></span> and <span class="command"><strong>make
	  package</strong></span>, where the defaults are
	  <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">package</span>&#8221;</span> and <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">update</span>&#8221;</span>,
	  respectively.</p>
</dd>
<dt><span class="term">deinstall</span></dt>
<dd>
<p>This target does a <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?pkg_delete+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">pkg_delete</span>(1)</span></a> in the
	  current directory, effectively de-installing the
	  package. The following variables can be used to tune the
	  behaviour:</p>
<div class="variablelist"><dl>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">PKG_VERBOSE</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>Add a "-v" to the <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?pkg_delete+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">pkg_delete</span>(1)</span></a> command.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">DEINSTALLDEPENDS</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>Remove all packages that require (depend on)
		the given package.  This can be used to remove any
		packages that may have been pulled in by a given
		package, e.g. if <span class="command"><strong>make deinstall
		DEINSTALLDEPENDS=1</strong></span> is done in
		<code class="filename">pkgsrc/x11/kde</code>, this is
		likely to remove whole KDE. Works by adding
		<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">-R</span>&#8221;</span> to the <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?pkg_delete+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">pkg_delete</span>(1)</span></a>
		command line.</p></dd>
</dl></div>
</dd>
<dt><span class="term">bin-install</span></dt>
<dd><p>Install a binary package from local disk and via FTP
	  from a list of sites (see the
	  <code class="varname">BINPKG_SITES</code> variable), and do a
	  <span class="command"><strong>make package</strong></span> if no binary package is
	  available anywhere.  The arguments given to
	  <span class="command"><strong>pkg_add</strong></span> can be set via
	  <code class="varname">BIN_INSTALL_FLAGS</code> e.g., to do verbose
	  operation, etc.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term">update</span></dt>
<dd>
<p>This target causes the current package to be
	  updated to the latest version.  The package and all
	  depending packages first get de-installed, then current
	  versions of the corresponding packages get compiled and
	  installed.  This is similar to manually noting which
	  packages are currently installed, then performing a
	  series of <span class="command"><strong>make deinstall</strong></span> and
	  <span class="command"><strong>make install</strong></span> (or whatever
	  <code class="varname">UPDATE_TARGET</code> is set to) for these
	  packages.</p>
<p>You can use the <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">update</span>&#8221;</span> target to
	  resume package updating in case a previous <span class="command"><strong>make
	  update</strong></span> was interrupted for some reason.
	  However, in this case, make sure you don't call
	  <span class="command"><strong>make clean</strong></span> or otherwise remove the
	  list of dependent packages in <code class="varname">WRKDIR</code>.
	  Otherwise, you lose the ability to automatically update
	  the current package along with the dependent packages
	  you have installed.</p>
<p>Resuming an interrupted <span class="command"><strong>make
	  update</strong></span> will only work as long as the package
	  tree remains unchanged.  If the source code for one of
	  the packages to be updated has been changed, resuming
	  <span class="command"><strong>make update</strong></span> will most certainly
	  fail!</p>
<p>The following variables can be used either on the
	  command line or in <a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a> to
	  alter the behaviour of <span class="command"><strong>make
	  update</strong></span>:</p>
<div class="variablelist"><dl>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">UPDATE_TARGET</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>Install target to recursively use for the
		updated package and the dependent packages.
		Defaults to <code class="varname">DEPENDS_TARGET</code> if
		set, <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">install</span>&#8221;</span> otherwise for
		<span class="command"><strong>make update</strong></span>.  Other good
		targets are <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">package</span>&#8221;</span> or
		<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">bin-install</span>&#8221;</span>.  Do not set this to
		<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">update</span>&#8221;</span> or you will get stuck in an
		endless loop!</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">NOCLEAN</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>Don't clean up after updating.  Useful if
		you want to leave the work sources of the updated
		packages around for inspection or other purposes.
		Be sure you eventually clean up the source tree
		(see the <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">clean-update</span>&#8221;</span> target below)
		or you may run into troubles with old source code
		still lying around on your next
		<span class="command"><strong>make</strong></span> or <span class="command"><strong>make
		update</strong></span>.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">REINSTALL</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>Deinstall each package before installing
		(making <code class="varname">DEPENDS_TARGET</code>). This
		may be necessary if the
		<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">clean-update</span>&#8221;</span> target (see below) was
		called after interrupting a running <span class="command"><strong>make
		update</strong></span>.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">DEPENDS_TARGET</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>Allows you to disable recursion and hardcode
		the target for packages.  The default is
		<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">update</span>&#8221;</span> for the update target,
		facilitating a recursive update of prerequisite
		packages.  Only set
		<code class="varname">DEPENDS_TARGET</code> if you want to
		disable recursive updates. Use
		<code class="varname">UPDATE_TARGET</code> instead to just
		set a specific target for each package to be
		installed during <span class="command"><strong>make update</strong></span>
		(see above).</p></dd>
</dl></div>
</dd>
<dt><span class="term">clean-update</span></dt>
<dd>
<p>Clean the source tree for all packages that would
	  get updated if <span class="command"><strong>make update</strong></span> was called
	  from the current directory.  This target should not be
	  used if the current package (or any of its depending
	  packages) have already been de-installed (e.g., after
	  calling <span class="command"><strong>make update</strong></span>) or you may lose
	  some packages you intended to update. As a rule of
	  thumb: only use this target <span class="emphasis"><em>before</em></span>
	  the first time you run <span class="command"><strong>make update</strong></span>
	  and only if you have a dirty package tree (e.g., if you
	  used <code class="varname">NOCLEAN</code>).</p>
<p>If you are unsure about whether your tree is
	  clean, you can either perform a <span class="command"><strong>make
	  clean</strong></span> at the top of the tree, or use the
	  following sequence of commands from the directory of the
	  package you want to update (<span class="emphasis"><em>before</em></span>
	  running <span class="command"><strong>make update</strong></span> for the first
	  time, otherwise you lose all the packages you wanted to
	  update!):</p>
<pre class="screen">
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>make clean-update</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>make clean CLEANDEPENDS=YES</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>make update</code></strong>
	  </pre>
<p>The following variables can be used either on the
	  command line or in <a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a> to alter the behaviour of
	  <span class="command"><strong>make clean-update</strong></span>:</p>
<div class="variablelist"><dl>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">CLEAR_DIRLIST</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>After <span class="command"><strong>make clean</strong></span>, do not
		reconstruct the list of directories to update for
		this package.  Only use this if <span class="command"><strong>make
		update</strong></span> successfully installed all
		packages you wanted to update.  Normally, this is
		done automatically on <span class="command"><strong>make
		update</strong></span>, but may have been suppressed by
		the <code class="varname">NOCLEAN</code> variable (see
		above).</p></dd>
</dl></div>
</dd>
<dt><span class="term">replace</span></dt>
<dd>
<p>Update the installation of the current package.  This
	  differs from update in that it does not replace dependent
	  packages.  You will need to install <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/pkg_tarup/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/pkg_tarup</code></a> for this
	  target to work.</p>
<p><span class="emphasis"><em>Be careful when using this
	  target!</em></span> There are no guarantees that dependent
	  packages will still work, in particular they will most
	  certainly break if you <span class="command"><strong>make replace</strong></span> a
	  library package whose shared library major version changed
	  between your installed version and the new one.  For this
	  reason, this target is not officially supported and only
	  recommended for advanced users.</p>
</dd>
<dt><span class="term">info</span></dt>
<dd><p>This target invokes <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?pkg_info+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">pkg_info</span>(1)</span></a> for the current
	  package. You can use this to check which version of a
	  package is installed.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term">index</span></dt>
<dd>
<p>This is a top-level command, i.e. it should be used in
	  the <code class="filename">pkgsrc</code> directory.  It creates a
	  database of all packages in the local pkgsrc tree, including
	  dependencies, comment, maintainer, and some other useful
	  information.  Individual entries are created by running
	  <span class="command"><strong>make describe</strong></span> in the packages'
	  directories.  This index file is saved as
	  <code class="filename">pkgsrc/INDEX</code>.  It can be displayed in
	  verbose format by running <span class="command"><strong>make
	  print-index</strong></span>.  You can search in it with
	  <span class="command"><strong>make search
	  key=<em class="replaceable"><code>something</code></em></strong></span>.  You can
	  extract a list of all packages that depend on a particular
	  one by running <span class="command"><strong>make show-deps
	  PKG=<em class="replaceable"><code>somepackage</code></em></strong></span>.</p>
<p>Running this command takes a very long time, some
	  hours even on fast machines!</p>
</dd>
<dt><span class="term">readme</span></dt>
<dd>
<p>This target generates a
	  <code class="filename">README.html</code> file, which can be
	  viewed using a browser such as <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/www/firefox/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">www/firefox</code></a> or <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/www/links/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">www/links</code></a>.  The generated files
	  contain references to any packages which are in the
	  <code class="varname">PACKAGES</code> directory on the local
	  host. The generated files can be made to refer to URLs
	  based on <code class="varname">FTP_PKG_URL_HOST</code> and
	  <code class="varname">FTP_PKG_URL_DIR</code>. For example, if I
	  wanted to generate <code class="filename">README.html</code>
	  files which pointed to binary packages on the local
	  machine, in the directory
	  <code class="filename">/usr/packages</code>, set
	  <code class="varname">FTP_PKG_URL_HOST=file://localhost</code> and
	  <code class="varname">FTP_PKG_URL_DIR=/usr/packages</code>. The
	  <code class="varname">${PACKAGES}</code> directory and its
	  subdirectories will be searched for all the binary
	  packages.</p>
<p>The target can be run at the toplevel or in category
	  directories, in which case it descends recursively.</p>
</dd>
<dt><span class="term">readme-all</span></dt>
<dd><p>This is a top-level command, run it in
	  <code class="filename">pkgsrc</code>.  Use this target to create a
	  file <code class="filename">README-all.html</code> which contains a
	  list of all packages currently available in the NetBSD
	  Packages Collection, together with the category they belong
	  to and a short description. This file is compiled from the
	  <code class="filename">pkgsrc/*/README.html</code> files, so be sure
	  to run this <span class="emphasis"><em>after</em></span> a <span class="command"><strong>make
	  readme</strong></span>.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term">cdrom-readme</span></dt>
<dd><p>This is very much the same as the
	  <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">readme</span>&#8221;</span> target (see above), but is to be
	  used when generating a pkgsrc tree to be written to a
	  CD-ROM.  This target also produces
	  <code class="filename">README.html</code> files, and can be made
	  to refer to URLs based on
	  <code class="varname">CDROM_PKG_URL_HOST</code> and
	  <code class="varname">CDROM_PKG_URL_DIR</code>.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term">show-distfiles</span></dt>
<dd><p>This target shows which distfiles and patchfiles
	  are needed to build the package
	  (<code class="varname">ALLFILES</code>, which contains all
	  <code class="varname">DISTFILES</code> and
	  <code class="varname">PATCHFILES</code>, but not
	  <code class="filename">patches/*</code>).</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term">show-downlevel</span></dt>
<dd><p>This target shows nothing if the package is not
	  installed. If a version of this package is installed,
	  but is not the version provided in this version of
	  pkgsrc, then a warning message is displayed. This target
	  can be used to show which of your installed packages are
	  downlevel, and so the old versions can be deleted, and
	  the current ones added.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term">show-pkgsrc-dir</span></dt>
<dd><p>This target shows the directory in the pkgsrc
	  hierarchy from which the package can be built and
	  installed. This may not be the same directory as the one
	  from which the package was installed. This target is
	  intended to be used by people who may wish to upgrade
	  many packages on a single host, and can be invoked from
	  the top-level pkgsrc Makefile by using the
	  <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">show-host-specific-pkgs</span>&#8221;</span> target.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term">show-installed-depends</span></dt>
<dd><p>This target shows which installed packages match
	  the current package's <code class="varname">DEPENDS</code>. Useful
	  if out of date dependencies are causing build
	  problems.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term">check-shlibs</span></dt>
<dd><p>After a package is installed, check all its
	  binaries and (on ELF platforms) shared libraries to see
	  if they find the shared libs they need.  Run by default
	  if <code class="varname">PKG_DEVELOPER</code> is set in <a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a>.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term">print-PLIST</span></dt>
<dd>
<p>After a <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">make install</span>&#8221;</span> from a new or
	  upgraded pkg, this prints out an attempt to generate a
	  new <code class="filename">PLIST</code> from a <span class="command"><strong>find
	  -newer work/.extract_done</strong></span>.  An attempt is made
	  to care for shared libs etc., but it is
	  <span class="emphasis"><em>strongly</em></span> recommended to review the
	  result before putting it into
	  <code class="filename">PLIST</code>. On upgrades, it's useful to
	  diff the output of this command against an already
	  existing <code class="filename">PLIST</code> file.</p>
<p>If the package installs files via <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?tar+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">tar</span>(1)</span></a> or
	  other methods that don't update file access times, be
	  sure to add these files manually to your
	  <code class="filename">PLIST</code>, as the <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">find
	  -newer</span>&#8221;</span> command used by this target won't catch
	  them!</p>
<p>See <a class="xref" href="#print-PLIST" title="13.3.†‘weaking output of make print-PLIST">Section3.3, &#8220;Tweaking output of <span class="command"><strong>make print-PLIST</strong></span>&#8221;</a> for more
	  information on this target.</p>
</dd>
<dt><span class="term">bulk-package</span></dt>
<dd>
<p>Used to do bulk builds. If an appropriate binary
	  package already exists, no action is taken. If not, this
	  target will compile, install and package it (and its
	  depends, if <code class="varname">PKG_DEPENDS</code> is set
	  properly. See <a class="xref" href="#binary.configuration" title="7.3.1.†√onfiguration">Section.3.1, &#8220;Configuration&#8221;</a>).
	  After creating the binary package, the sources, the
	  just-installed package and its required packages are
	  removed, preserving free disk space.</p>
<p><span class="emphasis"><em>Beware that this target may deinstall
	  all packages installed on a system!</em></span></p>
</dd>
<dt><span class="term">bulk-install</span></dt>
<dd>
<p>Used during bulk-installs to install required
	  packages. If an up-to-date binary package is available,
	  it will be installed via <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?pkg_add+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">pkg_add</span>(1)</span></a>. If not,
	  <span class="command"><strong>make bulk-package</strong></span> will be executed,
	  but the installed binary won't be removed.</p>
<p>A binary package is considered
	  <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">up-to-date</span>&#8221;</span> to be installed via
	  <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?pkg_add+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">pkg_add</span>(1)</span></a> if:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p>None of the package's files
	      (<code class="filename">Makefile</code>, ...) were modified
	      since it was built.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>None of the package's required (binary)
	      packages were modified since it was built.</p></li>
</ul></div>
<p><span class="emphasis"><em>Beware that this target may deinstall
	  all packages installed on a system!</em></span></p>
</dd>
</dl></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="chapter" title="Chapter8.†‘ools needed for building or running">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title">
<a name="tools"></a>Chapter8.†‘ools needed for building or running</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="toc">
<p><b>Table of Contents</b></p>
<dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#pkgsrc-tools">18.1. Tools for pkgsrc builds</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#package-tools">18.2. Tools needed by packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#platform-tools">18.3. Tools provided by platforms</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#tools.questions">18.4. Questions regarding the tools</a></span></dt>
</dl>
</div>
<p>The <code class="varname">USE_TOOLS</code> definition is used both internally
by pkgsrc and also for individual packages to define what commands
are needed for building a package (like <code class="varname">BUILD_DEPENDS</code>)
or for later run-time of an installed packaged (such as
<code class="varname">DEPENDS</code>).
If the native system provides an adequate tool, then in many cases, a pkgsrc
package will not be used.</p>
<p>When building a package, the replacement tools are
made available in a directory (as symlinks or wrapper scripts)
that is early in the executable search path. Just like the buildlink
system, this helps with consistent builds.</p>
<p>A tool may be needed to help build a specific package. For example,
perl, GNU make (gmake) or yacc may be needed.</p>
<p>Also a tool may be needed, for example, because the native system's supplied
tool may be inefficient for building a package with pkgsrc.
For example, a package may need GNU awk, bison (instead of
yacc) or a better sed.</p>
<p>The tools used by a package can be listed by running
<span class="command"><strong>make show-tools</strong></span>.</p>
<div class="sect1" title="18.1.†‘ools for pkgsrc builds">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="pkgsrc-tools"></a>18.1.†‘ools for pkgsrc builds</h2></div></div></div>
<p>The default set of tools used by pkgsrc is defined in
<code class="filename">bsd.pkg.mk</code>. This includes standard Unix tools,
such as: <span class="command"><strong>cat</strong></span>, <span class="command"><strong>awk</strong></span>,
<span class="command"><strong>chmod</strong></span>, <span class="command"><strong>test</strong></span>, and so on.
These can be seen by running:
<span class="command"><strong>make show-var VARNAME=USE_TOOLS</strong></span>.</p>
<p>If a package needs a specific program to build
then the <code class="varname">USE_TOOLS</code> variable can be used
to define the tools needed.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="18.2.†‘ools needed by packages">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="package-tools"></a>18.2.†‘ools needed by packages</h2></div></div></div>
<p>In the following examples, the :run means that it is needed at
run-time (and becomes a DEPENDS).
The default is a build dependency which can be set with
:build. (So in this example, it is the same as gmake:build
and pkg-config:build.)</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
USE_TOOLS+=     gmake perl:run pkg-config
</pre>
<p>When using the tools framework, a
<code class="varname">TOOLS_PATH.foo</code> variable is defined
which contains the full path to the appropriate tool. For example,
<code class="varname">TOOLS_PATH.bash</code> could be <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">/bin/bash</span>&#8221;</span>
on Linux systems.</p>
<p>If you always need a pkgsrc version of the
tool at run-time, then just use <code class="varname">DEPENDS</code> instead.
</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="18.3.†‘ools provided by platforms">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="platform-tools"></a>18.3.†‘ools provided by platforms</h2></div></div></div>
<p>When improving or porting pkgsrc to a new platform, have a look
at (or create) the corresponding platform specific make file fragment under
<code class="filename">pkgsrc/mk/tools/tools.${OPSYS}.mk</code> which defines
the name of the common tools. For example:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
.if exists(/usr/bin/bzcat)
TOOLS_PLATFORM.bzcat?=          /usr/bin/bzcat
.elif exists(/usr/bin/bzip2)
TOOLS_PLATFORM.bzcat?=          /usr/bin/bzip2 -cd
.endif

TOOLS_PLATFORM.true?=           true                    # shell builtin
</pre>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="18.4.†—uestions regarding the tools">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="tools.questions"></a>18.4.†—uestions regarding the tools</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="qandaset" title="Frequently Asked Questions">
<a name="id1168229307687"></a><dl>
<dt>18.4.1. <a href="#tools.new">How do I add a new tool?</a>
</dt>
<dt>18.4.2. <a href="#tools.listall">How do I get a list of all available
	tools?</a>
</dt>
<dt>18.4.3. <a href="#tools.used">How can I get a list of all the tools that a
	package is using while being built? I want to know whether it
	uses sed or not.</a>
</dt>
</dl>
<table border="0" width="100%" summary="Q and A Set">
<col align="left" width="1%">
<col>
<tbody>
<tr class="question" title="18.4.1.">
<td align="left" valign="top">
<a name="tools.new"></a><a name="id1168229307690"></a><p><b>18.4.1.</b></p>
</td>
<td align="left" valign="top"><p>How do I add a new tool?</p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="answer">
<td align="left" valign="top"></td>
<td align="left" valign="top"><p>TODO</p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="question" title="18.4.2.">
<td align="left" valign="top">
<a name="tools.listall"></a><a name="id1168229307700"></a><p><b>18.4.2.</b></p>
</td>
<td align="left" valign="top"><p>How do I get a list of all available
	tools?</p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="answer">
<td align="left" valign="top"></td>
<td align="left" valign="top"><p>TODO</p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="question" title="18.4.3.">
<td align="left" valign="top">
<a name="tools.used"></a><a name="id1168229307708"></a><p><b>18.4.3.</b></p>
</td>
<td align="left" valign="top"><p>How can I get a list of all the tools that a
	package is using while being built? I want to know whether it
	uses sed or not.</p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="answer">
<td align="left" valign="top"></td>
<td align="left" valign="top"><p>Currently, you can't. (TODO: But I want to be able
	to do it.)</p></td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="chapter" title="Chapter9.†Õaking your package work">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title">
<a name="fixes"></a>Chapter9.†Õaking your package work</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="toc">
<p><b>Table of Contents</b></p>
<dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#general-operation">19.1. General operation</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#portability-of-packages">19.1.1. Portability of packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#pulling-vars-from-etc-mk.conf">19.1.2. How to pull in user-settable variables from <code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#user-interaction">19.1.3. User interaction</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#handling-licenses">19.1.4. Handling licenses</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#restricted-packages">19.1.5. Restricted packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#dependencies">19.1.6. Handling dependencies</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#conflicts">19.1.7. Handling conflicts with other packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#not-building-packages">19.1.8. Packages that cannot or should not be built</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#undeletable-packages">19.1.9. Packages which should not be deleted, once installed</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#security-handling">19.1.10. Handling packages with security problems</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#bumping-pkgrevision">19.1.11. How to handle incrementing versions when fixing an existing package</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#fixes.subst">19.1.12. Substituting variable text in the package files (the SUBST framework)</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#fixes.fetch">19.2. Fixing problems in the <span class="emphasis"><em>fetch</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#no-plain-download">19.2.1. Packages whose distfiles aren't available for plain downloading</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#modified-distfiles-same-name">19.2.2. How to handle modified distfiles with the 'old' name</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#fixes.configure">19.3. Fixing problems in the <span class="emphasis"><em>configure</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#fixes.libtool">19.3.1. Shared libraries - libtool</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#using-libtool">19.3.2. Using libtool on GNU packages that already support libtool</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#autoconf-automake">19.3.3. GNU Autoconf/Automake</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#programming-languages">19.4. Programming languages</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#basic-programming-languages">19.4.1. C, C++, and Fortran</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#java-programming-language">19.4.2. Java</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#perl-scripts">19.4.3. Packages containing perl scripts</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#other-programming-languages">19.4.4. Other programming languages</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#fixes.build">19.5. Fixing problems in the <span class="emphasis"><em>build</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#fixes.build.cpp">19.5.1. Compiling C and C++ code conditionally</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#compiler-bugs">19.5.2. How to handle compiler bugs</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#undefined-reference">19.5.3. Undefined reference to <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">...</span>&#8221;</span></a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#out-of-memory">19.5.4. Running out of memory</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#fixes.install">19.6. Fixing problems in the <span class="emphasis"><em>install</em></span> phase</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#install-scripts">19.6.1. Creating needed directories</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#where-to-install-documentation">19.6.2. Where to install documentation</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#installing-score-files">19.6.3. Installing highscore files</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#destdir-support">19.6.4. Adding DESTDIR support to packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#hardcoded-paths">19.6.5. Packages with hardcoded paths to other interpreters</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#perl-modules">19.6.6. Packages installing perl modules</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#faq.info-files">19.6.7. Packages installing info files</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#manpages">19.6.8. Packages installing man pages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#gconf-data-files">19.6.9. Packages installing GConf data files</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#scrollkeeper-data-files">19.6.10. Packages installing scrollkeeper/rarian data files</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#x11-fonts">19.6.11. Packages installing X11 fonts</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#gtk2-modules">19.6.12. Packages installing GTK2 modules</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#sgml-xml-data">19.6.13. Packages installing SGML or XML data</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#mime-database">19.6.14. Packages installing extensions to the MIME database</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#intltool">19.6.15. Packages using intltool</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#startup-scripts">19.6.16. Packages installing startup scripts</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#tex-packages">19.6.17. Packages installing TeX modules</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#emulation-packages">19.6.18. Packages supporting running binaries in
    emulation</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#hicolor-theme">19.6.19. Packages installing hicolor theme icons</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#desktop-files">19.6.20. Packages installing desktop files</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#punting">19.7. Marking packages as having problems</a></span></dt>
</dl>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="19.1.†«eneral operation">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="general-operation"></a>19.1.†«eneral operation</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.1.1.†–ortability of packages">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="portability-of-packages"></a>19.1.1.†–ortability of packages</h3></div></div></div>
<p>One appealing feature of pkgsrc is that it runs on many
    different platforms. As a result, it is important to ensure,
    where possible, that packages in pkgsrc are portable. This
    chapter mentions some particular details you should pay
    attention to while working on pkgsrc.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.1.2.†»ow to pull in user-settable variables from mk.conf">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="pulling-vars-from-etc-mk.conf"></a>19.1.2.†»ow to pull in user-settable variables from <a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a>
</h3></div></div></div>
<p>The pkgsrc user can configure pkgsrc by overriding several
    variables in the file pointed to by <code class="varname">MAKECONF</code>,
    which is <a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a> by default. When you
    want to use those variables in the preprocessor directives of
    <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?make+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">make</span>(1)</span></a> (for example <code class="literal">.if</code> or
    <code class="literal">.for</code>), you need to include the file
    <code class="filename">../../mk/bsd.prefs.mk</code> before, which in turn
    loads the user preferences.</p>
<p>But note that some variables may not be completely defined
    after <code class="filename">../../mk/bsd.prefs.mk</code> has been
    included, as they may contain references to variables that are
    not yet defined. In shell commands this is no problem, since
    variables are actually macros, which are only expanded when they
    are used. But in the preprocessor directives mentioned above and
    in dependency lines (of the form <code class="literal">target:
    dependencies</code>) the variables are expanded at load
    time.</p>
<div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;">
<h3 class="title">Note</h3>
<p>Currently there is no exhaustive list of all
    variables that tells you whether they can be used at load time
    or only at run time, but it is in preparation.</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.1.3.†’ser interaction">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="user-interaction"></a>19.1.3.†’ser interaction</h3></div></div></div>
<p>Occasionally, packages require interaction from the user,
    and this can be in a number of ways:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p>When fetching the distfiles, some packages require user
	interaction such as entering username/password or accepting a
	license on a web page.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>When extracting the distfiles, some packages may ask for
	passwords.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>help to configure the package before it is built</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>help during the build process</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>help during the installation of a package</p></li>
</ul></div>
<p>The <code class="varname">INTERACTIVE_STAGE</code> definition is
    provided to notify the pkgsrc mechanism of an interactive stage
    which will be needed, and this should be set in the package's
    <code class="filename">Makefile</code>, e.g.:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
INTERACTIVE_STAGE=      build
    </pre>
<p>Multiple interactive stages can be specified:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
INTERACTIVE_STAGE=      configure install
    </pre>
<p>The user can then decide to skip this package by setting the
    <code class="varname">BATCH</code> variable.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.1.4.†»andling licenses">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="handling-licenses"></a>19.1.4.†»andling licenses</h3></div></div></div>
<p>Authors of software can choose the licence under which
    software can be copied.  This is due to copyright law, and reasons
    for license choices are outside the scope of pkgsrc.  The pkgsrc
    system recognizes that there are a number of licenses which some
    users may find objectionable or difficult or impossible to comply
    with.  The Free Software Foundation has declared some licenses
    "Free", and the Open Source Initiative has a definition of "Open
    Source".  The pkgsrc system, as a policy choice, does not label
    packages which have licenses that are Free or Open Source.
    However, packages without a license meeting either of those tests
    are labeled with a license tag denoting the license.  Note that a
    package with no license to copy trivially does not meet either the
    Free or Open Source test.</p>
<p>For packages which are not Free or Open Source, pkgsrc will
    not build the package unless the user has indicated to pkgsrc that
    packages with that particular license may be built.  Note that
    this documentation avoids the term "accepted the license".  The
    pkgsrc system is merely providing a mechanism to avoid
    accidentally building a package with a non-free license;
    judgement and responsibility remain with the user.  (Installation
    of binary packages are not currently subject to this mechanism;
    this is a bug.)</p>
<p>One might want to only install packages with a BSD license,
    or the GPL, and not the other.  The free licenses are added to the 
    default <code class="varname">ACCEPTABLE_LICENSES</code> variable.  The
    user can override the default by setting the
    <code class="varname">ACCEPTABLE_LICENSES</code> variable with "=" instead
    of "+=".  The licenses accepted by default are:
    </p>
<pre class="programlisting">
    public-domain
    gnu-gpl-v2 gnu-lgpl-v2
    gnu-gpl-v3 gnu-lgpl-v3
    original-bsd modified-bsd
    x11
    apache-2.0
    cddl-1.0
    open-font-license
    </pre>
<p>
    </p>
<p>The license tag mechanism is intended to address
    copyright-related issues surrounding building, installing and
    using a package, and not to address redistribution issues (see
    <code class="varname">RESTRICTED</code> and
    <code class="varname">NO_SRC_ON_FTP</code>, etc.).  
    Packages with redistribution restrictions should set these
    tags.</p>
<p>Denoting that a package may be copied according to a
    particular license is done by placing the license in
    <code class="filename">pkgsrc/licenses</code> and setting the
    <code class="varname">LICENSE</code> variable to a string identifying the
    license, e.g. in <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/graphics/xv/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">graphics/xv</code></a>:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
LICENSE=        xv-license
    </pre>
<p>When trying to build, the user will get a notice that the
    package is covered by a license which has not been placed in the
    <code class="varname">ACCEPTABLE_LICENSES</code> variable:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
<code class="prompt">%</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>make</code></strong>
===&gt; xv-3.10anb9 has an unacceptable license: xv-license.
===&gt;     To view the license, enter "/usr/bin/make show-license".
===&gt;     To indicate acceptance, add this line to your /etc/mk.conf:
===&gt;     ACCEPTABLE_LICENSES+=xv-license
*** Error code 1
    </pre>
<p>The license can be viewed with <span class="command"><strong>make
    show-license</strong></span>, and if the user so chooses, the line
    printed above can be added to <a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a> to
    convey to pkgsrc that it should not in the future fail because of
    that license:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
ACCEPTABLE_LICENSES+=xv-license
    </pre>
<p>When adding a package with a new license, the license text
    should be added to <code class="filename">pkgsrc/licenses</code> for
    displaying.  A list of known licenses can be seen in this
    directory.</p>
<p>When the license changes (in a way other than formatting),
    please make sure that the new license has a different name (e.g.,
    append the version number if it exists, or the date).  Just
    because a user told pkgsrc to build programs under a previous
    version of a license does not mean that pkgsrc should build
    programs under the new licenses.  The higher-level point is that
    pkgsrc does not evaluate licenses for reasonableness; the only
    test is a mechanistic test of whether a particular text has been
    approved by either of two bodies.</p>
<p>The use of <code class="varname">LICENSE=shareware</code>,
    <code class="varname">LICENSE=no-commercial-use</code>, and similar language
    is deprecated because it does not crisply refer to a particular
    license text.  Another problem with such usage is that it does not
    enable a user to tell pkgsrc to proceed for a single package
    without also telling pkgsrc to proceed for all packages with that
    tag.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.1.5.†“estricted packages">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="restricted-packages"></a>19.1.5.†“estricted packages</h3></div></div></div>
<p>Some licenses restrict how software may be re-distributed.
    Because a license tag is required unless the package is Free or
    Open Source, all packages with restrictions should have license
    tags.  By declaring the restrictions, package tools can
    automatically refrain from e.g. placing binary packages on FTP
    sites.</p>
<p>There are four restrictions that may be encoded, which are
    the cross product of sources (distfiles) and binaries not being
    placed on FTP sites and CD-ROMs.  Because this is rarely the exact
    language in any license, and because non-Free licenses tend to be
    different from each other, pkgsrc adopts a definition of FTP and
    CD-ROM.  Pkgsrc uses "FTP" to mean that the source or binary file
    should not be made available over the Internet at no charge.
    Pkgsrc uses "CD-ROM" to mean that the source or binary may not be
    made available on some kind of media, together with other source
    and binary packages, and which is sold for a distribution charge.
    </p>
<p>In order to encode these restrictions, the package system
    defines five make variables that can be set to note these
    restrictions:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem">
<p><code class="varname">RESTRICTED</code></p>
<p>This variable should be set whenever a restriction
	exists (regardless of its kind).  Set this variable to a
	string containing the reason for the restriction.  It should
	be understood that those wanting to understand the restriction
	will have to read the license, and perhaps seek advice of
	counsel.</p>
</li>
<li class="listitem">
<p><code class="varname">NO_BIN_ON_CDROM</code></p>
<p>Binaries may not be placed on CD-ROM containing other
	binary packages, for which a distribution charge may be made.
	In this case, set this variable to
	<code class="varname">${RESTRICTED}</code>.</p>
</li>
<li class="listitem">
<p><code class="varname">NO_BIN_ON_FTP</code></p>
<p>Binaries may not made available on the Internet without
	charge.  In this case, set this variable to
	<code class="varname">${RESTRICTED}</code>.  If this variable is set,
	binary packages will not be included on ftp.NetBSD.org.</p>
</li>
<li class="listitem">
<p><code class="varname">NO_SRC_ON_CDROM</code></p>
<p>Distfiles may not be placed on CD-ROM, together with
	other distfiles, for which a fee may be charged.  In this
	case, set this variable to <code class="varname">${RESTRICTED}</code>.
	</p>
</li>
<li class="listitem">
<p><code class="varname">NO_SRC_ON_FTP</code></p>
<p>Distfiles may not made available via FTP at no charge.
	In this case, set this variable to
	<code class="varname">${RESTRICTED}</code>.  If this variable is set,
	the distfile(s) will not be mirrored on ftp.NetBSD.org.</p>
</li>
</ul></div>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.1.6.†»andling dependencies">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="dependencies"></a>19.1.6.†»andling dependencies</h3></div></div></div>
<p>Your package may depend on some other package being present
    - and there are various ways of expressing this dependency.
    pkgsrc supports the <code class="varname">BUILD_DEPENDS</code> and
    <code class="varname">DEPENDS</code> definitions, the
    <code class="varname">USE_TOOLS</code> definition, as well as dependencies
    via <code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code>, which is the preferred way
    to handle dependencies, and which uses the variables named above.
    See <a class="xref" href="#buildlink" title="Chapter4.†¬uildlink methodology">Chapter4, <i>Buildlink methodology</i></a> for more information.</p>
<p>The basic difference between the two variables is as
    follows: The <code class="varname">DEPENDS</code> definition registers
    that pre-requisite in the binary package so it will be pulled in
    when the binary package is later installed, whilst the
    <code class="varname">BUILD_DEPENDS</code> definition does not, marking a
    dependency that is only needed for building the package.</p>
<p>This means that if you only need a package present whilst
    you are building, it should be noted as a
    <code class="varname">BUILD_DEPENDS</code>.</p>
<p>The format for a <code class="varname">BUILD_DEPENDS</code> and a
    <code class="varname">DEPENDS</code> definition is:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
&lt;pre-req-package-name&gt;:../../&lt;category&gt;/&lt;pre-req-package&gt;
    </pre>
<p>Please note that the <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">pre-req-package-name</span>&#8221;</span>
    may include any of the wildcard version numbers recognized by
    <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?pkg_info+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">pkg_info</span>(1)</span></a>.</p>
<div class="orderedlist"><ol class="orderedlist" type="1">
<li class="listitem">
<p>If your package needs another package's binaries or
	libraries to build or run, and if that package has a
	<code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code> file available, use it:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
.include "../../graphics/jpeg/buildlink3.mk"
	</pre>
</li>
<li class="listitem">
<p>If your package needs binaries from another package to build,
	use the <code class="varname">BUILD_DEPENDS</code> definition:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
BUILD_DEPENDS+= scons-[0-9]*:../../devel/scons
	</pre>
</li>
<li class="listitem"><p>If your package needs a library with which to link and
	there is no <code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code> file
	available, create one. Using
	<code class="varname">DEPENDS</code> won't be sufficient because the
	include files and libraries will be hidden from the compiler.</p></li>
<li class="listitem">
<p>If your package needs some executable to be able to run
	correctly and if there's no
	<code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code> file, this is specified
	using the <code class="varname">DEPENDS</code> variable. The
	<a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/print/lyx/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">print/lyx</code></a> package needs to
	be able to execute the latex binary from the teTeX package
	when it runs, and that is specified:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
DEPENDS+=        teTeX-[0-9]*:../../print/teTeX
	</pre>
</li>
<li class="listitem">
<p>You can use wildcards in package dependencies. Note that
	such wildcard dependencies are retained when creating binary
	packages. The dependency is checked when installing the binary
	package and any package which matches the pattern will be
	used. Wildcard dependencies should be used with care.</p>
<p>The <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">-[0-9]*</span>&#8221;</span> should be used instead of
	<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">-*</span>&#8221;</span> to avoid potentially ambiguous matches
	such as <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">tk-postgresql</span>&#8221;</span> matching a
	<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">tk-*</span>&#8221;</span> <code class="varname">DEPENDS</code>.</p>
<p>Wildcards can also be used to specify that a package
	will only build against a certain minimum version of a
	pre-requisite:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
DEPENDS+=       ImageMagick&gt;=6.0:../../graphics/ImageMagick
	</pre>
<p>This means that the package will build using version 6.0
	of ImageMagick or newer. Such a dependency may be warranted
	if, for example, the command line options of an executable
	have changed.</p>
<p>If you need to depend on minimum versions of libraries,
	see the buildlink section of the pkgsrc guide.</p>
<p>For security fixes, please update the package
	vulnerabilities file. See <a class="xref" href="#security-handling" title="19.1.10.†»andling packages with security problems">Section9.1.10, &#8220;Handling packages with security problems&#8221;</a> for more
	information.</p>
</li>
</ol></div>
<p>If your package needs files from another package to build,
    add the relevant distribution files to
    <code class="varname">DISTFILES</code>, so they will be extracted
    automatically. See the <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/print/ghostscript/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">print/ghostscript</code></a> package for an example.
    (It relies on the jpeg sources being present in source form
    during the build.)</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.1.7.†»andling conflicts with other packages">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="conflicts"></a>19.1.7.†»andling conflicts with other packages</h3></div></div></div>
<p>Your package may conflict with other packages a user might
    already have installed on his system, e.g. if your package
    installs the same set of files as another package in the pkgsrc
    tree.</p>
<p>In this case you can set <code class="varname">CONFLICTS</code> to a
    space-separated list of packages (including version string) your
    package conflicts with.</p>
<p>For example, <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/x11/Xaw3d/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">x11/Xaw3d</code></a>
    and <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/x11/Xaw-Xpm/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">x11/Xaw-Xpm</code></a>
    install the same shared library, thus you set in
    <code class="filename">pkgsrc/x11/Xaw3d/Makefile</code>:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
CONFLICTS=      Xaw-Xpm-[0-9]*
    </pre>
<p>and in <code class="filename">pkgsrc/x11/Xaw-Xpm/Makefile</code>:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
CONFLICTS=      Xaw3d-[0-9]*
    </pre>
<p>Packages will automatically conflict with other packages
    with the name prefix and a different version
    string. <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">Xaw3d-1.5</span>&#8221;</span> e.g. will automatically
    conflict with the older version <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">Xaw3d-1.3</span>&#8221;</span>.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.1.8.†–ackages that cannot or should not be built">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="not-building-packages"></a>19.1.8.†–ackages that cannot or should not be built</h3></div></div></div>
<p>There are several reasons why a package might be
    instructed to not build under certain circumstances.  If the
    package builds and runs on most platforms, the exceptions
    should be noted with <code class="varname">NOT_FOR_PLATFORM</code>.  If
    the package builds and runs on a small handful of platforms,
    set <code class="varname">ONLY_FOR_PLATFORM</code> instead.
    Both <code class="varname">ONLY_FOR_PLATFORM</code> and
    <code class="varname">NOT_FOR_PLATFORM</code> are OS triples
    (OS-version-platform) that can use glob-style
    wildcards.</p>
<p>Some packages are tightly bound to a specific version of an
    operating system, e.g. LKMs or <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/sysutils/lsof/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">sysutils/lsof</code></a>.  Such binary packages are not
    backwards compatible with other versions of the OS, and should be
    uploaded to a version specific directory on the FTP server.  Mark
    these packages by setting <code class="varname">OSVERSION_SPECIFIC</code> to
    <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">yes</span>&#8221;</span>.  This variable is not currently used by any of
    the package system internals, but may be used in the
    future.</p>
<p>If the package should be skipped (for example, because it
    provides functionality already provided by the system), set
    <code class="varname">PKG_SKIP_REASON</code> to a descriptive message.  If
    the package should fail because some preconditions are not met,
    set <code class="varname">PKG_FAIL_REASON</code> to a descriptive
    message.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.1.9.†–ackages which should not be deleted, once installed">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="undeletable-packages"></a>19.1.9.†–ackages which should not be deleted, once installed</h3></div></div></div>
<p>To ensure that a package may not be deleted, once it has been
    installed, the <code class="varname">PKG_PRESERVE</code> definition should
    be set in the package Makefile. This will be carried into any
    binary package that is made from this pkgsrc entry. A
    <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">preserved</span>&#8221;</span> package will
    not be deleted using <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?pkg_delete+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">pkg_delete</span>(1)</span></a> unless the
    <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">-f</span>&#8221;</span> option is used.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.1.10.†»andling packages with security problems">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="security-handling"></a>19.1.10.†»andling packages with security problems</h3></div></div></div>
<p>When a vulnerability is found, this should be noted in
    <code class="filename">localsrc/security/advisories/pkg-vulnerabilities</code>,
    and after committing that file, use <span class="command"><strong>make upload</strong></span>
    in the same directory to update the file on ftp.NetBSD.org.</p>
<p>After fixing the vulnerability by a patch, its
    <code class="varname">PKGREVISION</code> should be increased (this
    is of course not necessary if the problem is fixed by using
    a newer release of the software).</p>
<p>Also, if the fix should be applied to the stable pkgsrc
    branch, be sure to submit a pullup request!</p>
<p>Binary packages already on ftp.NetBSD.org will be handled
    semi-automatically by a weekly cron job.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.1.11.†»ow to handle incrementing versions when fixing an existing package">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="bumping-pkgrevision"></a>19.1.11.†»ow to handle incrementing versions when fixing an existing package</h3></div></div></div>
<p>When making fixes to an existing package it can be useful
    to change the version number in <code class="varname">PKGNAME</code>. To
    avoid conflicting with future versions by the original author, a
    <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">nb1</span>&#8221;</span>, <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">nb2</span>&#8221;</span>, ... suffix can be used
    on package versions by setting <code class="varname">PKGREVISION=1</code>
    (2, ...). The <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">nb</span>&#8221;</span> is treated like a
    <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">.</span>&#8221;</span> by the package tools. e.g.</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
DISTNAME=       foo-17.42
PKGREVISION=    9
    </pre>
<p>will result in a <code class="varname">PKGNAME</code> of
    <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">foo-17.42nb9</span>&#8221;</span>. If you want to use the original
    value of <code class="varname">PKGNAME</code> without the <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">nbX</span>&#8221;</span>
    suffix, e.g. for setting <code class="varname">DIST_SUBDIR</code>, use
    <code class="varname">PKGNAME_NOREV</code>.</p>
<p>When a new release of the package is released, the
    <code class="varname">PKGREVISION</code> should be removed, e.g. on a new
    minor release of the above package, things should be like:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
DISTNAME=       foo-17.43
    </pre>
<p><code class="varname">PKGREVISION</code> should be incremented for any
    non-trivial change in the resulting binary package.  Without a
    <code class="varname">PKGREVISION</code> bump, someone with the previous
    version installed has no way of knowing that their package is out
    of date.  Thus, changes without increasing
    <code class="varname">PKGREVISION</code> are essentially labeled "this is so
    trivial that no reasonable person would want to upgrade", and this
    is the rough test for when increasing
    <code class="varname">PKGREVISION</code> is appropriate.  Examples of
    changes that do not merit increasing
    <code class="varname">PKGREVISION</code> are:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p>Changing <code class="varname">HOMEPAGE</code>,
      <code class="varname">MAINTAINER</code>, <code class="varname">OWNER</code>,
      or comments in Makefile.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>
      Changing build variables if the resulting binary package is the same.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>
      Changing <code class="filename">DESCR</code>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>
      Adding <code class="varname">PKG_OPTIONS</code> if the default options don't change.</p></li>
</ul></div>
<p>Examples of changes that do merit an increase to
    <code class="varname">PKGREVISION</code> include:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p>
      Security fixes</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>
      Changes or additions to a patch file</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>
      Changes to the <code class="filename">PLIST</code></p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>A dependency is changed or renamed.</p></li>
</ul></div>
<p>PKGREVISION must also be incremented when dependencies have ABI
    changes.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.1.12.†”ubstituting variable text in the package files (the SUBST framework)">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="fixes.subst"></a>19.1.12.†”ubstituting variable text in the package files (the SUBST framework)</h3></div></div></div>
<p>When you want to replace the same text in multiple files
    or when the replacement text varies, patches alone cannot help.
    This is where the SUBST framework comes in. It provides an
    easy-to-use interface for replacing text in files.
    Example:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
SUBST_CLASSES+=                 fix-paths
SUBST_STAGE.fix-paths=          pre-configure
SUBST_MESSAGE.fix-paths=        Fixing absolute paths.
SUBST_FILES.fix-paths=          src/*.c
SUBST_FILES.fix-paths+=         scripts/*.sh
SUBST_SED.fix-paths=            -e 's,"/usr/local,"${PREFIX},g'
SUBST_SED.fix-paths+=           -e 's,"/var/log,"${VARBASE}/log,g'
    </pre>
<p><code class="varname">SUBST_CLASSES</code> is a list of identifiers
    that are used to identify the different SUBST blocks that are
    defined. The SUBST framework is heavily used by pkgsrc, so it is
    important to always use the <code class="literal">+=</code> operator with
    this variable. Otherwise some substitutions may be
    skipped.</p>
<p>The remaining variables of each SUBST block are
    parameterized with the identifier from the first line
    (<code class="literal">fix-paths</code> in this case.) They can be seen as
    parameters to a function call.</p>
<p><code class="varname">SUBST_STAGE.*</code> specifies the stage at
    which the replacement will take place. All combinations of
    <code class="literal">pre-</code>, <code class="literal">do-</code> and
    <code class="literal">post-</code> together with a phase name are
    possible, though only few are actually used. Most commonly used
    are <code class="literal">post-patch</code> and
    <code class="literal">pre-configure</code>. Of these two,
    <code class="literal">pre-configure</code> should be preferred because
    then it is possible to run <span class="command"><strong>bmake patch</strong></span> and
    have the state after applying the patches but before making any
    other changes. This is especially useful when you are debugging
    a package in order to create new patches for it. Similarly,
    <code class="literal">post-build</code> is preferred over
    <code class="literal">pre-install</code>, because the install phase should
    generally be kept as simple as possible. When you use
    <code class="literal">post-build</code>, you have the same files in the
    working directory that will be installed later, so you can check
    if the substitution has succeeded.</p>
<p><code class="varname">SUBST_MESSAGE.*</code> is an optional text
    that is printed just before the substitution is done.</p>
<p><code class="varname">SUBST_FILES.*</code> is the list of shell
    globbing patterns that specifies the files in which the
    substitution will take place. The patterns are interpreted
    relatively to the <code class="varname">WRKSRC</code> directory.</p>
<p><code class="varname">SUBST_SED.*</code> is a list of arguments to
    <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?sed+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">sed</span>(1)</span></a> that specify the actual substitution. Every sed
    command should be prefixed with <code class="literal">-e</code>, so that
    all SUBST blocks look uniform.</p>
<p>There are some more variables, but they are so seldomly
    used that they are only documented in the
    <code class="filename">mk/subst.mk</code> file.</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="19.2.†∆ixing problems in the fetch phase">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="fixes.fetch"></a>19.2.†∆ixing problems in the <span class="emphasis"><em>fetch</em></span> phase</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.2.1.†–ackages whose distfiles aren't available for plain downloading">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="no-plain-download"></a>19.2.1.†–ackages whose distfiles aren't available for plain downloading</h3></div></div></div>
<p>If you need to download from a dynamic URL you can set
    <code class="varname">DYNAMIC_MASTER_SITES</code> and a <span class="command"><strong>make
    fetch</strong></span> will call <code class="filename">files/getsite.sh</code>
    with the name of each file to download as an argument, expecting
    it to output the URL of the directory from which to download
    it. <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/graphics/ns-cult3d/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">graphics/ns-cult3d</code></a> is an
    example of this usage.</p>
<p>If the download can't be automated, because the user must
    submit personal information to apply for a password, or must pay
    for the source, or whatever, you can set
    <code class="varname">FETCH_MESSAGE</code> to a list of lines that are
    displayed to the user before aborting the build. Example:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
FETCH_MESSAGE=  "Please download the files"
FETCH_MESSAGE+= "    "${DISTFILES:Q}
FETCH_MESSAGE+= "manually from "${MASTER_SITES:Q}"."
    </pre>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.2.2.†»ow to handle modified distfiles with the 'old' name">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="modified-distfiles-same-name"></a>19.2.2.†»ow to handle modified distfiles with the 'old' name</h3></div></div></div>
<p>Sometimes authors of a software package make some
    modifications after the software was released, and they put up a
    new distfile without changing the package's version number. If a
    package is already in pkgsrc at that time, the checksum will
    no longer match. The contents of the new distfile should be
    compared against the old one before changing anything, to make
    sure the distfile was really updated on purpose, and that
    no trojan horse or so crept in.
    Please mention that the distfiles were compared and what was found
    in your commit message.
    Then, the correct way to work around this is to
    set <code class="varname">DIST_SUBDIR</code> to a unique directory name,
    usually based on <code class="varname">PKGNAME_NOREV</code>. All
    <code class="varname">DISTFILES</code> and
    <code class="varname">PATCHFILES</code> for this package will be put in that
    subdirectory of the local distfiles directory.
    (See <a class="xref" href="#bumping-pkgrevision" title="19.1.11.†»ow to handle incrementing versions when fixing an existing package">Section9.1.11, &#8220;How to handle incrementing versions when fixing an existing package&#8221;</a> for more details.)
    In case this
    happens more often, <code class="varname">PKGNAME</code> can be used (thus
    including the <code class="filename">nbX</code> suffix) or a date stamp
    can be appended, like <code class="varname">${PKGNAME_NOREV}-YYYYMMDD</code>.
    Do not forget regenerating the <code class="filename">distinfo</code> file
    after that, since it contains the <code class="varname">DIST_SUBDIR</code>
    path in the filenames.
    Also increase the PKGREVISION if the installed package is different.
    Furthermore, a mail to the package's authors seems appropriate
    telling them that changing distfiles after releases without
    changing the file names is not good practice.</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="19.3.†∆ixing problems in the configure phase">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="fixes.configure"></a>19.3.†∆ixing problems in the <span class="emphasis"><em>configure</em></span> phase</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.3.1.†”hared libraries - libtool">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="fixes.libtool"></a>19.3.1.†”hared libraries - libtool</h3></div></div></div>
<p>pkgsrc supports many different machines, with different
    object formats like a.out and ELF, and varying abilities to do
    shared library and dynamic loading at all. To accompany this,
    varying commands and options have to be passed to the
    compiler, linker, etc. to get the Right Thing, which can be
    pretty annoying especially if you don't have all the machines
    at your hand to test things.  The
    <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/devel/libtool/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">devel/libtool</code></a> pkg
    can help here, as it just <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">knows</span>&#8221;</span> how to build
    both static and dynamic libraries from a set of source files,
    thus being platform-independent.</p>
<p>Here's how to use libtool in a package in seven simple
    steps:</p>
<div class="orderedlist"><ol class="orderedlist" type="1">
<li class="listitem"><p>Add <code class="varname">USE_LIBTOOL=yes</code> to the package
	Makefile.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>For library objects, use <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">${LIBTOOL} --mode=compile
	${CC}</span>&#8221;</span> in place of <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">${CC}</span>&#8221;</span>. You could even
	add it to the definition of <code class="varname">CC</code>, if only
	libraries are being built in a given Makefile. This one command
	will build both PIC and non-PIC library objects, so you need not
	have separate shared and non-shared library rules.</p></li>
<li class="listitem">
<p>For the linking of the library, remove any
	<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">ar</span>&#8221;</span>, <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">ranlib</span>&#8221;</span>, and <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">ld
	-Bshareable</span>&#8221;</span> commands, and instead use:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
${LIBTOOL} --mode=link \
    ${CC} -o ${.TARGET:.a=.la} \
        ${OBJS:.o=.lo} \
        -rpath ${PREFIX}/lib \
        -version-info major:minor
	</pre>
<p>Note that the library is changed to have a
	<code class="filename">.la</code> extension, and the objects are
	changed to have a <code class="filename">.lo</code>
	extension. Change <code class="varname">OBJS</code> as
	necessary. This automatically creates all of the
	<code class="filename">.a</code>,
	<code class="filename">.so.major.minor</code>, and ELF symlinks (if
	necessary) in the build directory. Be sure to include
	<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">-version-info</span>&#8221;</span>, especially when major and
	minor are zero, as libtool will otherwise strip off the
	shared library version.</p>
<p>From the libtool manual:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
So, libtool library versions are described by three integers:

CURRENT
The most recent interface number that this library implements.

REVISION
The implementation number of the CURRENT interface.

AGE
The difference between the newest and oldest interfaces that
this library implements.  In other words, the library implements
all the interface numbers in the range from number `CURRENT -
AGE' to `CURRENT'.

If two libraries have identical CURRENT and AGE numbers, then the
dynamic linker chooses the library with the greater REVISION number.
	</pre>
<p>The <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">-release</span>&#8221;</span> option will produce
	different results for a.out and ELF (excluding symlinks)
	in only one case. An ELF library of the form
	<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">libfoo-release.so.<span class="emphasis"><em>x</em></span>.<span class="emphasis"><em>y</em></span></span>&#8221;</span>
	will have a symlink of
	<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">libfoo.so.<span class="emphasis"><em>x</em></span>.<span class="emphasis"><em>y</em></span></span>&#8221;</span>
	on an a.out platform. This is handled
	automatically.</p>
<p>The <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">-rpath argument</span>&#8221;</span> is the install
	directory of the library being built.</p>
<p>In the <code class="filename">PLIST</code>, include only the
	<code class="filename">.la</code> file, the other files will be
	added automatically.</p>
</li>
<li class="listitem">
<p>When linking shared object (<code class="filename">.so</code>)
	files, i.e. files that are loaded via <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?dlopen+3+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">dlopen</span>(3)</span></a>, NOT
	shared libraries, use <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">-module
	-avoid-version</span>&#8221;</span> to prevent them getting version
	tacked on.</p>
<p>The <code class="filename">PLIST</code> file gets the
	<code class="filename">foo.so</code> entry.</p>
</li>
<li class="listitem">
<p>When linking programs that depend on these libraries
	<span class="emphasis"><em>before</em></span> they are installed, preface
	the <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?cc+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">cc</span>(1)</span></a> or <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?ld+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">ld</span>(1)</span></a> line with <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">${LIBTOOL}
	--mode=link</span>&#8221;</span>, and it will find the correct
	libraries (static or shared), but please be aware that
	libtool will not allow you to specify a relative path in
	-L (such as <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">-L../somelib</span>&#8221;</span>), because it
	expects you to change that argument to be the
	<code class="filename">.la</code> file. e.g.</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
${LIBTOOL} --mode=link ${CC} -o someprog -L../somelib -lsomelib
	</pre>
<p>should be changed to:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
${LIBTOOL} --mode=link ${CC} -o <em class="replaceable"><code>someprog</code></em> <em class="replaceable"><code>../somelib/somelib.la</code></em>
	</pre>
<p>and it will do the right thing with the libraries.</p>
</li>
<li class="listitem">
<p>When installing libraries, preface the <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?install+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">install</span>(1)</span></a>
	or <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?cp+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">cp</span>(1)</span></a> command with <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">${LIBTOOL}
	--mode=install</span>&#8221;</span>, and change the library name to
	<code class="filename">.la</code>. e.g.</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
${LIBTOOL} --mode=install ${BSD_INSTALL_LIB} ${SOMELIB:.a=.la} ${PREFIX}/lib
	</pre>
<p>This will install the static <code class="filename">.a</code>,
	shared library, any needed symlinks, and run
	<a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?ldconfig+8+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">ldconfig</span>(8)</span></a>.</p>
</li>
<li class="listitem"><p>In your <code class="filename">PLIST</code>, include only
	the <code class="filename">.la</code>
	file (this is a change from previous behaviour).</p></li>
</ol></div>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.3.2.†’sing libtool on GNU packages that already support libtool">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="using-libtool"></a>19.3.2.†’sing libtool on GNU packages that already support libtool</h3></div></div></div>
<p>Add <code class="varname">USE_LIBTOOL=yes</code> to the
    package Makefile. This will override the package's own libtool
    in most cases.  For older libtool using packages,  libtool is
    made by ltconfig script during the do-configure step; you can
    check the libtool script location by doing <span class="command"><strong>make
    configure; find work*/ -name libtool</strong></span>.</p>
<p><code class="varname">LIBTOOL_OVERRIDE</code> specifies which libtool
    scripts, relative to <code class="varname">WRKSRC</code>, to override.  By
    default, it is set to <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">libtool */libtool
    */*/libtool</span>&#8221;</span>.  If this does not match the location of the
    package's libtool script(s), set it as appropriate.</p>
<p>If you do not need <code class="filename">*.a</code> static
    libraries built and installed, then use
    <code class="varname">SHLIBTOOL_OVERRIDE</code> instead.</p>
<p>If your package makes use of the platform-independent library
    for loading dynamic shared objects, that comes with libtool
    (libltdl), you should include devel/libltdl/buildlink3.mk.</p>
<p>Some packages use libtool incorrectly so that the package
    may not work or build in some circumstances. Some of the more
    common errors are:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem">
<p>The inclusion of a shared object (-module) as a dependent library in an
	executable or library. This in itself isn't a problem if one of two things
	has been done:</p>
<div class="orderedlist"><ol class="orderedlist" type="1">
<li class="listitem"><p>The shared object is named correctly, i.e.
	    <code class="filename">libfoo.la</code>, not
	    <code class="filename">foo.la</code></p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>The -dlopen option is used when linking an executable.</p></li>
</ol></div>
</li>
<li class="listitem"><p>The use of libltdl without the correct calls to initialisation routines.
	The function lt_dlinit() should be called and the macro
	<code class="varname">LTDL_SET_PRELOADED_SYMBOLS</code> included in
	executables.</p></li>
</ul></div>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.3.3.†«NU Autoconf/Automake">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="autoconf-automake"></a>19.3.3.†«NU Autoconf/Automake</h3></div></div></div>
<p>If a package needs GNU autoconf or automake to be executed
    to regenerate the configure script and Makefile.in makefile
    templates, then they should be executed in a pre-configure
    target.</p>
<p>For packages that need only autoconf:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
AUTOCONF_REQD=  2.50            # if default version is not good enough
USE_TOOLS+=     autoconf        # use "autoconf213" for autoconf-2.13
...

pre-configure:
        cd ${WRKSRC} &amp;&amp; autoconf

...
    </pre>
<p>and for packages that need automake and autoconf:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
AUTOMAKE_REQD=  1.7.1           # if default version is not good enough
USE_TOOLS+=     automake        # use "automake14" for automake-1.4
...

pre-configure:
        set -e; cd ${WRKSRC}; \
        aclocal; autoheader; automake -a --foreign -i; autoconf

...
    </pre>
<p>Packages which use GNU Automake will almost certainly
    require GNU Make.</p>
<p>There are times when the configure process makes
    additional changes to the generated files, which then causes
    the build process to try to re-execute the automake sequence.
    This is prevented by touching various files in the configure
    stage. If this causes problems with your package you can set
    <code class="varname">AUTOMAKE_OVERRIDE=NO</code> in the package
    Makefile.</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="19.4.†–rogramming languages">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="programming-languages"></a>19.4.†–rogramming languages</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.4.1.†√, C++, and Fortran">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="basic-programming-languages"></a>19.4.1.†√, C++, and Fortran</h3></div></div></div>
<p>Compilers for the C, C++, and Fortran languages comes with
    the NetBSD base system.  By default, pkgsrc assumes that a package
    is written in C and will hide all other compilers (via the wrapper
    framework, see <a class="xref" href="#buildlink" title="Chapter4.†¬uildlink methodology">Chapter4, <i>Buildlink methodology</i></a>).</p>
<p>To declare which language's compiler a package needs, set
    the <code class="varname">USE_LANGUAGES</code> variable. Allowed values
    currently are <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">c</span>&#8221;</span>, <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">c++</span>&#8221;</span>, and
    <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">fortran</span>&#8221;</span> (and any combination).  The default is
    <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">c</span>&#8221;</span>.  Packages using GNU configure scripts, even if
    written in C++, usually need a C compiler for the configure
    phase.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.4.2.† ava">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="java-programming-language"></a>19.4.2.† ava</h3></div></div></div>
<p>If a program is written in Java, use the Java framework in
    pkgsrc.  The package must include
    <code class="filename">../../mk/java-vm.mk</code>.  This Makefile fragment
    provides the following variables:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">USE_JAVA</code> defines if a build
      dependency on the JDK is added.  If
      <code class="varname">USE_JAVA</code> is set to <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">run</span>&#8221;</span>, then
      there is only a runtime dependency on the JDK.  The default is
      <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">yes</span>&#8221;</span>, which also adds a build dependency on the
      JDK.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Set <code class="varname">USE_JAVA2</code> to declare that
      a package needs a Java2 implementation.  The supported values
      are <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">yes</span>&#8221;</span>, <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">1.4</span>&#8221;</span>, and
      <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">1.5</span>&#8221;</span>.  <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">yes</span>&#8221;</span> accepts any Java2
      implementation, <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">1.4</span>&#8221;</span> insists on versions 1.4 or
      above, and <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">1.5</span>&#8221;</span> only accepts versions 1.5 or
      above. This variable is not set by default.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">PKG_JAVA_HOME</code> is
      automatically set to the runtime location of the used Java
      implementation dependency. It may be used to set
      <code class="varname">JAVA_HOME</code> to a good value if the program
      needs this variable to be defined.
      </p></li>
</ul></div>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.4.3.†–ackages containing perl scripts">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="perl-scripts"></a>19.4.3.†–ackages containing perl scripts</h3></div></div></div>
<p>If your package contains interpreted perl scripts, add
    <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">perl</span>&#8221;</span> to the <code class="varname">USE_TOOLS</code> variable
    and set <code class="varname">REPLACE_PERL</code> to ensure that the proper
    interpreter path is set. <code class="varname">REPLACE_PERL</code> should
    contain a list of scripts, relative to <code class="varname">WRKSRC</code>,
    that you want adjusted.  Every occurrence of
    <code class="filename">*/bin/perl</code> will be replaced with the full
    path to the perl executable.</p>
<p>If a particular version of perl is needed, set the
    <code class="varname">PERL5_REQD</code> variable to the version number.  The
    default is <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">5.0</span>&#8221;</span>.</p>
<p>See <a class="xref" href="#perl-modules" title="19.6.6.†–ackages installing perl modules">Section9.6.6, &#8220;Packages installing perl modules&#8221;</a> for information
    about handling perl modules.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.4.4.†Ōther programming languages">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="other-programming-languages"></a>19.4.4.†Ōther programming languages</h3></div></div></div>
<p>Currently, there is no special handling for other languages
    in pkgsrc.  If a compiler package provides a
    <code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code> file, include that, otherwise
    just add a (build) dependency on the appropriate compiler
    package.</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="19.5.†∆ixing problems in the build phase">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="fixes.build"></a>19.5.†∆ixing problems in the <span class="emphasis"><em>build</em></span> phase</h2></div></div></div>
<p>The most common failures when building a package are that
	some platforms do not provide certain header files, functions or
	libraries, or they provide the functions in a library that the
	original package author didn't know. To work around this, you
	can rewrite the source code in most cases so that it does not
	use the missing functions or provides a replacement function.</p>
<div class="sect2" title="19.5.1.†√ompiling C and C++ code conditionally">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="fixes.build.cpp"></a>19.5.1.†√ompiling C and C++ code conditionally</h3></div></div></div>
<p>If a package already comes with a GNU configure script, the
	preferred way to fix the build failure is to change the
	configure script, not the code. In the other cases, you can
	utilize the C preprocessor, which defines certain macros
	depending on the operating system and hardware architecture it
	compiles for. These macros can be queried using for example
	<code class="varname">#if defined(__i386)</code>. Almost every operating
	system, hardware architecture and compiler has its own macro.
	For example, if the macros <code class="varname">__GNUC__</code>,
	<code class="varname">__i386__</code> and <code class="varname">__NetBSD__</code>
	are all defined, you know that you are using NetBSD on an i386
	compatible CPU, and your compiler is GCC.</p>
<p>The list of the following macros for hardware and
	operating system depends on the compiler that is used. For
	example, if you want to conditionally compile code on Solaris,
	don't use <code class="varname">__sun__</code>, as the SunPro compiler
	does not define it. Use <code class="varname">__sun</code> instead.</p>
<div class="sect3" title="19.5.1.1.†√ preprocessor macros to identify the operating system">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title">
<a name="fixes.build.cpp.os"></a>19.5.1.1.†√ preprocessor macros to identify the operating system</h4></div></div></div>
<p>To distinguish between 4.4 BSD-derived systems and the
        rest of the world, you should use the following code.</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
#include &lt;sys/param.h&gt;
#if (defined(BSD) &amp;&amp; BSD &gt;= 199306)
/* BSD-specific code goes here */
#else
/* non-BSD-specific code goes here */
#endif
</pre>
<p>If this distinction is not fine enough, you can also test
	for the following macros.</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
FreeBSD     __FreeBSD__
DragonFly   __DragonFly__
Interix     __INTERIX
IRIX        __sgi (TODO: get a definite source for this)
Linux       linux, __linux, __linux__
NetBSD      __NetBSD__
OpenBSD     __OpenBSD__
Solaris     sun, __sun
</pre>
</div>
<div class="sect3" title="19.5.1.2.†√ preprocessor macros to identify the hardware architecture">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title">
<a name="fixes.build.cpp.arch"></a>19.5.1.2.†√ preprocessor macros to identify the hardware architecture</h4></div></div></div>
<pre class="programlisting">
i386        i386, __i386, __i386__
MIPS        __mips
SPARC       sparc, __sparc
</pre>
</div>
<div class="sect3" title="19.5.1.3.†√ preprocessor macros to identify the compiler">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title">
<a name="fixes.build.cpp.compiler"></a>19.5.1.3.†√ preprocessor macros to identify the compiler</h4></div></div></div>
<pre class="programlisting">
GCC         __GNUC__ (major version), __GNUC_MINOR__
MIPSpro     _COMPILER_VERSION (0x741 for MIPSpro 7.41)
SunPro      __SUNPRO_C (0x570 for Sun C 5.7)
SunPro C++  __SUNPRO_CC (0x580 for Sun C++ 5.8)
</pre>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.5.2.†»ow to handle compiler bugs">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="compiler-bugs"></a>19.5.2.†»ow to handle compiler bugs</h3></div></div></div>
<p>Some source files trigger bugs in the compiler, based on
        combinations of compiler version and architecture and almost
        always relation to optimisation being enabled.  Common symptoms
        are gcc internal errors or never finishing compiling a
	file.</p>
<p>Typically, a workaround involves testing the
        <code class="varname">MACHINE_ARCH</code> and compiler version, disabling
        optimisation for that combination of file,
	<code class="varname">MACHINE_ARCH</code> and compiler, and documenting it
	in <code class="filename">pkgsrc/doc/HACKS</code>. See that file for a
	number of examples.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.5.3.†’ndefined reference to &#8220;...&#8221;">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="undefined-reference"></a>19.5.3.†’ndefined reference to <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">...</span>&#8221;</span>
</h3></div></div></div>
<p>This error message often means that a package did not
	link to a shared library it needs. The following functions are
	known to cause this error message over and over.</p>
<div class="informaltable">
<a name="undefined-reference-functions"></a><table border="1">
<colgroup>
<col>
<col>
<col>
</colgroup>
<thead><tr>
<th>Function</th>
<th>Library</th>
<th>Affected platforms</th>
</tr></thead>
<tbody>
<tr>
<td>accept, bind, connect</td>
<td>-lsocket</td>
<td>Solaris</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>crypt</td>
<td>-lcrypt</td>
<td>DragonFly, NetBSD</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>dlopen, dlsym</td>
<td>-ldl</td>
<td>Linux</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>gethost*</td>
<td>-lnsl</td>
<td>Solaris</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>inet_aton</td>
<td>-lresolv</td>
<td>Solaris</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>nanosleep, sem_*, timer_*</td>
<td>-lrt</td>
<td>Solaris</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>openpty</td>
<td>-lutil</td>
<td>Linux</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
</div>
<p>To fix these linker errors, it is often sufficient to say
    <code class="literal">LIBS.<em class="replaceable"><code>OperatingSystem</code></em>+=
    -l<em class="replaceable"><code>foo</code></em></code> to the package
    <code class="filename">Makefile</code> and then say <span class="command"><strong>bmake clean;
    bmake</strong></span>.</p>
<div class="sect3" title="19.5.3.1.†”pecial issue: The SunPro compiler">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title">
<a name="undefined-reference-sunpro"></a>19.5.3.1.†”pecial issue: The SunPro compiler</h4></div></div></div>
<p>When you are using the SunPro compiler, there is another
possibility. That compiler cannot handle the following code:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
extern int extern_func(int);

static inline int
inline_func(int x)
{
        return extern_func(x);
}

int main(void)
{
        return 0;
}
</pre>
<p>It generates the code for <code class="function">inline_func</code> even if
that function is never used. This code then refers to
<code class="function">extern_func</code>, which can usually not be resolved. To
solve this problem you can try to tell the package to disable inlining
of functions.</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.5.4.†“unning out of memory">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="out-of-memory"></a>19.5.4.†“unning out of memory</h3></div></div></div>
<p>Sometimes packages fail to build because the compiler runs
    into an operating system specific soft limit.  With the
    <code class="varname">UNLIMIT_RESOURCES</code> variable pkgsrc can be told
    to unlimit the resources.  Currently, the allowed values are
    <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">datasize</span>&#8221;</span> and <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">stacksize</span>&#8221;</span> (or both).
    Setting this variable is similar to running the shell builtin
    <span class="command"><strong>ulimit</strong></span> command to raise the maximum data
    segment size or maximum stack size of a process, respectively, to
    their hard limits.</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="19.6.†∆ixing problems in the install phase">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="fixes.install"></a>19.6.†∆ixing problems in the <span class="emphasis"><em>install</em></span> phase</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.6.1.†√reating needed directories">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="install-scripts"></a>19.6.1.†√reating needed directories</h3></div></div></div>
<p>The BSD-compatible <span class="command"><strong>install</strong></span> supplied
    with some operating systems cannot create more than one
    directory at a time. As such, you should call
    <code class="literal">${INSTALL_*_DIR}</code> like this:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
${INSTALL_DATA_DIR} ${PREFIX}/dir1
${INSTALL_DATA_DIR} ${PREFIX}/dir2
    </pre>
<p>You can also just append <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote"><code class="literal">dir1
    dir2</code></span>&#8221;</span> to the
    <code class="varname">INSTALLATION_DIRS</code> variable, which will
    automatically do the right thing.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.6.2.†◊here to install documentation">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="where-to-install-documentation"></a>19.6.2.†◊here to install documentation</h3></div></div></div>
<p>In general, documentation should be installed into
    <code class="filename">${PREFIX}/share/doc/${PKGBASE}</code> or
    <code class="filename">${PREFIX}/share/doc/${PKGNAME}</code> (the latter
    includes the version number of the package).</p>
<p>Many modern packages using GNU autoconf allow to set the
    directory where HTML documentation is installed with the
    <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">--with-html-dir</span>&#8221;</span> option. Sometimes using this flag
    is needed because otherwise the documentation ends up in
    <code class="filename">${PREFIX}/share/doc/html</code> or other
    places.</p>
<p>An exception to the above is that library API documentation
    generated with the <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/textproc/gtk-doc/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">textproc/gtk-doc</code></a> tools, for use by special
    browsers (devhelp) should be left at their default location, which
    is <code class="filename">${PREFIX}/share/gtk-doc</code>.  Such
    documentation can be recognized from files ending in
    <code class="filename">.devhelp</code> or <code class="filename">.devhelp2</code>.
    (It is also acceptable to install such files in
    <code class="filename">${PREFIX}/share/doc/${PKGBASE}</code> or
    <code class="filename">${PREFIX}/share/doc/${PKGNAME}</code>; the
    <code class="filename">.devhelp*</code> file must be directly in that
    directory then, no additional subdirectory level is allowed in
    this case. This is usually achieved by using
    <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">--with-html-dir=${PREFIX}/share/doc</span>&#8221;</span>.
    <code class="filename">${PREFIX}/share/gtk-doc</code> is preferred
    though.)</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.6.3.†…nstalling highscore files">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="installing-score-files"></a>19.6.3.†…nstalling highscore files</h3></div></div></div>
<p>Certain packages, most of them in the games category, install
    a score file that allows all users on the system to record their
    highscores.  In order for this to work, the binaries need to be
    installed setgid and the score files owned by the appropriate
    group and/or owner (traditionally the "games" user/group).  The
    following variables, documented in more detail in
    <code class="filename">mk/defaults/mk.conf</code>, control this
    behaviour: <code class="varname">SETGIDGAME</code>,
    <code class="varname">GAMEDATAMODE</code>, <code class="varname">GAMEGRP</code>,
    <code class="varname">GAMEMODE</code>, <code class="varname">GAMEOWN</code>.</p>
<p>Note that per default, setgid installation of games is
    disabled;  setting <code class="varname">SETGIDGAME=YES</code> will set all
    the other variables accordingly.</p>
<p>A package should therefore never hard code file ownership or
    access permissions but rely on <code class="varname">INSTALL_GAME</code> and
    <code class="varname">INSTALL_GAME_DATA</code> to set these
    correctly.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.6.4.†Ńdding DESTDIR support to packages">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="destdir-support"></a>19.6.4.†Ńdding DESTDIR support to packages</h3></div></div></div>
<p><code class="varname">DESTDIR</code> support means that a package
    installs into a staging directory, not the final location of the
    files. Then a binary package is created which can be used for
    installation as usual. There are two ways: Either the package must
    install as root (<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">destdir</span>&#8221;</span>) or the package can
    install as non-root user (<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">user-destdir</span>&#8221;</span>).</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">PKG_DESTDIR_SUPPORT</code> has to be
      set to <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">destdir</span>&#8221;</span> or <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">user-destdir</span>&#8221;</span>. If
      bsd.prefs.mk is included in the Makefile,
      <code class="varname">PKG_DESTDIR_SUPPORT</code> needs to be set before
      the inclusion.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>All installation operations have to be prefixed with
      <code class="filename">${DESTDIR}</code>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>automake gets this DESTDIR mostly right
      automatically. Many manual rules and pre/post-install often are
      incorrect; fix them.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>If files are installed with special owner/group
      use <code class="varname">SPECIAL_PERMS</code>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>In general, packages should support
      <code class="varname">UNPRIVILEGED</code> to be able to use
      DESTDIR.</p></li>
</ul></div>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.6.5.†–ackages with hardcoded paths to other interpreters">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="hardcoded-paths"></a>19.6.5.†–ackages with hardcoded paths to other interpreters</h3></div></div></div>
<p>Your package may also contain scripts with hardcoded paths to
      other interpreters besides (or as well as) perl.  To correct the
      full pathname to the script interpreter, you need to set the
      following definitions in your <code class="filename">Makefile</code> (we
    shall use <span class="command"><strong>tclsh</strong></span> in this example):</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
REPLACE_INTERPRETER+=   tcl
REPLACE.tcl.old=        .*/bin/tclsh
REPLACE.tcl.new=        ${PREFIX}/bin/tclsh
REPLACE_FILES.tcl=      # list of tcl scripts which need to be fixed,
# relative to ${WRKSRC}, just as in REPLACE_PERL
    </pre>
<div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;">
<h3 class="title">Note</h3>
<p>Before March 2006, these variables were called
    <code class="varname">_REPLACE.*</code> and
    <code class="varname">_REPLACE_FILES.*</code>.</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.6.6.†–ackages installing perl modules">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="perl-modules"></a>19.6.6.†–ackages installing perl modules</h3></div></div></div>
<p>Makefiles of packages providing perl5 modules should include
    the Makefile fragment
    <code class="filename">../../lang/perl5/module.mk</code>.  It provides a
    <span class="command"><strong>do-configure</strong></span> target for the standard perl
    configuration for such modules as well as various hooks to tune
    this configuration.  See comments in this file for
    details.</p>
<p>Perl5 modules will install into different places depending
    on the version of perl used during the build process.  To
    address this, pkgsrc will append lines to the
    <code class="filename">PLIST</code> corresponding to the files listed in
    the installed <code class="filename">.packlist</code> file generated by
    most perl5 modules.  This is invoked by defining
    <code class="varname">PERL5_PACKLIST</code> to a space-separated list of
    paths to packlist files, e.g.:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
PERL5_PACKLIST= ${PERL5_SITEARCH}/auto/Pg/.packlist
    </pre>
<p>The variables <code class="varname">PERL5_SITELIB</code>,
    <code class="varname">PERL5_SITEARCH</code>, and
    <code class="varname">PERL5_ARCHLIB</code> represent the three locations
    in which perl5 modules may be installed, and may be used by
    perl5 packages that don't have a packlist.  These three
    variables are also substituted for in the
    <code class="filename">PLIST</code>.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.6.7.†–ackages installing info files">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="faq.info-files"></a>19.6.7.†–ackages installing info files</h3></div></div></div>
<p>Some packages install info files or use the
    <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">makeinfo</span>&#8221;</span>  or <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">install-info</span>&#8221;</span>
    commands.  <code class="varname">INFO_FILES</code> should be defined in
    the package Makefile so that <code class="filename">INSTALL</code> and
    <code class="filename">DEINSTALL</code> scripts will be generated to
    handle registration of the info files in the Info directory
    file. The <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">install-info</span>&#8221;</span> command used for the info
    files registration is either provided by the system, or by a
    special purpose package automatically added as dependency if
    needed.</p>
<p><code class="varname">PKGINFODIR</code> is the directory under
    <code class="filename">${PREFIX}</code> where info files are primarily
    located. <code class="varname">PKGINFODIR</code> defaults to
    <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">info</span>&#8221;</span> and can be overridden by the user.</p>
<p>The info files for the package should be listed in the
    package <code class="filename">PLIST</code>; however any split info files
    need not be listed.</p>
<p>A package which needs the <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">makeinfo</span>&#8221;</span> command
    at build time must add <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">makeinfo</span>&#8221;</span> to
    <code class="varname">USE_TOOLS</code> in its Makefile. If a minimum
    version of the <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">makeinfo</span>&#8221;</span> command is needed it
    should be noted with the <code class="varname">TEXINFO_REQD</code>
    variable in the package <code class="filename">Makefile</code>. By
    default, a minimum version of 3.12 is required. If the system
    does not provide a <span class="command"><strong>makeinfo</strong></span> command or if it
    does not match the required minimum, a build dependency on the
    <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/devel/gtexinfo/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">devel/gtexinfo</code></a> package will
    be added automatically.</p>
<p>The build and installation process of the software provided
    by the package should not use the
    <span class="command"><strong>install-info</strong></span> command as the registration of
    info files is the task of the package
    <code class="filename">INSTALL</code> script, and it must use the
    appropriate <span class="command"><strong>makeinfo</strong></span> command.</p>
<p>To achieve this goal, the pkgsrc infrastructure creates
    overriding scripts for the <span class="command"><strong>install-info</strong></span> and
    <span class="command"><strong>makeinfo</strong></span> commands in a directory listed early
    in <code class="varname">PATH</code>.</p>
<p>The script overriding <span class="command"><strong>install-info</strong></span> has
    no effect except the logging of a message. The script overriding
    <span class="command"><strong>makeinfo</strong></span> logs a message and according to the
    value of <code class="varname">TEXINFO_REQD</code> either runs the appropriate
    <span class="command"><strong>makeinfo</strong></span> command or exit on error.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.6.8.†–ackages installing man pages">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="manpages"></a>19.6.8.†–ackages installing man pages</h3></div></div></div>
<p>All packages that install manual pages should install them
    into the same directory, so that there is one common place to look
    for them. In pkgsrc, this place is
    <code class="literal">${PREFIX}/${PKGMANDIR}</code>, and this expression
    should be used in packages. The default for
    <code class="varname">PKGMANDIR</code> is
    <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote"><code class="filename">man</code></span>&#8221;</span>. Another often-used value
    is <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote"><code class="filename">share/man</code></span>&#8221;</span>.</p>
<div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;">
<h3 class="title">Note</h3>
<p>The support for a custom <code class="varname">PKGMANDIR</code>
    is far from complete.</p>
</div>
<p>The <code class="filename">PLIST</code> files can just use
    <code class="filename">man/</code> as the top level directory for the man
    page file entries, and the pkgsrc framework will convert as
    needed. In all other places, the correct
    <code class="varname">PKGMANDIR</code> must be used.</p>
<p>Packages that are
    configured with <code class="varname">GNU_CONFIGURE</code> set as
    <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">yes</span>&#8221;</span>, by default will use the
    <code class="filename">./configure</code>
    --mandir switch to set where the man pages should be installed.
    The path is <code class="varname">GNU_CONFIGURE_MANDIR</code> which defaults
    to <code class="varname">${PREFIX}/${PKGMANDIR}</code>.</p>
<p>Packages that use <code class="varname">GNU_CONFIGURE</code> but do not
    use --mandir, can set <code class="varname">CONFIGURE_HAS_MANDIR</code>
    to <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">no</span>&#8221;</span>.
    Or if the <code class="filename">./configure</code> script uses
    a non-standard use of --mandir, you can set
    <code class="varname">GNU_CONFIGURE_MANDIR</code> as needed.</p>
<p>See <a class="xref" href="#manpage-compression" title="13.5.†Õan page compression">Section3.5, &#8220;Man page compression&#8221;</a> for
    information on installation of compressed manual pages.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.6.9.†–ackages installing GConf data files">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="gconf-data-files"></a>19.6.9.†–ackages installing GConf data files</h3></div></div></div>
<p>If a package installs <code class="filename">.schemas</code> or
    <code class="filename">.entries</code> files, used by GConf,
    you need to take some extra steps to make sure they get registered
    in the database:</p>
<div class="orderedlist"><ol class="orderedlist" type="1">
<li class="listitem"><p>Include <code class="filename">../../devel/GConf/schemas.mk</code>
	instead of its <code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code> file.  This
	takes care of rebuilding the GConf database at installation and
	deinstallation time, and tells the package where to install
	GConf data files using some standard configure arguments.  It
	also disallows any access to the database directly from the
	package.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Ensure that the package installs its
	<code class="filename">.schemas</code> files under
	<code class="filename">${PREFIX}/share/gconf/schemas</code>.  If they get
	installed under <code class="filename">${PREFIX}/etc</code>, you will
	need to manually patch the package.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Check the PLIST and remove any entries under the etc/gconf
	directory, as they will be handled automatically.  See
	<a class="xref" href="#faq.conf" title="9.13.†»ow do I change the location of configuration files?">Section.13, &#8220;How do I change the location of configuration files?&#8221;</a> for more information.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Define the <code class="varname">GCONF_SCHEMAS</code> variable in
	your <code class="filename">Makefile</code> with a list of all
	<code class="filename">.schemas</code> files installed by the package, if
	any.  Names must not contain any directories in them.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Define the <code class="varname">GCONF_ENTRIES</code> variable in
	your <code class="filename">Makefile</code> with a
	list of all <code class="filename">.entries</code> files installed by the
	package, if any. Names must not contain any directories in
	them.</p></li>
</ol></div>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.6.10.†–ackages installing scrollkeeper/rarian data files">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="scrollkeeper-data-files"></a>19.6.10.†–ackages installing scrollkeeper/rarian data files</h3></div></div></div>
<p>If a package installs <code class="filename">.omf</code> files, used by
    scrollkeeper/rarian, you need to take some extra steps to make sure they
    get registered in the database:</p>
<div class="orderedlist"><ol class="orderedlist" type="1">
<li class="listitem"><p>Include
	<code class="filename">../../mk/omf-scrollkeeper.mk</code>
	instead of rarian's <code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code> file.  This
	takes care of rebuilding the scrollkeeper database at
	installation and deinstallation time, and disallows any access
	to it directly from the package.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Check the PLIST and remove any entries under the
	<code class="filename">libdata/scrollkeeper</code> directory, as they
	will be handled automatically.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Remove the <code class="filename">share/omf</code> directory from
	the PLIST.  It will be handled by rarian. (<span class="command"><strong>make
	print-PLIST</strong></span> does this automatically.)</p></li>
</ol></div>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.6.11.†–ackages installing X11 fonts">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="x11-fonts"></a>19.6.11.†–ackages installing X11 fonts</h3></div></div></div>
<p>If a package installs font files, you will need to rebuild
    the fonts database in the directory where they get installed at
    installation and deinstallation time.  This can be automatically
    done by using the pkginstall framework.</p>
<p>You can list the directories where fonts are installed in the
    <code class="varname">FONTS_DIRS.<em class="replaceable"><code>type</code></em></code>
    variables, where <em class="replaceable"><code>type</code></em> can be one of
    <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">ttf</span>&#8221;</span>, <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">type1</span>&#8221;</span> or <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">x11</span>&#8221;</span>.
    Also make sure that the database file
    <code class="filename">fonts.dir</code> is not listed in the PLIST.</p>
<p>Note that you should not create new directories for fonts;
    instead use the standard ones to avoid that the user needs to
    manually configure his X server to find them.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.6.12.†–ackages installing GTK2 modules">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="gtk2-modules"></a>19.6.12.†–ackages installing GTK2 modules</h3></div></div></div>
<p>If a package installs GTK2 immodules or loaders, you need to
    take some extra steps to get them registered in the GTK2 database
    properly:</p>
<div class="orderedlist"><ol class="orderedlist" type="1">
<li class="listitem"><p>Include
      <code class="filename">../../x11/gtk2/modules.mk</code> instead of its
      <code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code> file.  This takes care of
      rebuilding the database at installation and deinstallation time.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Set <code class="varname">GTK2_IMMODULES=YES</code> if
      your package installs GTK2 immodules.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Set <code class="varname">GTK2_LOADERS=YES</code> if your package installs
      GTK2 loaders.</p></li>
<li class="listitem">
<p>Patch the package to not touch any of the GTK2
      databases directly.  These are:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="filename">libdata/gtk-2.0/gdk-pixbuf.loaders</code></p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="filename">libdata/gtk-2.0/gtk.immodules</code></p></li>
</ul></div>
</li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Check the <code class="filename">PLIST</code> and remove
      any entries under the <code class="filename">libdata/gtk-2.0</code>
      directory, as they will be handled automatically.</p></li>
</ol></div>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.6.13.†–ackages installing SGML or XML data">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="sgml-xml-data"></a>19.6.13.†–ackages installing SGML or XML data</h3></div></div></div>
<p>If a package installs SGML or XML data files that need to be
    registered in system-wide catalogs (like DTDs, sub-catalogs,
    etc.), you need to take some extra steps:</p>
<div class="orderedlist"><ol class="orderedlist" type="1">
<li class="listitem"><p>Include
	<code class="filename">../../textproc/xmlcatmgr/catalogs.mk</code> in
	your <code class="filename">Makefile</code>, which takes care of
	registering those files in system-wide catalogs at
	installation and deinstallation time.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Set <code class="varname">SGML_CATALOGS</code> to the full path of
	any SGML catalogs installed by the package.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Set <code class="varname">XML_CATALOGS</code> to the full path of
	any XML catalogs installed by the package.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Set <code class="varname">SGML_ENTRIES</code> to individual entries
	to be added to the SGML catalog.  These come in groups of
	three strings; see xmlcatmgr(1) for more information
	(specifically, arguments recognized by the 'add' action).
	Note that you will normally not use this variable.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Set <code class="varname">XML_ENTRIES</code> to individual entries
	to be added to the XML catalog.  These come in groups of three
	strings; see xmlcatmgr(1) for more information (specifically,
	arguments recognized by the 'add' action).  Note that you will
	normally not use this variable.</p></li>
</ol></div>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.6.14.†–ackages installing extensions to the MIME database">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="mime-database"></a>19.6.14.†–ackages installing extensions to the MIME database</h3></div></div></div>
<p>If a package provides extensions to the MIME database by
    installing <code class="filename">.xml</code> files inside
    <code class="filename">${PREFIX}/share/mime/packages</code>, you
    need to take some extra steps to ensure that the database is kept
    consistent with respect to these new files:</p>
<div class="orderedlist"><ol class="orderedlist" type="1">
<li class="listitem"><p>Include
	<code class="filename">../../databases/shared-mime-info/mimedb.mk</code>
	(avoid using the <code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code> file from
	this same directory, which is reserved for inclusion from
	other <code class="filename">buildlink3.mk</code> files).  It takes
	care of rebuilding the MIME database at installation and
	deinstallation time, and disallows any access to it directly
	from the package.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Check the PLIST and remove any entries under the
	<code class="filename">share/mime</code> directory,
	<span class="emphasis"><em>except</em></span> for files saved under
	<code class="filename">share/mime/packages</code>.  The former are
	handled automatically by
	the update-mime-database program, but the latter are
	package-dependent and must be removed by the package that
	installed them in the first place.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Remove any <code class="filename">share/mime/*</code> directories
	from the PLIST.  They will be handled by the shared-mime-info
	package.</p></li>
</ol></div>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.6.15.†–ackages using intltool">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="intltool"></a>19.6.15.†–ackages using intltool</h3></div></div></div>
<p>If a package uses intltool during its build, add
    <code class="literal">intltool</code> to the <code class="varname">USE_TOOLS</code>,
    which forces it to use the intltool package provided by pkgsrc,
    instead of the one bundled with the distribution file.</p>
<p>This tracks intltool's build-time dependencies and uses the
    latest available version; this way, the package benefits of any
    bug fixes that may have appeared since it was released.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.6.16.†–ackages installing startup scripts">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="startup-scripts"></a>19.6.16.†–ackages installing startup scripts</h3></div></div></div>
<p>If a package contains a rc.d script, it won't be copied into
    the startup directory by default, but you can enable it, by adding
    the option <code class="varname">PKG_RCD_SCRIPTS=YES</code> in
    <a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a>. This option will copy the scripts
    into <code class="filename">/etc/rc.d</code> when a package is installed, and
    it will automatically remove the scripts when the package is
    deinstalled.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.6.17.†–ackages installing TeX modules">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="tex-packages"></a>19.6.17.†–ackages installing TeX modules</h3></div></div></div>
<p>If a package installs TeX packages into the texmf tree,
    the <code class="filename">ls-R</code> database of the tree needs to be
    updated.</p>
<div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;">
<h3 class="title">Note</h3>
<p>Except the main TeX packages such as kpathsea,
    packages should install files
    into <code class="filename">${PREFIX}/share/texmf-dist</code>,
    not <code class="filename">${PREFIX}/share/texmf</code>.</p>
</div>
<div class="orderedlist"><ol class="orderedlist" type="1">
<li class="listitem"><p>Include
      <code class="filename">../../print/kpathsea/texmf.mk</code>.  This
      takes care of rebuilding the <code class="filename">ls-R</code>
      database at installation and deinstallation time.</p></li>
<li class="listitem">
<p>If your package installs files into a texmf
      tree other than the one
      at <code class="filename">${PREFIX}/share/texmf-dist</code>,
      set <code class="varname">TEX_TEXMF_DIRS</code> to the list of all texmf
      trees that need database update.</p>
<p>If your package also installs font map files that need
      to be registered using <span class="command"><strong>updmap</strong></span>,
      include <code class="filename">../../print/texlive-tetex/map.mk</code> and
      set <code class="varname">TEX_MAP_FILES</code> and/or
      <code class="varname">TEX_MIXEDMAP_FILES</code> to the list of all
      such font map files.  Then <span class="command"><strong>updmap</strong></span> will
      be run automatically at installation/deinstallation to
      enable/disable font map files for TeX output
      drivers.</p>
</li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Make sure that none of <code class="filename">ls-R</code>
      databases are included in <code class="filename">PLIST</code>, as
      they will be removed only by the teTeX-bin package.</p></li>
</ol></div>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.6.18.†–ackages supporting running binaries in emulation">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="emulation-packages"></a>19.6.18.†–ackages supporting running binaries in
    emulation</h3></div></div></div>
<p>There are some packages that provide libraries and
    executables for running binaries from a one operating system
    on a different one (if the latter supports it).  One example
    is running Linux binaries on NetBSD.</p>
<p>The <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/rpm2pkg/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/rpm2pkg</code></a>
    helps in extracting and packaging Linux rpm packages.</p>
<p>The <code class="varname">CHECK_SHLIBS</code> can be set to no to
    avoid the <span class="command"><strong>check-shlibs</strong></span> target, which tests
    if all libraries for each installed executable can be found by
    the dynamic linker.  Since the standard dynamic linker is run,
    this fails for emulation packages, because the libraries used
    by the emulation are not in the standard directories.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.6.19.†–ackages installing hicolor theme icons">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="hicolor-theme"></a>19.6.19.†–ackages installing hicolor theme icons</h3></div></div></div>
<p>If a package installs images under the
    <code class="filename">share/icons/hicolor</code> and/or updates the
    <code class="filename">share/icons/hicolor/icon-theme.cache</code>
    database, you need to take some extra steps to make sure that the
    shared theme directory is handled appropriately and that the cache
    database is rebuilt:</p>
<div class="orderedlist"><ol class="orderedlist" type="1">
<li class="listitem"><p>Include
	<code class="filename">../../graphics/hicolor-icon-theme/buildlink3.mk</code>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Check the <code class="filename">PLIST</code> and remove the
	entry that refers to the theme cache.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Ensure that the PLIST does not remove the shared icon
	  directories from the <code class="filename">share/icons/hicolor</code>
	  hierarchy because they will be handled automatically.</p></li>
</ol></div>
<p>The best way to verify that the PLIST is correct with
      respect to the last two points is to regenerate it using
      <span class="command"><strong>make print-PLIST</strong></span>.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="19.6.20.†–ackages installing desktop files">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="desktop-files"></a>19.6.20.†–ackages installing desktop files</h3></div></div></div>
<p>If a package installs <code class="filename">.desktop</code> files
      under <code class="filename">share/applications</code> and these include
      MIME information, you need to take extra steps to ensure that they
      are registered into the MIME database:</p>
<div class="orderedlist"><ol class="orderedlist" type="1">
<li class="listitem"><p>Include
	  <code class="filename">../../sysutils/desktop-file-utils/desktopdb.mk</code>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Check the PLIST and remove the entry that refers to the
	  <code class="filename">share/applications/mimeinfo.cache</code> file.
	  It will be handled automatically.</p></li>
</ol></div>
<p>The best way to verify that the PLIST is correct with
      respect to the last point is to regenerate it using <span class="command"><strong>make
      print-PLIST</strong></span>.</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="19.7.†Õarking packages as having problems">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="punting"></a>19.7.†Õarking packages as having problems</h2></div></div></div>
<p>In some cases one does not have the time to solve a problem
  immediately. In this case, one can plainly mark a package as broken.  For
  this, one just sets the variable <code class="varname">BROKEN</code> to the
  reason why the package is broken (similar to the
  <code class="varname">RESTRICTED</code> variable).  A user trying to build
  the package will immediately be shown this message, and the build
  will not be even tried.</p>
<p><code class="varname">BROKEN</code> packages are removed from pkgsrc in irregular
  intervals.</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="chapter" title="Chapter0.†ńebugging">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title">
<a name="debug"></a>Chapter0.†ńebugging</h2></div></div></div>
<p>To check out all the gotchas when building a package, here are
  the steps that I do in order to get a package working.  Please note
  this is basically the same as what was explained in the previous
  sections, only with some debugging aids.</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p>Be sure to set <code class="varname">PKG_DEVELOPER=yes</code> in <a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem">
<p>Install <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/url2pkg/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/url2pkg</code></a>,
      create a directory for a new package, change into it, then run
      <span class="command"><strong>url2pkg</strong></span>:</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">%</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>mkdir /usr/pkgsrc/<em class="replaceable"><code>category</code></em>/<em class="replaceable"><code>examplepkg</code></em></code></strong>
<code class="prompt">%</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>cd /usr/pkgsrc/<em class="replaceable"><code>category</code></em>/<em class="replaceable"><code>examplepkg</code></em></code></strong>
<code class="prompt">%</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>url2pkg http://www.example.com/path/to/distfile.tar.gz</code></strong></pre>
</li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Edit the <code class="filename">Makefile</code> as requested.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Fill in the <code class="filename">DESCR</code> file</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Run <span class="command"><strong>make configure</strong></span></p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Add any dependencies glimpsed from documentation and the
      configure step to the package's
      <code class="filename">Makefile</code>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem">
<p>Make the package compile, doing multiple rounds of</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">%</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>make</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">%</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>pkgvi ${WRKSRC}/some/file/that/does/not/compile</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">%</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>mkpatches</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">%</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>patchdiff</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">%</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>mv ${WRKDIR}/.newpatches/* patches</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">%</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>make mps</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">%</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>make clean</code></strong></pre>
<p>Doing this step as non-root user will ensure that no files
      are modified that shouldn't be, especially during the build
      phase.  <span class="command"><strong>mkpatches</strong></span>,
      <span class="command"><strong>patchdiff</strong></span> and <span class="command"><strong>pkgvi</strong></span> are
      from the <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/pkgdiff/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/pkgdiff</code></a>
      package.</p>
</li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Look at the <code class="filename">Makefile</code>, fix if
      necessary; see <a class="xref" href="#components.Makefile" title="11.1.†Õakefile">Section1.1, &#8220;<code class="filename">Makefile</code>&#8221;</a>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem">
<p>Generate a <code class="filename">PLIST</code>:</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>make install</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>make print-PLIST &gt;PLIST</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>make deinstall</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>make install</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>make deinstall</code></strong></pre>
<p>You usually need to be <code class="username">root</code> to do
      this.  Look if there are any files left:</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>make print-PLIST</code></strong></pre>
<p>If this reveals any files that are missing in
      <code class="filename">PLIST</code>, add them.</p>
</li>
<li class="listitem">
<p>Now that the <code class="filename">PLIST</code> is OK, install the
      package again and make a binary package:</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>make reinstall</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>make package</code></strong></pre>
</li>
<li class="listitem">
<p>Delete the installed package:</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>pkg_delete <em class="replaceable"><code>examplepkg</code></em></code></strong></pre>
</li>
<li class="listitem">
<p>Repeat the above <span class="command"><strong>make print-PLIST</strong></span>
      command, which shouldn't find anything now:</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>make print-PLIST</code></strong></pre>
</li>
<li class="listitem">
<p>Reinstall the binary package:</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>pkg_add .../<em class="replaceable"><code>examplepkg</code></em>.tgz</code></strong></pre>
</li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Play with it.  Make sure everything works.</p></li>
<li class="listitem">
<p>Run <span class="command"><strong>pkglint</strong></span> from <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/pkglint/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/pkglint</code></a>, and fix the problems it
      reports:</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>pkglint</code></strong></pre>
</li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Submit (or commit, if you have cvs access); see <a class="xref" href="#submit" title="Chapter1.†”ubmitting and Committing">Chapter1, <i>Submitting and Committing</i></a>.</p></li>
</ul></div>
</div>
<div class="chapter" title="Chapter1.†”ubmitting and Committing">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title">
<a name="submit"></a>Chapter1.†”ubmitting and Committing</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="toc">
<p><b>Table of Contents</b></p>
<dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#submitting-binary-packages">21.1. Submitting binary packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#submitting-your-package">21.2. Submitting source packages (for non-NetBSD-developers)</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#general-notes-for-changes">21.3. General notes when adding, updating, or removing packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#committing-importing">21.4. Committing: Importing a package into CVS</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#updating-package">21.5. Updating a package to a newer version</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#renaming-package">21.6. Renaming a package in pkgsrc</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#moving-package">21.7. Moving a package in pkgsrc</a></span></dt>
</dl>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="21.1.†”ubmitting binary packages">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="submitting-binary-packages"></a>21.1.†”ubmitting binary packages</h2></div></div></div>
<p>Our policy is that we accept binaries only from pkgsrc
	developers to guarantee that the packages don't contain any
	trojan horses etc. This is not to annoy anyone but rather to
	protect our users! You're still free to put up your home-made
	binary packages and tell the world where to get them. NetBSD
	developers doing bulk builds and wanting to upload them please
	see <a class="xref" href="#bulk-upload" title="7.3.8.†’ploading results of a bulk build">Section.3.8, &#8220;Uploading results of a bulk build&#8221;</a>.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="21.2.†”ubmitting source packages (for non-NetBSD-developers)">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="submitting-your-package"></a>21.2.†”ubmitting source packages (for non-NetBSD-developers)</h2></div></div></div>
<p>First, check that your package is complete, compiles and
	runs well; see <a class="xref" href="#debug" title="Chapter0.†ńebugging">Chapter0, <i>Debugging</i></a> and the rest of this
	document. Next, generate an uuencoded gzipped <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?tar+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">tar</span>(1)</span></a>
	archive that contains all files that make up the package.
	Finally, send this package to the pkgsrc bug tracking system,
	either with the <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?send-pr+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">send-pr</span>(1)</span></a> command, or if you don't have
	that, go to the web page
	<a class="ulink" href="http://www.NetBSD.org/support/send-pr.html" target="_top">http://www.NetBSD.org/support/send-pr.html</a>,
	which contains some instructions and a link to a form where you
	can submit packages.  The
	<a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/sysutils/gtk-send-pr/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">sysutils/gtk-send-pr</code></a> package is
	also available as a substitute for either of the above two tools.
	</p>
<p>In the form of the problem report, the category should be
	<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">pkg</span>&#8221;</span>, the synopsis should include the package name
	and version number, and the description field should contain a
	short description of your package (contents of the COMMENT
	variable or DESCR file are OK). The uuencoded package data should
	go into the <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">fix</span>&#8221;</span> field.</p>
<p>If you want to submit several packages, please send a
	separate PR for each one, it's easier for us to track things
	that way.</p>
<p>Alternatively, you can also import new packages into
	pkgsrc-wip (<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">pkgsrc work-in-progress</span>&#8221;</span>); see the
	homepage at <a class="ulink" href="http://pkgsrc-wip.sourceforge.net/" target="_top">http://pkgsrc-wip.sourceforge.net/</a>
	for details.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="21.3.†«eneral notes when adding, updating, or removing packages">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="general-notes-for-changes"></a>21.3.†«eneral notes when adding, updating, or removing packages</h2></div></div></div>
<p>Please note all package additions, updates, moves, and
	removals in <code class="filename">pkgsrc/doc/CHANGES-<em class="replaceable"><code>YYYY</code></em></code>. It's very
	important to keep this file up to date and conforming to the
	existing format, because it will be used by scripts to
	automatically update pages on <a class="ulink" href="http://www.NetBSD.org/" target="_top">www.NetBSD.org</a> and other
	sites. Additionally, check the
	<code class="filename">pkgsrc/doc/TODO</code> file and remove the entry
	for the package you updated or removed, in case it was mentioned
	there.</p>
<p>When the <code class="varname">PKGREVISION</code> of a package is
	bumped, the change should appear in
	<code class="filename">pkgsrc/doc/CHANGES-<em class="replaceable"><code>YYYY</code></em></code> if it is security
	related or otherwise relevant. Mass bumps that result from a
	dependency being updated should not be mentioned. In all other
	cases it's the developer's decision.</p>
<p>There is a make target that helps in creating proper
  <code class="filename">CHANGES-<em class="replaceable"><code>YYYY</code></em></code> entries:  <span class="command"><strong>make
  changes-entry</strong></span>. It uses the optional <code class="varname">CTYPE</code>
  and <code class="varname">NETBSD_LOGIN_NAME</code> variables. The general
  usage is to first make sure that your <code class="filename">CHANGES-<em class="replaceable"><code>YYYY</code></em></code>
  file is up-to-date (to avoid having to resolve conflicts later-on)
  and then to <span class="command"><strong>cd</strong></span> to the package directory.  For
  package updates, <span class="command"><strong>make changes-entry</strong></span> is enough.
  For new packages, or package moves or removals, set the
  <code class="varname">CTYPE</code> variable on the command line to "Added",
  "Moved", or "Removed".  You can set <code class="varname">NETBSD_LOGIN_NAME</code>
  in <a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a> if your local login name is
  not the same as your NetBSD login name. The target also automatically
  removes possibly existing entries for the package in the
  <code class="filename">TODO</code> file. Don't forget to commit
  the changes, e.g. by using <span class="command"><strong>make changes-entry-commit</strong></span>!
  If you are not using a checkout directly from cvs.NetBSD.org, but e.g.
  a local copy of the repository, you can set USE_NETBSD_REPO=yes. This
  makes the cvs commands use the main repository.
  </p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="21.4.†√ommitting: Importing a package into CVS">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="committing-importing"></a>21.4.†√ommitting: Importing a package into CVS</h2></div></div></div>
<p>This section is only of interest for pkgsrc developers with write
  access to the pkgsrc repository. Please remember that cvs
  imports files relative to the current working directory, and that
  the pathname that you
  give the <span class="command"><strong>cvs import</strong></span> command is so that it knows where
  to place the files in the repository.  Newly created packages should be
  imported with a vendor tag of <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">TNF</span>&#8221;</span> and a release tag of
  <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">pkgsrc-base</span>&#8221;</span>, e.g:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
<code class="prompt">$</code> cd .../pkgsrc/category/pkgname
<code class="prompt">$</code> cvs import pkgsrc/category/pkgname TNF pkgsrc-base
</pre>
<p>Remember to move the directory from which you imported out of
  the way, or cvs will complain the next time you <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">cvs
  update</span>&#8221;</span> your source tree.  Also don't forget to add the new
  package to the category's <code class="filename">Makefile</code>.</p>
<p>The commit message of the initial import should include part of the
  <code class="filename">DESCR</code> file, so people reading the mailing lists know
  what the package is/does.</p>
<p>For new packages, <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">cvs import</span>&#8221;</span> is preferred to <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">cvs
  add</span>&#8221;</span> because the former gets everything with a single command,
  and provides a consistent tag.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="21.5.†’pdating a package to a newer version">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="updating-package"></a>21.5.†’pdating a package to a newer version</h2></div></div></div>
<p>Please always put a concise, appropriate and relevant summary of the
  changes between old and new versions into the commit log when updating
  a package. There are various reasons for this:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p>A URL is volatile, and can change over time. It may go away completely
  or its information may be overwritten by newer information.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Having the change information between old and new versions in our CVS
  repository is very useful for people who use either cvs or anoncvs.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Having the change information between old and new versions in our CVS
  repository is very useful for people who read the pkgsrc-changes mailing
  list, so that they can make tactical decisions about when to upgrade
  the package.</p></li>
</ul></div>
<p>Please also recognize that, just because a new version of a package
  has been released, it should not automatically be upgraded in the CVS
  repository.  We prefer to be conservative in the packages that are
  included in pkgsrc - development or beta packages are not really the
  best thing for most places in which pkgsrc is used. Please use your
  judgement about what should go into pkgsrc, and bear in mind that
  stability is to be preferred above new and possibly untested features.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="21.6.†“enaming a package in pkgsrc">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="renaming-package"></a>21.6.†“enaming a package in pkgsrc</h2></div></div></div>
<p>Renaming packages is not recommended.</p>
<p>When renaming packages, be sure to fix any references to old name
  in other Makefiles, options, buildlink files, etc.</p>
<p>Also When renaming a package, please define
  <code class="varname">SUPERSEDES</code> to the package name and dewey version
  pattern(s) of the previous package name.
  This may be repeated for multiple renames.
  The new package would be an exact replacement.
</p>
<p>Note that <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">successor</span>&#8221;</span> in the
  CHANGES-<em class="replaceable"><code>YYYY</code></em> file doesn't necessarily
  mean that it <span class="emphasis"><em>supersedes</em></span>, as that successor may
  not be an exact replacement but is a suggestion for the replaced
  functionality.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="21.7.†Õoving a package in pkgsrc">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="moving-package"></a>21.7.†Õoving a package in pkgsrc</h2></div></div></div>
<p>It is preferred that packages are not renamed or moved, but if needed
  please follow these steps.
</p>
<div class="orderedlist"><ol class="orderedlist" type="1">
<li class="listitem"><p>Make a copy of the directory somewhere else.</p></li>
<li class="listitem">
<p>Remove all CVS dirs.</p>
<p>Alternatively to the first two steps you can also do:</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">%</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>cvs -d user@cvs.NetBSD.org:/cvsroot export -D today pkgsrc/category/package</code></strong></pre>
<p>and use that for further work.</p>
</li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Fix <code class="varname">CATEGORIES</code> and any
<code class="varname">DEPENDS</code> paths that just did <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">../package</span>&#8221;</span>
instead of <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">../../category/package</span>&#8221;</span>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>In the modified package's Makefile, consider setting
<code class="varname">PREV_PKGPATH</code> to the previous category/package
pathname.  The <code class="varname">PREV_PKGPATH</code> can be used by tools
for doing an update using pkgsrc building; for example, it can
search the <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?pkg_summary+5+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">pkg_summary</span>(5)</span></a> database for <code class="varname">PREV_PKGPATH</code>
(if no <code class="varname">SUPERSEDES</code>) and then use the corresponding
new <code class="varname">PKGPATH</code> for that moved package.  Note that
it may have multiple matches, so the tool should also check on the
<code class="varname">PKGBASE</code> too.  The <code class="varname">PREV_PKGPATH</code>
probably has no value unless <code class="varname">SUPERSEDES</code> is not
set, i.e.  <code class="varname">PKGBASE</code> stays the same.  </p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><span class="command"><strong>cvs import</strong></span> the modified package in the new
place.</p></li>
<li class="listitem">
<p>Check if any package depends on it:
</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">%</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>cd /usr/pkgsrc</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">%</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>grep /package */*/Makefile* */*/buildlink*</code></strong></pre>
</li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Fix paths in packages from step 5 to point to new location.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><span class="command"><strong>cvs rm (-f)</strong></span> the package at the old location.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Remove from <code class="filename">oldcategory/Makefile</code>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Add to <code class="filename">newcategory/Makefile</code>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem">
<p>Commit the changed and removed files:</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">%</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>cvs commit oldcategory/package oldcategory/Makefile newcategory/Makefile</code></strong></pre>
<p>(and any packages from step 5, of course).</p>
</li>
</ol></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="chapter" title="Chapter2.†∆requently Asked Questions">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title">
<a name="devfaq"></a>Chapter2.†∆requently Asked Questions</h2></div></div></div>
<p>This section contains the answers to questions that may
	arise when you are writing a package. If you don't find your
	question answered here, first have a look in the other chapters,
	and if you still don't have the answer, ask on the
	<code class="literal">pkgsrc-users</code> mailing list.</p>
<div class="qandaset" title="Frequently Asked Questions">
<a name="id1168229312100"></a><dl>
<dt>22.1. <a href="#devfaq.makeflags">What is the difference between
	MAKEFLAGS, .MAKEFLAGS and
	MAKE_FLAGS?</a>
</dt>
<dt>22.2. <a href="#devfaq.make">What is the difference between
	MAKE, GMAKE and
	MAKE_PROGRAM?</a>
</dt>
<dt>22.3. <a href="#devfaq.cc">What is the difference between
	CC, PKG_CC and
	PKGSRC_COMPILER?</a>
</dt>
<dt>22.4. <a href="#devfaq.bl3flags">What is the difference between
	BUILDLINK_LDFLAGS,
	BUILDLINK_LDADD and
	BUILDLINK_LIBS?</a>
</dt>
<dt>22.5. <a href="#devfaq.bl3prefix">Why does make show-var
	VARNAME=BUILDLINK_PREFIX.foo
	say it's empty?</a>
</dt>
<dt>22.6. <a href="#devfaq.master_sites">What does
	${MASTER_SITE_SOURCEFORGE:=package/} mean? I
	don't understand the := inside
	it.</a>
</dt>
<dt>22.7. <a href="#devfaq.mailinglists">Which mailing lists are there for package
	developers?</a>
</dt>
<dt>22.8. <a href="#devfaq.documentation">Where is the pkgsrc
	documentation?</a>
</dt>
<dt>22.9. <a href="#devfaq.too-much-time">I have a little time to kill.  What shall I
do?</a>
</dt>
</dl>
<table border="0" width="100%" summary="Q and A Set">
<col align="left" width="1%">
<col>
<tbody>
<tr class="question" title="22.1.">
<td align="left" valign="top">
<a name="devfaq.makeflags"></a><a name="id1168229312104"></a><p><b>22.1.</b></p>
</td>
<td align="left" valign="top"><p>What is the difference between
	<code class="varname">MAKEFLAGS</code>, <code class="varname">.MAKEFLAGS</code> and
	<code class="varname">MAKE_FLAGS</code>?</p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="answer">
<td align="left" valign="top"></td>
<td align="left" valign="top"><p><code class="varname">MAKEFLAGS</code> are the flags passed
	to the pkgsrc-internal invocations of <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?make+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">make</span>(1)</span></a>, while
	<code class="varname">MAKE_FLAGS</code> are the flags that are passed to
	the <code class="varname">MAKE_PROGRAM</code> when building the
	package. [FIXME: What is .MAKEFLAGS for?]</p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="question" title="22.2.">
<td align="left" valign="top">
<a name="devfaq.make"></a><a name="id1168229312137"></a><p><b>22.2.</b></p>
</td>
<td align="left" valign="top"><p>What is the difference between
	<code class="varname">MAKE</code>, <code class="varname">GMAKE</code> and
	<code class="varname">MAKE_PROGRAM</code>?</p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="answer">
<td align="left" valign="top"></td>
<td align="left" valign="top"><p><code class="varname">MAKE</code> is the path to the
	<a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?make+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">make</span>(1)</span></a> program that is used in the pkgsrc
	infrastructure. <code class="varname">GMAKE</code> is the path to GNU
	Make, but you need to say <code class="varname">USE_TOOLS+=gmake</code> to
	use that. <code class="varname">MAKE_PROGRAM</code> is the path to the
	Make program that is used for building the
	package.</p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="question" title="22.3.">
<td align="left" valign="top">
<a name="devfaq.cc"></a><a name="id1168229312209"></a><p><b>22.3.</b></p>
</td>
<td align="left" valign="top"><p>What is the difference between
	<code class="varname">CC</code>, <code class="varname">PKG_CC</code> and
	<code class="varname">PKGSRC_COMPILER</code>?</p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="answer">
<td align="left" valign="top"></td>
<td align="left" valign="top"><p><code class="varname">CC</code> is the path to the real C
	compiler, which can be configured by the pkgsrc user.
	<code class="varname">PKG_CC</code> is the path to the compiler wrapper.
	<code class="varname">PKGSRC_COMPILER</code> is <span class="emphasis"><em>not</em></span> a
	path to a compiler, but the type of compiler that should be
	used. See <code class="filename">mk/compiler.mk</code> for more
	information about the latter variable.</p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="question" title="22.4.">
<td align="left" valign="top">
<a name="devfaq.bl3flags"></a><a name="id1168229312243"></a><p><b>22.4.</b></p>
</td>
<td align="left" valign="top"><p>What is the difference between
	<code class="varname">BUILDLINK_LDFLAGS</code>,
	<code class="varname">BUILDLINK_LDADD</code> and
	<code class="varname">BUILDLINK_LIBS</code>?</p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="answer">
<td align="left" valign="top"></td>
<td align="left" valign="top"><p>[FIXME]</p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="question" title="22.5.">
<td align="left" valign="top">
<a name="devfaq.bl3prefix"></a><a name="id1168229312261"></a><p><b>22.5.</b></p>
</td>
<td align="left" valign="top"><p>Why does <span class="command"><strong>make show-var
	VARNAME=BUILDLINK_PREFIX.<em class="replaceable"><code>foo</code></em></strong></span>
	say it's empty?</p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="answer">
<td align="left" valign="top"></td>
<td align="left" valign="top"><p>For optimization reasons, some variables are only
	available in the <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">wrapper</span>&#8221;</span> phase and later. To
	<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">simulate</span>&#8221;</span> the wrapper phase, append
	<span class="command"><strong>PKG_PHASE=wrapper</strong></span> to the above
	command.</p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="question" title="22.6.">
<td align="left" valign="top">
<a name="devfaq.master_sites"></a><a name="id1168229312288"></a><p><b>22.6.</b></p>
</td>
<td align="left" valign="top"><p>What does
	<code class="literal">${MASTER_SITE_SOURCEFORGE:=package/}</code> mean? I
	don't understand the <code class="literal">:=</code> inside
	it.</p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="answer">
<td align="left" valign="top"></td>
<td align="left" valign="top"><p>The <code class="literal">:=</code> is not really an
	assignment operator, like you might expect at first sight.
	Instead, it is a degenerate form of
	<code class="literal">${LIST:<em class="replaceable"><code>old_string</code></em>=<em class="replaceable"><code>new_string</code></em>}</code>,
	which is documented in the <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?make+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">make</span>(1)</span></a> man page and which you
	may have seen as in <code class="literal">${SRCS:.c=.o}</code>. In the
	case of <code class="varname">MASTER_SITE_*</code>,
	<em class="replaceable"><code>old_string</code></em> is the empty string and
	<em class="replaceable"><code>new_string</code></em> is
	<code class="literal">package/</code>. That's where the
	<code class="literal">:</code> and the <code class="literal">=</code> fall
	together.</p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="question" title="22.7.">
<td align="left" valign="top">
<a name="devfaq.mailinglists"></a><a name="id1168229312355"></a><p><b>22.7.</b></p>
</td>
<td align="left" valign="top"><p>Which mailing lists are there for package
	developers?</p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="answer">
<td align="left" valign="top"></td>
<td align="left" valign="top"><div class="variablelist"><dl>
<dt><span class="term"><a class="ulink" href="http://www.NetBSD.org/mailinglists/index.html#tech-pkg" target="_top">tech-pkg</a></span></dt>
<dd><p>This is a list for technical discussions related
	to pkgsrc development, e.g. soliciting feedback for changes to
	pkgsrc infrastructure, proposed new features, questions related
	to porting pkgsrc to a new platform, advice for maintaining a
	package, patches that affect many packages, help requests moved
	from pkgsrc-users when an infrastructure bug is found,
	etc.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><a class="ulink" href="http://www.NetBSD.org/mailinglists/index.html#pkgsrc-bugs" target="_top">pkgsrc-bugs</a></span></dt>
<dd><p>All bug reports in category "pkg" sent with
	<a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?send-pr+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">send-pr</span>(1)</span></a> appear here. Please do not report your bugs here
	directly; use one of the other mailing
	lists.</p></dd>
</dl></div></td>
</tr>
<tr class="question" title="22.8.">
<td align="left" valign="top">
<a name="devfaq.documentation"></a><a name="id1168229312386"></a><p><b>22.8.</b></p>
</td>
<td align="left" valign="top"><p>Where is the pkgsrc
	documentation?</p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="answer">
<td align="left" valign="top"></td>
<td align="left" valign="top">
<p>There are many places where you can find
	documentation about pkgsrc:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p>The pkgsrc guide (this document) is a collection
	of chapters that explain large parts of pkgsrc, but some
	chapters tend to be outdated. Which ones they are is hard to
	say.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>On the mailing list archives (see <a class="ulink" href="http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/" target="_top">http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/</a>), you can find discussions
	about certain features, announcements of new parts of the pkgsrc
	infrastructure and sometimes even announcements that a certain
	feature has been marked as obsolete. The benefit here is that
	each message has a date appended to it.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Many of the files in the
	<code class="filename">mk/</code> directory start with a comment that
	describes the purpose of the file and how it can be used by the
	pkgsrc user and package authors. An easy way to find this
	documentation is to run <span class="command"><strong>bmake
	help</strong></span>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>The CVS log messages are a rich source of
	information, but they tend to be highly abbreviated, especially
	for actions that occur often. Some contain a detailed
	description of what has changed, but they are geared towards the
	other pkgsrc developers, not towards an average pkgsrc user.
	They also only document <span class="emphasis"><em>changes</em></span>, so if you
	don't know what has been before, these messages may not be worth
	too much to you.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Some parts of pkgsrc are only <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">implicitly
	documented</span>&#8221;</span>, that is the documentation exists only in the
	mind of the developer who wrote the code. To get this
	information, use the <span class="command"><strong>cvs annotate</strong></span> command
	to see who has written it and ask on the
	<code class="literal">tech-pkg</code> mailing list, so that others can
	find your questions later (see above). To be sure that the
	developer in charge reads the mail, you may CC him or
	her.</p></li>
</ul></div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr class="question" title="22.9.">
<td align="left" valign="top">
<a name="devfaq.too-much-time"></a><a name="id1168229312508"></a><p><b>22.9.</b></p>
</td>
<td align="left" valign="top"><p>I have a little time to kill.  What shall I
do?</p></td>
</tr>
<tr class="answer">
<td align="left" valign="top"></td>
<td align="left" valign="top">
<p>This is not really an FAQ yet, but here's the answer
anyway.</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p>Run <span class="command"><strong>pkg_chk -N</strong></span> (from the
    <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/pkg_chk/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/pkg_chk</code></a> package).  It
    will tell you about newer versions of installed packages that are
    available, but not yet updated in pkgsrc.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Browse <code class="filename">pkgsrc/doc/TODO</code>
    &mdash; it contains a list of suggested new packages and a list of
    cleanups and enhancements for pkgsrc that would be nice to
    have.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Review packages for which review was requested on
    the <a class="ulink" href="http://pkgsrc-wip.sourceforge.net/" target="_top">pkgsrc-wip</a> review
    mailing list.</p></li>
</ul></div>
</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
</div>
</div>
<div class="chapter" title="Chapter3.†«NOME packaging and porting">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title">
<a name="gnome"></a>Chapter3.†«NOME packaging and porting</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="toc">
<p><b>Table of Contents</b></p>
<dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#meta-packages">23.1. Meta packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#new-package">23.2. Packaging a GNOME application</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#full-update">23.3. Updating GNOME to a newer version</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#patching">23.4. Patching guidelines</a></span></dt>
</dl>
</div>
<p>Quoting <a class="ulink" href="http://www.gnome.org/" target="_top">GNOME's web
site</a>:</p>
<div class="blockquote"><blockquote class="blockquote"><p>The GNOME project provides two things: The GNOME desktop
  environment, an intuitive and attractive desktop for users, and the
  GNOME development platform, an extensive framework for building
  applications that integrate into the rest of the desktop.</p></blockquote></div>
<p>pkgsrc provides a seamless way to automatically build and install
a complete GNOME environment <span class="emphasis"><em>under many different
platforms</em></span>.  We can say with confidence that pkgsrc is one of
the most advanced build and packaging systems for GNOME due to its
included technologies buildlink3, the wrappers and tools framework and
automatic configuration file management.  Lots of efforts are put into
achieving a completely clean deinstallation of installed software
components.</p>
<p>Given that pkgsrc is <a class="ulink" href="http://www.NetBSD.org/" target="_top">NetBSD</a>'s official packaging system,
the above also means that great efforts are put into making GNOME work
under this operating system.  Recently, <a class="ulink" href="http://www.dragonflybsd.org/" target="_top">DragonFly BSD</a> also adopted
pkgsrc as its preferred packaging system, contributing lots of
portability fixes to make GNOME build and install under it.</p>
<p>This chapter is aimed at pkgsrc developers and other people
interested in helping our GNOME porting and packaging efforts.  It
provides instructions on how to manage the existing packages and some
important information regarding their internals.</p>
<div class="note" title="We need your help!" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;">
<h3 class="title">We need your help!</h3>
<p>Should you have some spare cycles to devote to NetBSD, pkgsrc
  and GNOME and are willing to learn new exciting stuff, please jump
  straight to the <a class="ulink" href="http://www.NetBSD.org/contrib/projects.html#gnome" target="_top">pending
  work</a> list!  There is still a long way to go to get a
  fully-functional GNOME desktop under NetBSD and we need your help to
  achieve it!</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="23.1.†Õeta packages">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="meta-packages"></a>23.1.†Õeta packages</h2></div></div></div>
<p>pkgsrc includes three GNOME-related meta packages:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p><a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/meta-pkgs/gnome-base/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">meta-pkgs/gnome-base</code></a>: Provides
    the core GNOME desktop environment.  It only includes the necessary
    bits to get it to boot correctly, although it may lack important
    functionality for daily operation.  The idea behind this package is
    to let end users build their own configurations on top of this one,
    first installing this meta package to achieve a functional setup and
    then adding individual applications.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/meta-pkgs/gnome/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">meta-pkgs/gnome</code></a>: Provides a
    complete installation of the GNOME platform and desktop as defined
    by the GNOME project; this is based on the components distributed in
    the <code class="filename">platform/x.y/x.y.z/sources</code> and
    <code class="filename">desktop/x.y/x.y.z/sources</code> directories of the
    official FTP server.  Developer-only tools found in those
    directories are not installed unless required by some other
    component to work properly.  Similarly, packages from the bindings
    set (<code class="filename">bindings/x.y/x.y.z/sources</code>) are not pulled
    in unless required as a dependency for an end-user component.  This
    package "extends" <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/meta-pkgs/gnome-base/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">meta-pkgs/gnome-base</code></a>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/meta-pkgs/gnome-devel/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">meta-pkgs/gnome-devel</code></a>:
    Installs all the tools required to build a GNOME component when
    fetched from the CVS repository.  These are required to let the
    <span class="command"><strong>autogen.sh</strong></span> scripts work appropriately.</p></li>
</ul></div>
<p>In all these packages, the <code class="varname">DEPENDS</code> lines are
sorted in a way that eases updates: a package may depend on other
packages listed before it but not on any listed after it.  It is very
important to keep this order to ease updates so... <span class="emphasis"><em>do not
change it to alphabetical sorting!</em></span></p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="23.2.†–ackaging a GNOME application">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="new-package"></a>23.2.†–ackaging a GNOME application</h2></div></div></div>
<p>Almost all GNOME applications are written in C and use a common
set of tools as their build system.  Things get different with the new
bindings to other languages (such as Python), but the following will
give you a general idea on the minimum required tools:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem">
<p>Almost all GNOME applications use the GNU Autotools as their
    build system.  As a general rule you will need to tell this to your
    package:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
GNU_CONFIGURE=yes
USE_LIBTOOL=yes
USE_TOOLS+=gmake
</pre>
</li>
<li class="listitem">
<p>If the package uses pkg-config to detect dependencies, add this
    tool to the list of required utilities:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">USE_TOOLS+=pkg-config</pre>
<p>Also use <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/verifypc/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/verifypc</code></a> at
    the end of the build process to ensure that you did not miss to
    specify any dependency in your package and that the version
    requirements are all correct.</p>
</li>
<li class="listitem"><p>If the package uses intltool, be sure to add
    <code class="literal">intltool</code> to the <code class="varname">USE_TOOLS</code>
    to handle dependencies and to force the package to use the latest
    available version.</p></li>
<li class="listitem">
<p>If the package uses gtk-doc (a documentation generation
    utility), do <span class="emphasis"><em>not</em></span> add a dependency on it.  The
    tool is rather big and the distfile should come with pregenerated
    documentation anyway; if it does not, it is a bug that you ought to
    report.  For such packages you should disable gtk-doc (unless it is
    the default):</p>
<pre class="programlisting">CONFIGURE_ARGS+=--disable-gtk-doc</pre>
<p>The default location of installed HTML files
    (<code class="filename">share/gtk-doc/&lt;package-name&gt;</code>) is correct
    and should not be changed unless the package insists on installing
    them somewhere else.  Otherwise programs as
    <span class="command"><strong>devhelp</strong></span> will not be able to open them.  You can
    do that with an entry similar to:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">CONFIGURE_ARGS+=--with-html-dir=${PREFIX}/share/gtk-doc/...</pre>
</li>
</ul></div>
<p>GNOME uses multiple <span class="emphasis"><em>shared</em></span> directories and
files under the installation prefix to maintain databases.  In this
context, shared means that those exact same directories and files are
used among several different packages, leading to conflicts in the
<code class="filename">PLIST</code>.  pkgsrc currently includes functionality to
handle the most common cases, so you have to forget about using
<code class="literal">@unexec ${RMDIR}</code> lines in your file lists and
omitting shared files from them.  If you find yourself doing those,
<span class="emphasis"><em>your package is most likely incorrect</em></span>.</p>
<p>The following table lists the common situations that result in
using shared directories or files.  For each of them, the appropriate
solution is given.  After applying the solution be sure to
<span class="emphasis"><em>regenerate the package's file list</em></span> with
<span class="command"><strong>make print-PLIST</strong></span> and ensure it is correct.</p>
<div class="table">
<a name="plist-handling"></a><p class="title"><b>Table3.1.†–LIST handling for GNOME packages</b></p>
<div class="table-contents"><table summary="PLIST handling for GNOME packages" border="1">
<colgroup>
<col>
<col>
</colgroup>
<thead><tr>
<th>If the package...</th>
<th>Then...</th>
</tr></thead>
<tbody>
<tr>
<td>Installs OMF files under <code class="filename">share/omf</code>.</td>
<td>See <a class="xref" href="#scrollkeeper-data-files" title="19.6.10.†–ackages installing scrollkeeper/rarian data files">Section9.6.10, &#8220;Packages installing scrollkeeper/rarian data files&#8221;</a>.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Installs icons under the
        <code class="filename">share/icons/hicolor</code> hierarchy or updates
        <code class="filename">share/icons/hicolor/icon-theme.cache</code>.</td>
<td>See <a class="xref" href="#hicolor-theme" title="19.6.19.†–ackages installing hicolor theme icons">Section9.6.19, &#8220;Packages installing hicolor theme icons&#8221;</a>.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Installs files under
        <code class="filename">share/mime/packages</code>.</td>
<td>See <a class="xref" href="#mime-database" title="19.6.14.†–ackages installing extensions to the MIME database">Section9.6.14, &#8220;Packages installing extensions to the MIME database&#8221;</a>.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Installs <code class="filename">.desktop</code> files under
        <code class="filename">share/applications</code> and these include MIME
        information.</td>
<td>See <a class="xref" href="#desktop-files" title="19.6.20.†–ackages installing desktop files">Section9.6.20, &#8220;Packages installing desktop files&#8221;</a>.</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table></div>
</div>
<br class="table-break">
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="23.3.†’pdating GNOME to a newer version">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="full-update"></a>23.3.†’pdating GNOME to a newer version</h2></div></div></div>
<p>When seeing GNOME as a whole, there are two kinds of
updates:</p>
<div class="variablelist"><dl>
<dt><span class="term">Major update</span></dt>
<dd>
<p>Given that there is still a very long way for GNOME 3 (if it
      ever appears), we consider a major update one that goes from a
      <code class="literal">2.X</code> version to a <code class="literal">2.Y</code> one,
      where <code class="literal">Y</code> is even and greater than
      <code class="literal">X</code>.  These are hard to achieve because they
      introduce lots of changes in the components' code and almost all
      GNOME distfiles are updated to newer versions.  Some of them can
      even break API and ABI compatibility with the previous major
      version series.  As a result, the update needs to be done all at
      once to minimize breakage.</p>
<p>A major update typically consists of around 80 package
      updates and the addition of some new ones.</p>
</dd>
<dt><span class="term">Minor update</span></dt>
<dd>
<p>We consider a minor update one that goes from a
      <code class="literal">2.A.X</code> version to a <code class="literal">2.A.Y</code>
      one where <code class="literal">Y</code> is greater than
      <code class="literal">X</code>.  These are easy to achieve because they do
      not update all GNOME components, can be done in an incremental way
      and do not break API nor ABI compatibility.</p>
<p>A minor update typically consists of around 50 package
      updates, although the numbers here may vary a lot.</p>
</dd>
</dl></div>
<p>In order to update the GNOME components in pkgsrc to a new stable
release (either major or minor), the following steps should be
followed:</p>
<div class="orderedlist"><ol class="orderedlist" type="1">
<li class="listitem">
<p>Get a list of all the tarballs that form the new release by
    using the following commands.  These will leave the full list of the
    components' distfiles into the <code class="filename">list.txt</code>
    file:</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">%</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>echo ls "*.tar.bz2" | \
    ftp -V ftp://ftp.gnome.org/pub/gnome/platform/x.y/x.y.z/sources/ | \
    awk '{ print $9 }' &gt;list.txt</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">%</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>echo ls "*.tar.bz2" | \
    ftp -V ftp://ftp.gnome.org/pub/gnome/desktop/x.y/x.y.z/sources/ | \
    awk '{ print $9 }' &gt;&gt;list.txt</code></strong></pre>
</li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Open each meta package's <code class="filename">Makefile</code> and
    bump their version to the release you are updating them to.  The
    three meta packages should be always consistent with versioning.
    Obviously remove any <code class="varname">PKGREVISION</code>s that might be
    in them.</p></li>
<li class="listitem">
<p>For each meta package, update all its
    <code class="varname">DEPENDS</code> lines to match the latest versions as
    shown by the above commands.  Do <span class="emphasis"><em>not</em></span> list any
    newer version (even if found in the FTP) because the meta packages
    are supposed to list the exact versions that form a specific GNOME
    release.  Exceptions are permitted here if a newer version solves a
    serious issue in the overall desktop experience; these typically
    come in the form of a revision bump in pkgsrc, not in newer versions
    from the developers.</p>
<p>Packages not listed in the <code class="filename">list.txt</code> file
    should be updated to the latest version available (if found in
    pkgsrc).  This is the case, for example, of the dependencies on the
    GNU Autotools in the <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/meta-pkgs/gnome-devel/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">meta-pkgs/gnome-devel</code></a> meta package.</p>
</li>
<li class="listitem">
<p>Generate a patch from the modified meta packages and extract the
    list of "new" lines.  This will provide you an outline on what
    packages need to be updated in pkgsrc and in what order:</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">%</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>cvs diff -u gnome-devel gnome-base gnome | grep '^+D' &gt;todo.txt</code></strong></pre>
</li>
<li class="listitem"><p>For major desktop updates it is recommended to zap all your
    installed packages and start over from scratch at this point.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Now comes the longest step by far: iterate over the contents
    of <code class="filename">todo.txt</code> and update the packages listed in
    it in order.  For major desktop updates none of these should be
    committed until the entire set is completed because there are chances
    of breaking not-yet-updated packages.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Once the packages are up to date and working, commit them to
    the tree one by one with appropriate log messages.  At the end,
    commit the three meta package updates and all the corresponding
    changes to the <code class="filename">doc/CHANGES-&lt;YEAR&gt;</code> and
    <a href="http://cvsweb.NetBSD.org/bsdweb.cgi/pkgsrc/doc/TODO?rev=HEAD&amp;content-type=text/x-cvsweb-markup" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgsrc/doc/TODO</code></a> files.</p></li>
</ol></div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="23.4.†–atching guidelines">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="patching"></a>23.4.†–atching guidelines</h2></div></div></div>
<p>GNOME is a very big component in pkgsrc which approaches 100
packages.  Please, it is very important that you always, always,
<span class="strong"><strong>always</strong></span> feed back any portability
fixes you do to a GNOME package to the mainstream developers (see <a class="xref" href="#components.patches.feedback" title="11.3.5.†∆eedback to the author">Section1.3.5, &#8220;Feedback to the author&#8221;</a>).  This is the only way to get
their attention on portability issues and to ensure that future versions
can be built out-of-the box on NetBSD.  The less custom patches in
pkgsrc, the easier further updates are.  Those developers in charge of
issuing major GNOME updates will be grateful if you do that.</p>
<p>The most common places to report bugs are the <a class="ulink" href="http://bugzilla.gnome.org/" target="_top">GNOME's Bugzilla</a> and the <a class="ulink" href="http://bugzilla.freedesktop.org/" target="_top">freedesktop.org's
Bugzilla</a>.  Not all components use these to track bugs, but most
of them do.  Do not be short on your reports: always provide detailed
explanations of the current failure, how it can be improved to achieve
maximum portability and, if at all possible, provide a patch against CVS
head.  The more verbose you are, the higher chances of your patch being
accepted.</p>
<p>Also, please avoid using preprocessor magic to fix portability
issues.  While the FreeBSD GNOME people are doing a great job in porting
GNOME to their operating system, the official GNOME sources are now
plagued by conditionals that check for <code class="varname">__FreeBSD__</code>
and similar macros.  This hurts portability.  Please see our patching
guidelines (<a class="xref" href="#components.patches.guidelines" title="11.3.4.†–atching guidelines">Section1.3.4, &#8220;Patching guidelines&#8221;</a>) for more
details.</p>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="part" title="Part†…II.†‘he pkgsrc infrastructure internals">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h1 class="title">
<a name="infrastructure"></a>Part†…II.†‘he pkgsrc infrastructure internals</h1></div></div></div>
<div class="partintro" title="The pkgsrc infrastructure internals">
<div></div>
<p>This part of the guide deals with everything
	from the infrastructure that is behind the interfaces described
	in the developer's guide. A casual package maintainer should not
	need anything from this part.</p>
<div class="toc">
<p><b>Table of Contents</b></p>
<dl>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#infr.design">24. Design of the pkgsrc infrastructure</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#infr.vardef">24.1. The meaning of variable definitions</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#infr.vardef.problems">24.2. Avoiding problems before they arise</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#infr.var">24.3. Variable evaluation</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#infr.var.load">24.3.1. At load time</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#infr.var.run">24.3.2. At runtime</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#infr.varspec">24.4. How can variables be specified?</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#infr.design.intf">24.5. Designing interfaces for Makefile fragments</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#infr.design.intf.proc">24.5.1. Procedures with parameters</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#infr.design.intf.action">24.5.2. Actions taken on behalf of parameters</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#infr.order">24.6. The order in which files are loaded</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#infr.order.prefs">24.6.1. The order in <code class="filename">bsd.prefs.mk</code></a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#infr.order.pkg">24.6.2. The order in <code class="filename">bsd.pkg.mk</code></a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#regression">25. Regression tests</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#regression.descr">25.1. The regression tests framework</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#regression.run">25.2. Running the regression tests</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#regression.new">25.3. Adding a new regression test</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#regression.fun.override">25.3.1. Overridable functions</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#regression.fun.helper">25.3.2. Helper functions</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#porting">26. Porting pkgsrc</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#porting.opsys">26.1. Porting pkgsrc to a new operating system</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#porting.compiler">26.2. Adding support for a new compiler</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
</dl>
</div>
</div>
<div class="chapter" title="Chapter4.†ńesign of the pkgsrc infrastructure">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title">
<a name="infr.design"></a>Chapter4.†ńesign of the pkgsrc infrastructure</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="toc">
<p><b>Table of Contents</b></p>
<dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#infr.vardef">24.1. The meaning of variable definitions</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#infr.vardef.problems">24.2. Avoiding problems before they arise</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#infr.var">24.3. Variable evaluation</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#infr.var.load">24.3.1. At load time</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#infr.var.run">24.3.2. At runtime</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#infr.varspec">24.4. How can variables be specified?</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#infr.design.intf">24.5. Designing interfaces for Makefile fragments</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#infr.design.intf.proc">24.5.1. Procedures with parameters</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#infr.design.intf.action">24.5.2. Actions taken on behalf of parameters</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#infr.order">24.6. The order in which files are loaded</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#infr.order.prefs">24.6.1. The order in <code class="filename">bsd.prefs.mk</code></a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#infr.order.pkg">24.6.2. The order in <code class="filename">bsd.pkg.mk</code></a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
</dl>
</div>
<p>The pkgsrc infrastructure consists of many small Makefile
	fragments. Each such fragment needs a properly specified
	interface. This chapter explains how such an interface looks
	like.</p>
<div class="sect1" title="24.1.†‘he meaning of variable definitions">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="infr.vardef"></a>24.1.†‘he meaning of variable definitions</h2></div></div></div>
<p>Whenever a variable is defined in the pkgsrc
	infrastructure, the location and the way of definition provide
	much information about the intended use of that variable.
	Additionally, more documentation may be found in a header
	comment or in this pkgsrc guide.</p>
<p>A special file is
	<code class="filename">mk/defaults/mk.conf</code>, which lists all
	variables that are intended to be user-defined. They are either
	defined using the <code class="literal">?=</code> operator or they are
	left undefined because defining them to anything would
	effectively mean <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">yes</span>&#8221;</span>. All these variables may be
	overridden by the pkgsrc user in the <code class="varname">MAKECONF</code>
	file.</p>
<p>Outside this file, the following conventions apply:
	Variables that are defined using the <code class="literal">?=</code>
	operator may be overridden by a package.</p>
<p>Variables that are defined using the <code class="literal">=</code>
	operator may be used read-only at run-time.</p>
<p>Variables whose name starts with an underscore must not be
	accessed outside the pkgsrc infrastructure at all. They may
	change without further notice.</p>
<div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;">
<h3 class="title">Note</h3>
<p>These conventions are currently not applied
	consistently to the complete pkgsrc
	infrastructure.</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="24.2.†Ńvoiding problems before they arise">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="infr.vardef.problems"></a>24.2.†Ńvoiding problems before they arise</h2></div></div></div>
<p>All variables that contain lists of things should default
	to being empty. Two examples that do not follow this rule are
	<code class="varname">USE_LANGUAGES</code> and
	<code class="varname">DISTFILES</code>. These variables cannot simply be
	modified using the <code class="literal">+=</code> operator in package
	<code class="filename">Makefile</code>s (or other files included by
	them), since there is no guarantee whether the variable is
	already set or not, and what its value is. In the case of
	<code class="varname">DISTFILES</code>, the packages <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">know</span>&#8221;</span>
	the default value and just define it as in the following
	example.</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
DISTFILES=      ${DISTNAME}${EXTRACT_SUFX} additional-files.tar.gz
</pre>
<p>Because of the selection of this default value, the same
	value appears in many package Makefiles. Similarly for
	<code class="varname">USE_LANGUAGES</code>, but in this case the default
	value (<span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote"><code class="literal">c</code></span>&#8221;</span>) is so short that it
	doesn't stand out. Nevertheless it is mentioned in many
	files.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="24.3.†÷ariable evaluation">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="infr.var"></a>24.3.†÷ariable evaluation</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="sect2" title="24.3.1.†Ńt load time">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="infr.var.load"></a>24.3.1.†Ńt load time</h3></div></div></div>
<p>Variable evaluation takes place either at load time or at
	runtime, depending on the context in which they occur. The
	contexts where variables are evaluated at load time are:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p>The right hand side of the <code class="literal">:=</code>
	and <code class="literal">!=</code> operators,</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Make directives like <code class="literal">.if</code> or
	<code class="literal">.for</code>,</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p>Dependency lines.</p></li>
</ul></div>
<p>A special exception are references to the iteration
	variables of <code class="literal">.for</code> loops, which are expanded
	inline, no matter in which context they appear.</p>
<p>As the values of variables may change during load time,
	care must be taken not to evaluate them by accident. Typical
	examples for variables that should not be evaluated at load time
	are <code class="varname">DEPENDS</code> and
	<code class="varname">CONFIGURE_ARGS</code>. To make the effect more
	clear, here is an example:</p>
<pre class="programlisting">
CONFIGURE_ARGS=         # none
CFLAGS=                 -O
CONFIGURE_ARGS+=        CFLAGS=${CFLAGS:Q}

CONFIGURE_ARGS:=        ${CONFIGURE_ARGS}

CFLAGS+=                -Wall
	</pre>
<p>This code shows how the use of the <code class="literal">:=</code>
	operator can quickly lead to unexpected results. The first
	paragraph is fairly common code. The second paragraph evaluates
	the <code class="varname">CONFIGURE_ARGS</code> variable, which results in
	<code class="literal">CFLAGS=-O</code>. In the third paragraph, the
	<code class="literal">-Wall</code> is appended to the
	<code class="varname">CFLAGS</code>, but this addition will not appear in
	<code class="varname">CONFIGURE_ARGS</code>. In actual code, the three
	paragraphs from above typically occur in completely unrelated
	files.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="24.3.2.†Ńt runtime">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="infr.var.run"></a>24.3.2.†Ńt runtime</h3></div></div></div>
<p>After all the files have been loaded, the values of the
	variables cannot be changed anymore. Variables that are used in
	the shell commands are expanded at this point.</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="24.4.†»ow can variables be specified?">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="infr.varspec"></a>24.4.†»ow can variables be specified?</h2></div></div></div>
<p>There are many ways in which the definition and use of a
	variable can be restricted in order to detect bugs and
	violations of the (mostly unwritten) policies. See the
	<code class="literal">pkglint</code> developer's documentation for further
	details.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="24.5.†ńesigning interfaces for Makefile fragments">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="infr.design.intf"></a>24.5.†ńesigning interfaces for Makefile fragments</h2></div></div></div>
<p>Most of the <code class="filename">.mk</code> files fall into one
	of the following classes. Cases where a file falls into more
	than one class should be avoided as it often leads to subtle
	bugs.</p>
<div class="sect2" title="24.5.1.†–rocedures with parameters">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="infr.design.intf.proc"></a>24.5.1.†–rocedures with parameters</h3></div></div></div>
<p>In a traditional imperative programming language some of
	the <code class="filename">.mk</code> files could be described as
	procedures. They take some input parameters and&mdash;after
	inclusion&mdash;provide a result in output parameters. Since all
	variables in <code class="filename">Makefile</code>s have global scope
	care must be taken not to use parameter names that have already
	another meaning. For example, <code class="varname">PKGNAME</code> is a
	bad choice for a parameter name.</p>
<p>Procedures are completely evaluated at preprocessing time.
	That is, when calling a procedure all input parameters must be
	completely resolvable. For example,
	<code class="varname">CONFIGURE_ARGS</code> should never be an input
	parameter since it is very likely that further text will be
	added after calling the procedure, which would effectively apply
	the procedure to only a part of the variable. Also, references
	to other variables wit will be modified after calling the
	procedure.</p>
<p>A procedure can declare its output parameters either as
	suitable for use in preprocessing directives or as only
	available at runtime. The latter alternative is for variables
	that contain references to other runtime variables.</p>
<p>Procedures shall be written such that it is possible to
	call the procedure more than once. That is, the file must not
	contain multiple-inclusion guards.</p>
<p>Examples for procedures are
	<code class="filename">mk/bsd.options.mk</code> and
	<code class="filename">mk/buildlink3/bsd.builtin.mk</code>. To express
	that the parameters are evaluated at load time, they should be
	assigned using the <code class="literal">:=</code> operator, which should
	be used only for this purpose.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="24.5.2.†Ńctions taken on behalf of parameters">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="infr.design.intf.action"></a>24.5.2.†Ńctions taken on behalf of parameters</h3></div></div></div>
<p>Action files take some input parameters and may define
	runtime variables. They shall not define loadtime variables.
	There are action files that are included implicitly by the
	pkgsrc infrastructure, while other must be included
	explicitly.</p>
<p>An example for action files is
	<code class="filename">mk/subst.mk</code>.</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="24.6.†‘he order in which files are loaded">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="infr.order"></a>24.6.†‘he order in which files are loaded</h2></div></div></div>
<p>Package <code class="filename">Makefile</code>s usually consist of
	a set of variable definitions, and include the file
	<code class="filename">../../mk/bsd.pkg.mk</code> in the very last line.
	Before that, they may also include various other
	<code class="filename">*.mk</code> files if they need to query the
	availability of certain features like the type of compiler or
	the X11 implementation. Due to the heavy use of preprocessor
	directives like <code class="literal">.if</code> and
	<code class="literal">.for</code>, the order in which the files are loaded
	matters.</p>
<p>This section describes at which point the various files
	are loaded and gives reasons for that order.</p>
<div class="sect2" title="24.6.1.†‘he order in bsd.prefs.mk">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="infr.order.prefs"></a>24.6.1.†‘he order in <code class="filename">bsd.prefs.mk</code>
</h3></div></div></div>
<p>The very first action in <code class="filename">bsd.prefs.mk</code>
	is to define some essential variables like
	<code class="varname">OPSYS</code>, <code class="varname">OS_VERSION</code> and
	<code class="varname">MACHINE_ARCH</code>.</p>
<p>Then, the user settings are loaded from the file specified
	in <code class="varname">MAKECONF</code>, which is usually <a class="link" href="#mk.conf"><code class="filename">mk.conf</code></a>.
	After that, those variables
	that have not been overridden by the user are loaded from
	<code class="filename">mk/defaults/mk.conf</code>.</p>
<p>After the user settings, the system settings and platform
	settings are loaded, which may override the user
	settings.</p>
<p>Then, the tool definitions are loaded. The tool wrappers
	are not yet in effect. This only happens when building a
	package, so the proper variables must be used instead of the
	direct tool names.</p>
<p>As the last steps, some essential variables from the
	wrapper and the package system flavor are loaded, as well as the
	variables that have been cached in earlier phases of a package
	build.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="24.6.2.†‘he order in bsd.pkg.mk">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="infr.order.pkg"></a>24.6.2.†‘he order in <code class="filename">bsd.pkg.mk</code>
</h3></div></div></div>
<p>First, <code class="filename">bsd.prefs.mk</code> is loaded.</p>
<p>Then, the various <code class="filename">*-vars.mk</code> files are
	loaded, which fill default values for those variables that have
	not been defined by the package. These variables may later
	be used even in unrelated files.</p>
<p>Then, the file <code class="filename">bsd.pkg.error.mk</code>
	provides the target <code class="literal">error-check</code> that is added
	as a special dependency to all other targets that use
	<code class="varname">DELAYED_ERROR_MSG</code> or
	<code class="varname">DELAYED_WARNING_MSG</code>.</p>
<p>Then, the package-specific hacks from
	<code class="filename">hacks.mk</code> are included.</p>
<p>Then, various other files follow. Most of them don't have
	any dependencies on what they need to have included before or
	after them, though some do.</p>
<p>The code to check <code class="varname">PKG_FAIL_REASON</code> and
	<code class="varname">PKG_SKIP_REASON</code> is then executed, which
	restricts the use of these variables to all the files that have
	been included before. Appearances in later files will be
	silently ignored.</p>
<p>Then, the files for the main targets are included, in the
	order of later execution, though the actual order should not
	matter.</p>
<p>At last, some more files are included that don't set any
	interesting variables but rather just define make targets to be
	executed.</p>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="chapter" title="Chapter5.†“egression tests">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title">
<a name="regression"></a>Chapter5.†“egression tests</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="toc">
<p><b>Table of Contents</b></p>
<dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#regression.descr">25.1. The regression tests framework</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#regression.run">25.2. Running the regression tests</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#regression.new">25.3. Adding a new regression test</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#regression.fun.override">25.3.1. Overridable functions</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#regression.fun.helper">25.3.2. Helper functions</a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
</dl>
</div>
<p>The pkgsrc infrastructure consists of a large codebase,
	and there are many corners where every little bit of a file is
	well thought out, making pkgsrc likely to fail as soon as
	anything is changed near those parts. To prevent most changes
	from breaking anything, a suite of regression tests should go
	along with every important part of the pkgsrc infrastructure.
	This chapter describes how regression tests work in pkgsrc and
	how you can add new tests.</p>
<div class="sect1" title="25.1.†‘he regression tests framework">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="regression.descr"></a>25.1.†‘he regression tests framework</h2></div></div></div>
<p></p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="25.2.†“unning the regression tests">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="regression.run"></a>25.2.†“unning the regression tests</h2></div></div></div>
<p>You first need to install the <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/pkg_regress/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/pkg_regress</code></a> package, which
	provides the <span class="command"><strong>pkg_regress</strong></span> command. Then you
	can simply run that command, which will run all tests in the
	<code class="filename">regress</code> category.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="25.3.†Ńdding a new regression test">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="regression.new"></a>25.3.†Ńdding a new regression test</h2></div></div></div>
<p>Every directory in the <code class="filename">regress</code>
	category that contains a file called <code class="filename">spec</code>
	is considered a regression test. This file is a shell program
	that is included by the <span class="command"><strong>pkg_regress</strong></span> command.
	The following functions can be overridden to suit your
	needs.</p>
<div class="sect2" title="25.3.1.†Ōverridable functions">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="regression.fun.override"></a>25.3.1.†Ōverridable functions</h3></div></div></div>
<p>These functions do not take any parameters. They are all
	called in <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">set -e</span>&#8221;</span> mode, so you should be careful
	to check the exitcodes of any commands you run in the
	test.</p>
<div class="variablelist"><dl>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">do_setup()</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>This function prepares the environment for the
	test. By default it does nothing.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">do_test()</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>This function runs the actual test. By default,
	it calls <code class="varname">TEST_MAKE</code> with the arguments
	<code class="varname">MAKEARGS_TEST</code> and writes its output including
	error messages into the file
	<code class="varname">TEST_OUTFILE</code>.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">check_result()</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>This function is run after the test and is
	typically used to compare the actual output from the one that is
	expected. It can make use of the various helper functions from
	the next section.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">do_cleanup()</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>This function cleans everything up after the
	test has been run. By default it does nothing.</p></dd>
</dl></div>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="25.3.2.†»elper functions">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="regression.fun.helper"></a>25.3.2.†»elper functions</h3></div></div></div>
<div class="variablelist"><dl>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">exit_status(expected)</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>This function compares the exitcode of the
	<span class="command"><strong>do_test()</strong></span> function with its first parameter.
	If they differ, the test will fail.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">output_require(regex...)</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>This function checks for each of its parameters
	if the output from <span class="command"><strong>do_test()</strong></span> matches the
	extended regular expression. If it does not, the test will
	fail.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="varname">output_prohibit(regex...)</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>This function checks for each of its parameters
	if the output from <span class="command"><strong>do_test()</strong></span> does
	<span class="emphasis"><em>not</em></span> match the extended regular expression.
	If any of the regular expressions matches, the test will
	fail.</p></dd>
</dl></div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="chapter" title="Chapter6.†–orting pkgsrc">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title">
<a name="porting"></a>Chapter6.†–orting pkgsrc</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="toc">
<p><b>Table of Contents</b></p>
<dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#porting.opsys">26.1. Porting pkgsrc to a new operating system</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#porting.compiler">26.2. Adding support for a new compiler</a></span></dt>
</dl>
</div>
<p>The pkgsrc system has already been ported to many
	operating systems, hardware architectures and compilers. This
	chapter explains the necessary steps to make pkgsrc even more
	portable.</p>
<div class="sect1" title="26.1.†–orting pkgsrc to a new operating system">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="porting.opsys"></a>26.1.†–orting pkgsrc to a new operating system</h2></div></div></div>
<p>To port pkgsrc to a new operating system (called
	<code class="literal">MyOS</code> in this example), you need to touch the
	following files:</p>
<div class="variablelist"><dl>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">pkgtools/bootstrap-mk-files/files/mods/<em class="replaceable"><code>MyOS</code></em>.sys.mk</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>This file contains some basic definitions, for
	example the name of the C
	compiler.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">mk/bsd.prefs.mk</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>Insert code that defines the variables
	<code class="varname">OPSYS</code>, <code class="varname">OS_VERSION</code>,
	<code class="varname">LOWER_OS_VERSION</code>,
	<code class="varname">LOWER_VENDOR</code>,
	<code class="varname">MACHINE_ARCH</code>, <code class="varname">OBJECT_FMT</code>,
	<code class="varname">APPEND_ELF</code>, and the other variables that
	appear in this file.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">mk/platform/<em class="replaceable"><code>MyOS</code></em>.mk</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>This file contains the platform-specific
	definitions that are used by pkgsrc. Start by copying one of the
	other files and edit it to your
	needs.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">mk/platform/<em class="replaceable"><code>MyOS</code></em>.pkg.dist</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>This file contains a list of directories,
	together with their permission bits and ownership. These
	directories will be created automatically with every package
	that explicitly sets <code class="varname">USE_MTREE</code>. This feature will
	be removed.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">mk/platform/<em class="replaceable"><code>MyOS</code></em>.x11.dist</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>Just copy one of the pre-existing x11.dist files
	to your
	<code class="filename"><em class="replaceable"><code>MyOS</code></em>.x11.dist</code>.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">mk/tools/bootstrap.mk</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>On some operating systems, the tools that are
	provided with the base system are not good enough for pkgsrc.
	For example, there are many versions of <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?sed+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">sed</span>(1)</span></a> that have a
	narrow limit on the line length they can process. Therefore
	pkgsrc brings its own tools, which can be enabled
	here.</p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">mk/tools/tools.<em class="replaceable"><code>MyOS</code></em>.mk</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>This file defines the paths to all the tools
	that are needed by one or the other package in pkgsrc, as well
	as by pkgsrc itself. Find out where these tools are on your
	platform and add them.</p></dd>
</dl></div>
<p>Now, you should be able to build some basic packages, like
	<a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/lang/perl5/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">lang/perl5</code></a>, <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/shells/bash/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">shells/bash</code></a>.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="26.2.†Ńdding support for a new compiler">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="porting.compiler"></a>26.2.†Ńdding support for a new compiler</h2></div></div></div>
<p>TODO</p>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="appendix" title="Appendix†Ń.†Ń simple example package: bison">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title">
<a name="examples"></a>Appendix†Ń.†Ń simple example package: bison</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="toc">
<p><b>Table of Contents</b></p>
<dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#example-files">A.1. files</a></span></dt>
<dd><dl>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#example-Makefile">A.1.1. Makefile</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#example-descr">A.1.2. DESCR</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#example-plist">A.1.3. PLIST</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect2"><a href="#checking-package-with-pkglint">A.1.4. Checking a package with <span class="command"><strong>pkglint</strong></span></a></span></dt>
</dl></dd>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#steps-for-b-i-p">A.2. Steps for building, installing, packaging</a></span></dt>
</dl>
</div>
<p>We checked to find a piece of software that wasn't in the packages
    collection, and picked GNU bison. Quite why someone would want to have
    <span class="command"><strong>bison</strong></span> when Berkeley <span class="command"><strong>yacc</strong></span> is already
    present in the tree is beyond us, but it's useful for the purposes of
    this exercise.</p>
<div class="sect1" title="A.1.†śiles">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="example-files"></a>A.1.†śiles</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="sect2" title="A.1.1.†Õakefile">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="example-Makefile"></a>A.1.1.†Õakefile</h3></div></div></div>
<pre class="programlisting">
# $NetBSD$
#

DISTNAME=       bison-1.25
CATEGORIES=     devel
MASTER_SITES=   ${MASTER_SITE_GNU}

MAINTAINER=     thorpej@NetBSD.org
HOMEPAGE=       http://www.gnu.org/software/bison/bison.html
COMMENT=        GNU yacc clone

GNU_CONFIGURE=  yes
INFO_FILES=     bison.info

.include "../../mk/bsd.pkg.mk"
</pre>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="A.1.2.†ńESCR">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="example-descr"></a>A.1.2.†ńESCR</h3></div></div></div>
<pre class="programlisting">
GNU version of yacc.  Can make re-entrant parsers, and numerous other
improvements.  Why you would want this when Berkeley <a class="citerefentry" href="http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?yacc+1+NetBSD-current"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">yacc</span>(1)</span></a> is part
of the NetBSD source tree is beyond me.
</pre>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="A.1.3.†–LIST">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="example-plist"></a>A.1.3.†–LIST</h3></div></div></div>
<pre class="programlisting">
@comment $NetBSD$
bin/bison
man/man1/bison.1.gz
share/bison.simple
share/bison.hairy
</pre>
</div>
<div class="sect2" title="A.1.4.†√hecking a package with pkglint">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title">
<a name="checking-package-with-pkglint"></a>A.1.4.†√hecking a package with <span class="command"><strong>pkglint</strong></span>
</h3></div></div></div>
<p>The NetBSD package system comes with
        <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/pkgtools/pkglint/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">pkgtools/pkglint</code></a>
	which helps to check the contents of these
	files. After installation it is quite easy to use, just change to the
	directory of the package you wish to examine and execute
	<span class="command"><strong>pkglint</strong></span>:</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">$</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>pkglint</code></strong>
looks fine.</pre>
<p>Depending on the supplied command line arguments (see pkglint(1)),
	more checks will be performed. Use e.g. <span class="command"><strong>pkglint -Call
	-Wall</strong></span> for a very thorough check.</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="A.2.†”teps for building, installing, packaging">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="steps-for-b-i-p"></a>A.2.†”teps for building, installing, packaging</h2></div></div></div>
<p>Create the directory where the package lives,
      plus any auxiliary directories:</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>cd /usr/pkgsrc/lang</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>mkdir bison</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>cd bison</code></strong>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>mkdir patches</code></strong></pre>
<p>Create <code class="filename">Makefile</code>, <code class="filename">DESCR</code> and
      <code class="filename">PLIST</code> (see <a class="xref" href="#components" title="Chapter1.†–ackage components - files, directories and contents">Chapter1, <i>Package components - files, directories and contents</i></a>)
      then continue with fetching the distfile:</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>make fetch</code></strong>
&gt;&gt; bison-1.25.tar.gz doesn't seem to exist on this system.
&gt;&gt; Attempting to fetch from ftp://prep.ai.mit.edu/pub/gnu//.
Requesting ftp://prep.ai.mit.edu/pub/gnu//bison-1.25.tar.gz (via ftp://orpheus.amdahl.com:80/)
ftp: Error retrieving file: 500 Internal error

&gt;&gt; Attempting to fetch from ftp://wuarchive.wustl.edu/systems/gnu//.
Requesting ftp://wuarchive.wustl.edu/systems/gnu//bison-1.25.tar.gz (via ftp://orpheus.amdahl.com:80/)
ftp: Error retrieving file: 500 Internal error

&gt;&gt; Attempting to fetch from ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/distfiles//.
Requesting ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/distfiles//bison-1.25.tar.gz (via ftp://orpheus.amdahl.com:80/)
Successfully retrieved file.</pre>
<p>Generate the checksum of the distfile into
      <code class="filename">distinfo</code>:</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>make makedistinfo</code></strong></pre>
<p>Now compile:</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>make</code></strong>
&gt;&gt; Checksum OK for bison-1.25.tar.gz.
===&gt;  Extracting for bison-1.25
===&gt;  Patching for bison-1.25
===&gt;   Ignoring empty patch directory
===&gt;  Configuring for bison-1.25
creating cache ./config.cache
checking for gcc... cc
checking whether we are using GNU C... yes
checking for a BSD compatible install... /usr/bin/install -c -o bin -g bin
checking how to run the C preprocessor... cc -E
checking for minix/config.h... no
checking for POSIXized ISC... no
checking whether cross-compiling... no
checking for ANSI C header files... yes
checking for string.h... yes
checking for stdlib.h... yes
checking for memory.h... yes
checking for working const... yes
checking for working alloca.h... no
checking for alloca... yes
checking for strerror... yes
updating cache ./config.cache
creating ./config.status
creating Makefile
===&gt;  Building for bison-1.25
cc -c -DSTDC_HEADERS=1 -DHAVE_STRING_H=1 -DHAVE_STDLIB_H=1 -DHAVE_MEMORY_H=1 -DHAVE_ALLOCA=1 -DHAVE_STRERROR=1 -I./../include  -g LR0.c
cc -c -DSTDC_HEADERS=1 -DHAVE_STRING_H=1 -DHAVE_STDLIB_H=1 -DHAVE_MEMORY_H=1 -DHAVE_ALLOCA=1 -DHAVE_STRERROR=1 -I./../include  -g allocate.c
cc -c -DSTDC_HEADERS=1 -DHAVE_STRING_H=1 -DHAVE_STDLIB_H=1 -DHAVE_MEMORY_H=1 -DHAVE_ALLOCA=1 -DHAVE_STRERROR=1 -I./../include  -g closure.c
cc -c -DSTDC_HEADERS=1 -DHAVE_STRING_H=1 -DHAVE_STDLIB_H=1 -DHAVE_MEMORY_H=1 -DHAVE_ALLOCA=1 -DHAVE_STRERROR=1 -I./../include  -g conflicts.c
cc -c -DSTDC_HEADERS=1 -DHAVE_STRING_H=1 -DHAVE_STDLIB_H=1 -DHAVE_MEMORY_H=1 -DHAVE_ALLOCA=1 -DHAVE_STRERROR=1 -I./../include  -g derives.c
cc -c -DXPFILE=\"/usr/pkg/share/bison.simple\"  -DXPFILE1=\"/usr/pkg/share/bison.hairy\" -DSTDC_HEADERS=1 -DHAVE_STRING_H=1 -DHAVE_STDLIB_H=1 -DHAVE_MEMORY_H=1 -DHAVE_ALLOCA=1 -DHAVE_STRERROR=1  -g  ./files.c
cc -c -DSTDC_HEADERS=1 -DHAVE_STRING_H=1 -DHAVE_STDLIB_H=1 -DHAVE_MEMORY_H=1 -DHAVE_ALLOCA=1 -DHAVE_STRERROR=1 -I./../include  -g getargs.c
cc -c -DSTDC_HEADERS=1 -DHAVE_STRING_H=1 -DHAVE_STDLIB_H=1 -DHAVE_MEMORY_H=1 -DHAVE_ALLOCA=1 -DHAVE_STRERROR=1 -I./../include  -g gram.c
cc -c -DSTDC_HEADERS=1 -DHAVE_STRING_H=1 -DHAVE_STDLIB_H=1 -DHAVE_MEMORY_H=1 -DHAVE_ALLOCA=1 -DHAVE_STRERROR=1 -I./../include  -g lalr.c
cc -c -DSTDC_HEADERS=1 -DHAVE_STRING_H=1 -DHAVE_STDLIB_H=1 -DHAVE_MEMORY_H=1 -DHAVE_ALLOCA=1 -DHAVE_STRERROR=1 -I./../include  -g lex.c
cc -c -DSTDC_HEADERS=1 -DHAVE_STRING_H=1 -DHAVE_STDLIB_H=1 -DHAVE_MEMORY_H=1 -DHAVE_ALLOCA=1 -DHAVE_STRERROR=1 -I./../include  -g main.c
cc -c -DSTDC_HEADERS=1 -DHAVE_STRING_H=1 -DHAVE_STDLIB_H=1 -DHAVE_MEMORY_H=1 -DHAVE_ALLOCA=1 -DHAVE_STRERROR=1 -I./../include  -g nullable.c
cc -c -DSTDC_HEADERS=1 -DHAVE_STRING_H=1 -DHAVE_STDLIB_H=1 -DHAVE_MEMORY_H=1 -DHAVE_ALLOCA=1 -DHAVE_STRERROR=1 -I./../include  -g output.c
cc -c -DSTDC_HEADERS=1 -DHAVE_STRING_H=1 -DHAVE_STDLIB_H=1 -DHAVE_MEMORY_H=1 -DHAVE_ALLOCA=1 -DHAVE_STRERROR=1 -I./../include  -g print.c
cc -c -DSTDC_HEADERS=1 -DHAVE_STRING_H=1 -DHAVE_STDLIB_H=1 -DHAVE_MEMORY_H=1 -DHAVE_ALLOCA=1 -DHAVE_STRERROR=1 -I./../include  -g reader.c
cc -c -DSTDC_HEADERS=1 -DHAVE_STRING_H=1 -DHAVE_STDLIB_H=1 -DHAVE_MEMORY_H=1 -DHAVE_ALLOCA=1 -DHAVE_STRERROR=1 -I./../include  -g reduce.c
cc -c -DSTDC_HEADERS=1 -DHAVE_STRING_H=1 -DHAVE_STDLIB_H=1 -DHAVE_MEMORY_H=1 -DHAVE_ALLOCA=1 -DHAVE_STRERROR=1 -I./../include  -g symtab.c
cc -c -DSTDC_HEADERS=1 -DHAVE_STRING_H=1 -DHAVE_STDLIB_H=1 -DHAVE_MEMORY_H=1 -DHAVE_ALLOCA=1 -DHAVE_STRERROR=1 -I./../include  -g warshall.c
cc -c -DSTDC_HEADERS=1 -DHAVE_STRING_H=1 -DHAVE_STDLIB_H=1 -DHAVE_MEMORY_H=1 -DHAVE_ALLOCA=1 -DHAVE_STRERROR=1 -I./../include  -g version.c
cc -c -DSTDC_HEADERS=1 -DHAVE_STRING_H=1 -DHAVE_STDLIB_H=1 -DHAVE_MEMORY_H=1 -DHAVE_ALLOCA=1 -DHAVE_STRERROR=1 -I./../include  -g getopt.c
cc -c -DSTDC_HEADERS=1 -DHAVE_STRING_H=1 -DHAVE_STDLIB_H=1 -DHAVE_MEMORY_H=1 -DHAVE_ALLOCA=1 -DHAVE_STRERROR=1 -I./../include  -g getopt1.c
cc  -g -o bison LR0.o allocate.o closure.o conflicts.o derives.o files.o         getargs.o gram.o lalr.o lex.o                                   main.o nullable.o output.o print.o reader.o reduce.o symtab.o   warshall.o version.o getopt.o getopt1.o
./files.c:240: warning: mktemp() possibly used unsafely, consider using mkstemp()
rm -f bison.s1
sed -e "/^#line/ s|bison|/usr/pkg/share/bison|" &lt; ./bison.simple &gt; bison.s1</pre>
<p>Everything seems OK, so install the files:</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>make install</code></strong>
&gt;&gt; Checksum OK for bison-1.25.tar.gz.
===&gt;  Installing for bison-1.25
sh ./mkinstalldirs /usr/pkg/bin /usr/pkg/share  /usr/pkg/info /usr/pkg/man/man1
rm -f /usr/pkg/bin/bison
cd /usr/pkg/share; rm -f bison.simple bison.hairy
rm -f /usr/pkg/man/man1/bison.1 /usr/pkg/info/bison.info*
install -c  -o bin -g bin -m 555 bison /usr/pkg/bin/bison
/usr/bin/install -c -o bin -g bin -m 644 bison.s1 /usr/pkg/share/bison.simple
/usr/bin/install -c -o bin -g bin -m 644 ./bison.hairy /usr/pkg/share/bison.hairy
cd .; for f in bison.info*;  do /usr/bin/install -c -o bin -g bin -m 644 $f /usr/pkg/info/$f; done
/usr/bin/install -c -o bin -g bin -m 644 ./bison.1 /usr/pkg/man/man1/bison.1
===&gt;  Registering installation for bison-1.25</pre>
<p>You can now use bison, and also - if you decide so - remove it with
      <span class="command"><strong>pkg_delete bison</strong></span>. Should you decide that you want a
      binary package, do this now:</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>make package</code></strong>
&gt;&gt; Checksum OK for bison-1.25.tar.gz.
===&gt;  Building package for bison-1.25
Creating package bison-1.25.tgz
Registering depends:.
Creating gzip'd tar ball in '/u/pkgsrc/lang/bison/bison-1.25.tgz'</pre>
<p>Now that you don't need the source and object files
      any more, clean up:</p>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>make clean</code></strong>
===&gt;  Cleaning for bison-1.25</pre>
</div>
</div>
<div class="appendix" title="Appendix†¬.†¬uild logs">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title">
<a name="logs"></a>Appendix†¬.†¬uild logs</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="toc">
<p><b>Table of Contents</b></p>
<dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#logs.building">B.1. Building figlet</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#logs.package">B.2. Packaging figlet</a></span></dt>
</dl>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="B.1.†¬uilding figlet">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="logs.building"></a>B.1.†¬uilding figlet</h2></div></div></div>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>make</code></strong>
===&gt; Checking for vulnerabilities in figlet-2.2.1nb2
=&gt; figlet221.tar.gz doesn't seem to exist on this system.
=&gt; Attempting to fetch figlet221.tar.gz from ftp://ftp.figlet.org/pub/figlet/program/unix/.
=&gt; [172219 bytes]
Connected to ftp.plig.net.
220 ftp.plig.org NcFTPd Server (licensed copy) ready.
331 Guest login ok, send your complete e-mail address as password.
230-You are user #5 of 500 simultaneous users allowed.
230-
230-  ___ _             _ _
230- |  _| |_ ___   ___| |_|___   ___ ___ ___
230- |  _|  _| . |_| . | | | . |_| . |  _| . |
230- |_| |_| |  _|_|  _|_|_|_  |_|___|_| |_  |
230-         |_|   |_|     |___|         |___|
230-
230-** Welcome to ftp.plig.org **
230-
230-Please note that all transfers from this FTP site are logged. If you
230-do not like this, please disconnect now.
230-
230-This archive is available via
230-
230-HTTP:  http://ftp.plig.org/
230-FTP:   ftp://ftp.plig.org/     (max 500 connections)
230-RSYNC: rsync://ftp.plig.org/   (max  30 connections)
230-
230-Please email comments, bug reports and requests for packages to be
230-mirrored to ftp-admin@plig.org.
230-
230-
230 Logged in anonymously.
Remote system type is UNIX.
Using binary mode to transfer files.
200 Type okay.
250 "/pub" is new cwd.
250-"/pub/figlet" is new cwd.
250-
250-Welcome to the figlet archive at ftp.figlet.org
250-
250-	ftp://ftp.figlet.org/pub/figlet/
250-
250-The official FIGlet web page is:
250-	http://www.figlet.org/
250-
250-If you have questions, please mailto:info@figlet.org. If you want to
250-contribute a font or something else, you can email us.
250
250 "/pub/figlet/program" is new cwd.
250 "/pub/figlet/program/unix" is new cwd.
local: figlet221.tar.gz remote: figlet221.tar.gz
502 Unimplemented command.
227 Entering Passive Mode (195,40,6,41,246,104)
150 Data connection accepted from 84.128.86.72:65131; transfer starting for figlet221.tar.gz (172219 bytes).
38% |**************                       | 65800      64.16 KB/s    00:01 ETA
226 Transfer completed.
172219 bytes received in 00:02 (75.99 KB/s)
221 Goodbye.
=&gt; Checksum OK for figlet221.tar.gz.
===&gt; Extracting for figlet-2.2.1nb2
===&gt; Required installed package ccache-[0-9]*: ccache-2.3nb1 found
===&gt; Patching for figlet-2.2.1nb2
===&gt; Applying pkgsrc patches for figlet-2.2.1nb2
===&gt; Overriding tools for figlet-2.2.1nb2
===&gt; Creating toolchain wrappers for figlet-2.2.1nb2
===&gt; Configuring for figlet-2.2.1nb2
===&gt; Building for figlet-2.2.1nb2
gcc -O2 -DDEFAULTFONTDIR=\"/usr/pkg/share/figlet\"  -DDEFAULTFONTFILE=\"standard.flf\"  figlet.c zipio.c crc.c inflate.c -o figlet
chmod a+x figlet
gcc -O2 -o chkfont chkfont.c
=&gt; Unwrapping files-to-be-installed.
<code class="prompt">#</code>
<code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>make install</code></strong>
===&gt; Checking for vulnerabilities in figlet-2.2.1nb2
===&gt; Installing for figlet-2.2.1nb2
install -d -o root -g wheel -m 755 /usr/pkg/bin
install -d -o root -g wheel -m 755 /usr/pkg/man/man6
mkdir -p /usr/pkg/share/figlet
cp figlet /usr/pkg/bin
cp chkfont /usr/pkg/bin
chmod 555 figlist showfigfonts
cp figlist /usr/pkg/bin
cp showfigfonts /usr/pkg/bin
cp fonts/*.flf /usr/pkg/share/figlet
cp fonts/*.flc /usr/pkg/share/figlet
cp figlet.6 /usr/pkg/man/man6
===&gt; Registering installation for figlet-2.2.1nb2
<code class="prompt">#</code></pre>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="B.2.†–ackaging figlet">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="logs.package"></a>B.2.†–ackaging figlet</h2></div></div></div>
<pre class="screen"><code class="prompt">#</code> <strong class="userinput"><code>make package</code></strong>
===&gt; Checking for vulnerabilities in figlet-2.2.1nb2
===&gt; Packaging figlet-2.2.1nb2
===&gt; Building binary package for figlet-2.2.1nb2
Creating package /home/cvs/pkgsrc/packages/i386/All/figlet-2.2.1nb2.tgz
Using SrcDir value of /usr/pkg
Registering depends:.
<code class="prompt">#</code></pre>
</div>
</div>
<div class="appendix" title="Appendix†√.†ńirectory layout of the pkgsrc FTP server">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title">
<a name="ftp-layout"></a>Appendix†√.†ńirectory layout of the pkgsrc FTP server</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="toc">
<p><b>Table of Contents</b></p>
<dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#ftp-distfiles">C.1. <code class="filename">distfiles</code>: The distributed source files</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#ftp-misc">C.2. <code class="filename">misc</code>: Miscellaneous things</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#ftp-packages">C.3. <code class="filename">packages</code>: Binary packages</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#ftp-reports">C.4. <code class="filename">reports</code>: Bulk build reports</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#ftp-source">C.5. <code class="filename">current</code>,
<code class="filename">pkgsrc-20<em class="replaceable"><code>xx</code></em>Q<em class="replaceable"><code>y</code></em></code>:
source packages</a></span></dt>
</dl>
</div>
<p>As in other big projects, the directory layout of pkgsrc
	is quite complex for newbies. This chapter explains where you
	find things on the FTP server. The base directory on
	<code class="filename">ftp.NetBSD.org</code> is <a class="ulink" href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/" target="_top"><code class="filename">/pub/pkgsrc/</code></a>.
	On other servers it may be different, but inside this directory,
	everything should look the same, no matter on which server you
	are. This directory contains some subdirectories, which are
	explained below.</p>
<div class="sect1" title="C.1.†šistfiles: The distributed source files">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="ftp-distfiles"></a>C.1.code class="filename">distfiles</code>: The distributed source files</h2></div></div></div>
<p>The directory <code class="filename">distfiles</code> contains lots
	of archive files from all pkgsrc packages, which are mirrored
	here. The subdirectories are called after their package names
	and are used when the distributed files have names that don't
	explicitly contain a version number or are otherwise too generic
	(for example <code class="filename">release.tar.gz</code>).</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="C.2.†Ūisc: Miscellaneous things">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="ftp-misc"></a>C.2.code class="filename">misc</code>: Miscellaneous things</h2></div></div></div>
<p>This directory contains things that individual pkgsrc
	developers find worth publishing.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="C.3.†ūackages: Binary packages">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="ftp-packages"></a>C.3.code class="filename">packages</code>: Binary packages</h2></div></div></div>
<p>This directory contains binary packages for the various
	platforms that are supported by pkgsrc.
	Each subdirectory is of the form <em class="replaceable"><code>OPSYS</code></em>/<em class="replaceable"><code>ARCH</code></em>/<em class="replaceable"><code>OSVERSION_TAG</code></em>. The meaning of these variables is:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">OPSYS</code> is the name of the
	operating system for which the packages have been built. The
	name is taken from the output of the <span class="command"><strong>uname</strong></span>
	command, so it may differ from the one you are used to
	hear.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">ARCH</code> is the hardware
	architecture of the platform for which the packages have been
	built. It also includes the <code class="varname">ABI</code> (Application
	Binary Interface) for platforms that have several of
	them.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">OSVERSION</code> is the version of
	the operating system. For version numbers that change often (for
	example NetBSD-current), the often-changing part should be
	replaced with an <code class="literal">x</code>, for example
	<code class="literal">4.99.x</code>.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="varname">TAG</code> is either
	<code class="literal">20<em class="replaceable"><code>xx</code></em>Q<em class="replaceable"><code>y</code></em></code>
	for a stable branch, or <code class="literal">head</code> for packages
	built from the HEAD branch. The latter should only be used when
	the packages are updated on a regular basis. Otherwise the date
	from checking out pkgsrc should be appended, for example
	<code class="literal">head_20071015</code>.</p></li>
</ul></div>
<p>The rationale for exactly this scheme is that the pkgsrc users looking for binary packages
	can quickly click through the directories on the
	server and find the best binary packages for their machines. Since they
	usually know the operating system and the hardware architecture, OPSYS
	and ARCH are placed first. After these choices, they can select the
	best combination of OSVERSION and TAG together, since it is usually the
	case that packages stay compatible between different version of the
	operating system.</p>
<p>In each of these directories, there is a
	whole binary packages collection for a specific platform. It has a directory called
	<code class="filename">All</code> which contains all binary packages.
	Besides that, there are various category directories that
	contain symbolic links to the real binary packages.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="C.4.†Úeports: Bulk build reports">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="ftp-reports"></a>C.4.code class="filename">reports</code>: Bulk build reports</h2></div></div></div>
<p>Here are the reports from bulk builds, for those who want
	to fix packages that didn't build on some of the platforms. The
	structure of subdirectories should look like the one in <a class="xref" href="#ftp-packages" title="C.3.†ūackages: Binary packages">Section†√.3, &#8220;<code class="filename">packages</code>: Binary packages&#8221;</a>.</p>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="C.5.†„urrent, pkgsrc-20xxQy: source packages">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="ftp-source"></a>C.5.code class="filename">current</code>,
<code class="filename">pkgsrc-20<em class="replaceable"><code>xx</code></em>Q<em class="replaceable"><code>y</code></em></code>:
source packages</h2></div></div></div>
<p>These directories contain the <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">real</span>&#8221;</span> pkgsrc,
	that is the files that define how to create binary packages from
	source archives.</p>
<p>The directory <code class="filename">pkgsrc</code> contains a
	snapshot of the CVS repository, which is updated regularly. The
	file <code class="filename">pkgsrc.tar.gz</code> contains the same as the
	directory, ready to be downloaded as a whole.</p>
<p>In the directories for the quarterly branches, there is an
	additional file called
	<code class="filename">pkgsrc-20<em class="replaceable"><code>xx</code></em>Q<em class="replaceable"><code>y</code></em>.tar.gz</code>,
	which contains the state of pkgsrc when it was branched.</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="appendix" title="Appendix†ń.†Ňditing guidelines for the pkgsrc guide">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title">
<a name="editing"></a>Appendix†ń.†Ňditing guidelines for the pkgsrc guide</h2></div></div></div>
<div class="toc">
<p><b>Table of Contents</b></p>
<dl>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#targets">D.1. Make targets</a></span></dt>
<dt><span class="sect1"><a href="#procedure">D.2. Procedure</a></span></dt>
</dl>
</div>
<p>This section contains information on editing the pkgsrc
	guide itself.</p>
<div class="sect1" title="D.1.†Õake targets">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="targets"></a>D.1.†Õake targets</h2></div></div></div>
<p>The pkgsrc guide's source code is stored in
	<code class="filename">pkgsrc/doc/guide/files</code>, and several files
	are created from it:</p>
<div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc">
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="filename">pkgsrc/doc/pkgsrc.txt</code></p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><code class="filename">pkgsrc/doc/pkgsrc.html</code></p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><a class="ulink" href="http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/pkgsrc/" target="_top">http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/pkgsrc/</a></p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><a class="ulink" href="http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/pkgsrc/pkgsrc.pdf" target="_top">http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/pkgsrc/pkgsrc.pdf</a>:
	The PDF version of the pkgsrc guide.</p></li>
<li class="listitem"><p><a class="ulink" href="http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/pkgsrc/pkgsrc.ps" target="_top">http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/pkgsrc/pkgsrc.ps</a>:
	PostScript version of the pkgsrc guide.</p></li>
</ul></div>
</div>
<div class="sect1" title="D.2.†–rocedure">
<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both">
<a name="procedure"></a>D.2.†–rocedure</h2></div></div></div>
<p>The procedure to edit the pkgsrc guide is:</p>
<div class="procedure"><ol class="procedure" type="1">
<li class="step" title="Step 1"><p>Make sure you have the packages needed to
	regenerate the pkgsrc guide (and other XML-based NetBSD
	documentation) installed. These are <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/meta-pkgs/netbsd-doc/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">meta-pkgs/netbsd-doc</code></a> for creating the
	ASCII and HTML versions, and <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/meta-pkgs/netbsd-doc-print/README.html" target="_top"><code class="filename">meta-pkgs/netbsd-doc-print</code></a> for the
	PostScript and PDF versions. You will need both packages
	installed, to make sure documentation is consistent across all
	formats.</p></li>
<li class="step" title="Step 2"><p>Run <span class="command"><strong>cd doc/guide</strong></span> to get to the
	right directory. All further steps will take place
	here.</p></li>
<li class="step" title="Step 3"><p>Edit the XML file(s) in
	<code class="filename">files/</code>.</p></li>
<li class="step" title="Step 4"><p>Run <span class="command"><strong>bmake</strong></span> to check the pkgsrc
	guide for valid XML and to build the final output files. If you
	get any errors at this stage, you can just edit the files, as
	there are only symbolic links in the working directory, pointing
	to the files in <code class="filename">files/</code>.</p></li>
<li class="step" title="Step 5"><p><span class="command"><strong>(cd files &amp;&amp; cvs
	commit)</strong></span></p></li>
<li class="step" title="Step 6"><p>Run <span class="command"><strong>bmake clean &amp;&amp; bmake</strong></span> to
	regenerate the output files with the proper RCS
	Ids.</p></li>
<li class="step" title="Step 7">
<p>Run <span class="command"><strong>bmake regen</strong></span> to install and
	commit the files in both <code class="filename">pkgsrc/doc</code> and
	<code class="filename">htdocs</code>.</p>
<div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;">
<h3 class="title">Note</h3>
<p>If you have added, removed or renamed some chapters,
	you need to synchronize them using <span class="command"><strong>cvs add</strong></span> or
	<span class="command"><strong>cvs delete</strong></span> in the htdocs
	directory.</p>
</div>
</li>
</ol></div>
</div>
</div>
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