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Annotation of othersrc/bin/rm/rm.1, Revision 1.1

1.1     ! stacktic    1: .\"    $NetBSD: rm.1,v 1.24 2006/09/02 23:28:32 wiz Exp $
        !             2: .\"
        !             3: .\" Copyright (c) 1990, 1993, 1994, 2003
        !             4: .\"    The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
        !             5: .\"
        !             6: .\" This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
        !             7: .\" the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
        !             8: .\"
        !             9: .\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
        !            10: .\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
        !            11: .\" are met:
        !            12: .\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
        !            13: .\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
        !            14: .\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
        !            15: .\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
        !            16: .\"    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
        !            17: .\" 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
        !            18: .\"    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
        !            19: .\"    without specific prior written permission.
        !            20: .\"
        !            21: .\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
        !            22: .\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
        !            23: .\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
        !            24: .\" ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
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        !            26: .\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
        !            27: .\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
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        !            30: .\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
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        !            33: .\"    @(#)rm.1        8.5 (Berkeley) 12/5/94
        !            34: .\"
        !            35: .Dd August 25, 2006
        !            36: .Dt RM 1
        !            37: .Os
        !            38: .Sh NAME
        !            39: .Nm rm
        !            40: .Nd remove directory entries
        !            41: .Sh SYNOPSIS
        !            42: .Nm
        !            43: .Op Fl f | Fl i
        !            44: .Op Fl dPRrvW
        !            45: .Ar
        !            46: .Sh DESCRIPTION
        !            47: The
        !            48: .Nm
        !            49: utility attempts to remove the non-directory type files specified on the
        !            50: command line.
        !            51: If the permissions of the file do not permit writing, and the standard
        !            52: input device is a terminal, the user is prompted (on the standard error
        !            53: output) for confirmation.
        !            54: .Pp
        !            55: The options are as follows:
        !            56: .Bl -tag -width flag
        !            57: .It Fl d
        !            58: Attempt to remove directories as well as other types of files.
        !            59: .It Fl f
        !            60: Attempt to remove the files without prompting for confirmation,
        !            61: regardless of the file's permissions.
        !            62: If the file does not exist, do not display a diagnostic message or modify
        !            63: the exit status to reflect an error.
        !            64: The
        !            65: .Fl f
        !            66: option overrides any previous
        !            67: .Fl i
        !            68: options.
        !            69: .It Fl i
        !            70: Request confirmation before attempting to remove each file, regardless of
        !            71: the file's permissions, or whether or not the standard input device is a
        !            72: terminal.
        !            73: The
        !            74: .Fl i
        !            75: option overrides any previous
        !            76: .Fl f
        !            77: options.
        !            78: .It Fl P
        !            79: Overwrite regular files before deleting them.
        !            80: Files are overwritten three times, first with the byte pattern 0xff,
        !            81: then 0x00, and then with random data, before they are deleted.
        !            82: Some care is taken to ensure that the data are actually written to
        !            83: disk, but this cannot be guaranteed, even on traditional filesystems;
        !            84: on log-structured filesystems or if any block-journaling scheme is
        !            85: in use, this option is completely useless.
        !            86: If the file cannot be
        !            87: overwritten, it will not be removed.
        !            88: .It Fl R
        !            89: Attempt to remove the file hierarchy rooted in each file argument.
        !            90: The
        !            91: .Fl R
        !            92: option implies the
        !            93: .Fl d
        !            94: option.
        !            95: If the
        !            96: .Fl i
        !            97: option is specified, the user is prompted for confirmation before
        !            98: each directory's contents are processed (as well as before the attempt
        !            99: is made to remove the directory).
        !           100: If the user does not respond affirmatively, the file hierarchy rooted in
        !           101: that directory is skipped.
        !           102: .Pp
        !           103: .It Fl r
        !           104: Equivalent to
        !           105: .Fl R .
        !           106: .It Fl v
        !           107: Cause
        !           108: .Nm
        !           109: to be verbose, showing files as they are processed.
        !           110: .It Fl W
        !           111: Attempts to undelete the named files.
        !           112: Currently, this option can only be used to recover
        !           113: files covered by whiteouts.
        !           114: .El
        !           115: .Pp
        !           116: The
        !           117: .Nm
        !           118: utility removes symbolic links, not the files referenced by the links.
        !           119: .Pp
        !           120: It is an error to attempt to remove the files ``.'' and ``..''.
        !           121: .Sh EXIT STATUS
        !           122: The
        !           123: .Nm
        !           124: utility exits 0 if all of the named files or file hierarchies were removed,
        !           125: or if the
        !           126: .Fl f
        !           127: option was specified and all of the existing files or file hierarchies were
        !           128: removed.
        !           129: If an error occurs,
        !           130: .Nm
        !           131: exits with a value \*[Gt]0.
        !           132: .Sh EXAMPLES
        !           133: .Nm
        !           134: uses
        !           135: .Xr getopt 3
        !           136: standard argument processing.
        !           137: Removing filenames that begin with a dash
        !           138: .Pq e.g., Ar -file
        !           139: in the current directory which might otherwise be taken as option flags to
        !           140: .Nm
        !           141: can be accomplished as follows:
        !           142: .Pp
        !           143: .Ic "rm -- -file"
        !           144: .Pp
        !           145: or
        !           146: .Pp
        !           147: .Ic "rm ./-file"
        !           148: .Sh SEE ALSO
        !           149: .Xr rmdir 1 ,
        !           150: .Xr undelete 2 ,
        !           151: .Xr unlink 2 ,
        !           152: .Xr fts 3 ,
        !           153: .Xr getopt 3 ,
        !           154: .Xr symlink 7
        !           155: .Sh BUGS
        !           156: The
        !           157: .Fl P
        !           158: option assumes that the underlying file system is a fixed-block file
        !           159: system.
        !           160: FFS is a fixed-block file system, LFS is not.
        !           161: In addition, only regular files are overwritten, other types of files
        !           162: are not.
        !           163: Recent research indicates that as many as 35 overwrite passes with
        !           164: carefully chosen data patterns may be necessary to actually prevent
        !           165: recovery of data from a magnetic disk.
        !           166: Thus the
        !           167: .Fl P
        !           168: option is likely both insufficient for its design purpose and far
        !           169: too costly for default operation.
        !           170: However, it will at least prevent the recovery of data from FFS
        !           171: volumes with
        !           172: .Xr fsdb 8 .
        !           173: .Sh COMPATIBILITY
        !           174: The
        !           175: .Nm
        !           176: utility differs from historical implementations in that the
        !           177: .Fl f
        !           178: option only masks attempts to remove non-existent files instead of
        !           179: masking a large variety of errors.
        !           180: .Pp
        !           181: Also, historical
        !           182: .Bx
        !           183: implementations prompted on the standard output,
        !           184: not the standard error output.
        !           185: .Sh STANDARDS
        !           186: The
        !           187: .Nm
        !           188: utility is expected to be
        !           189: .St -p1003.2
        !           190: compatible.
        !           191: The
        !           192: .Fl v
        !           193: option is an extension.
        !           194: .Pp
        !           195: The
        !           196: .Fl P
        !           197: option attempts to conform to U.S. DoD 5220-22.M, "National Industrial
        !           198: Security Program Operating Manual" ("NISPOM") as updated by Change
        !           199: 2 and the July 23, 2003 "Clearing \*[Am] Sanitization Matrix".
        !           200: However, unlike earlier revisions of NISPOM, the 2003 matrix imposes
        !           201: requirements which make it clear that the standard does not and
        !           202: can not apply to the erasure of individual files, in particular
        !           203: requirements relating to spare sector management for an entire
        !           204: magnetic disk.
        !           205: .Em Because these requirements are not met, the
        !           206: .Fl P
        !           207: .Em option does not conform to the standard .

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